Secretariat of Public Education (Mexico)
The Mexican Secretariat of Public Education is a federal government authority with Cabinet representation and responsibility for overseeing the development and implementation of national educational policy and school standards in Mexico. The Secretariat has several buildings distributed all over the country but its main offices confined to the Old Dominican Convent of the Holy Incarnation in the oldest borough of Mexico City, have extended to the House of the Marqués de Villamayor, the Old House of don Cristóbal de Oñate, a three-times Governor and General Captain of New Galicia and the Old Royal Customs House; some of the buildings were decorated with mural paintings by Diego Rivera and other notable exponents of the Mexican muralist movement of the 20th century David Alfaro Siqueiros, Raul Anguiano, Manuel Felguerez. Creation and maintenance of state public schools in Mexico City, excluding those that are dependents of other dependencies. Ensuring all requirements related to preschool, secondary and normal education as established by the Constitution of Mexico are observed and completed, to prescribe the norms to which the incorporation of particular schools in the national educational system should adjust.
Exercising supervision and vigilance that proceeds in the seminaries that impart education in the Republic, conform to Article 3 of the Constitution. To systematically organize and enrich the general or specialized libraries that are sustained by the Secretariat or that form part of its dependencies. To promote the creation of institutes of scientific and technical research and the establishment of laboratories, observatories and centers that are required for the development of primary, moral and superior education. To confer scholarships so that students of Mexican nationality can do research or complete foreign study programs. To re-validate studies and titles, to concede authorization for the exercise of the capacities that they accredit. To formulate the catalog of national historic patrimony. To organize and administer historic and artistic museums, painting galleries and art galleries, to the effect of preserving the integrity, the maintenance and conservation of historic and artistic treasures of the cultural patrimony of the country.
To conserve and maintain archeological and artistic monuments that conform the cultural patrimony of the nation, attending the legal dispositions in these matters. To orient the artistic, cultural and sport-related activities that are realized by the federal public sector. To maintain a National Data Base of the works protected by copyright and the trademarks through disconcerted institutes. To regulate sports, the people the application of their rules in the nation. Instituto Latinoamericano de la Comunicación Educativa Official Secretariat of Public Education website Official site of the President's Cabinet
Ramón Corral Verdugo was the Vice President of Mexico under Porfirio Díaz from 1904 until their resignations in May 1911. Corral was born Ramón Corral Verdugo on Hacienda Las Mercedes, near the city of Álamos, Sonora, on 10 January 1854 to Fulgencio Fabián Corral Rochín and María Francisca Almada y Verdugo, he was christened on 21 January 1854 at the Purísima Concepción Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. His recorded paternal baptismal surname was Corrales, however the surname Corral is used. Ramón Corral first gained public attention in 1872, when General Don Ignacio L. Pesqueira, Governor of the State of Sonora, an undefeated general who had provided many services to his state, created public outrage when he introduced state constitutional reforms. To avoid compliance with a law, Pesqueira introduced, among other reforms, a ban on re-election governor; the young Corral vigorously fought against the Pesqueira administration through the press, founding the newspapers El Fantasma, La Voz de Álamos.
His writings in the papers exhibited civil valor, love for democracy, power as a political adversary of the Pesqueira administration. In the years that followed, Corral became involved in politics. While General Secretary of the Government of Sonora, Corral was involved with the capture of the indigenous Yaqui military leader José Maria Leiva, known as Cajemé. In La Constitución, beginning with the issue of April 22, 1887, ending July 8, 1887, Corral published biographical notes about Cajemé, which were recorded only a few days earlier during personal talks with the captured Yaqui. Cajemé was being held at the time in the house of the military chief of the area, Angel Martínez, who had arrested him while Cajemé was hiding in San Jose de Guaymas. Corral married Amparo V. Escalante on February 25, 1888, she was the daughter of a well-known Mexican statesman of the time. The religious element of the twofold marriage ceremony was performed by Father Ortega of Hermosillo, with a civil ceremony performed by Civil Judge Bonito Méndez, of the Hermosillo District.
Corral was one of the científicos. Corral served as Secretary of State from 1891 to 1895, he became Governor of the Federal District of Mexico in 1900 and was sworn in as Minister of the Interior in the cabinet of Díaz in 1903. He became vice-president in 1904 and was re-elected in 1910. Local Deputy of Sonora: 1879-1881, 1883–1885, 1885–1887. Federal Deputy of Sonora: 1881-1883. General Secretary of the Government of Sonora: 1879-1880, 1883-1887. Vice-Governor of Sonora: 1887-1891. Secretary of State: 1891-1895. Governor of Sonora 1895-1899. Governor of the Federal District: 1900-1903. Secretary of the Interior and Vice-President of the Republic: 1903-1904, 1904–1911, 1910–1911. Corral traveled with his family to ] for medical care, where he was diagnosed with cancer. After his operation, the cancer was found to be incurable. In light of his own deteriorating health and the increasing revolutionary opposition to the Díaz government, Corral submitted his resignation, dated May 10, 1911, to Francisco León de la Barra, Díaz’s foreign secretary, which de la Barra held until Díaz submitted his own "Renuncia" on May 25, 1911.
Corral's letter of resignation gave no doubt that he had foreknowledge of Díaz's intention to resign, that the course of events would lead to a new government for Mexico: On the two occasions that the national convention advanced my candidacy as Vice-President of the republic, to figure in the elections with Gen. Diaz as President, I stated that I was prepared to occupy any office in which compatriots considered that I would be of use, that if the public vote conferred upon me a position so far above my merits my intention would be to second in all respects Gen. Diaz's policy, in order to co-operate with him, as far as it lay in my power, toward the aggrandizement of the nation, which had developed so notably under his administration; those who concern themselves with public affairs and have observed their progress during the last few years will be able to say whether I have complied with my intention. For my part, I can say that I have never endeavored to bring about the least obstacle either in the President's policy or his manner of carrying it out at the cost of sacrificing my convictions, both because this was the basis of my programme and because this corresponded to my position and my loyalty, as well as that I did not seek any prestige in the office of Vice-President, so useful in the United States and so discredited in Latin countries.
In the events which have shaken the country during these latter months, the President has been brought to consider that it is patriotic to resign from the high office that the unanimous vote of Mexicans had conferred upon him in the last election, that it is advisable at the same time, in the interest of the country, that the Vice-President do so that new men and new energies should continue forwarding the prosperity of the nation. Following my program of seconding Gen. Diaz's policy, I join my resignation with his and in the present note I retire from the office of Vice-President of the republic, begging the chamber to accept the same at the same time as that of the President. I beg of you gentlemen to inform yourselves of the above, which I submit with the protests of my highest consideration. Liberty and Constitution, May 4, 1911. "RAMON CORRAL." Corral died of cancer in Paris on 10 November 1912. Breve Manifestación que la Diputación Permanente del Congreso d
History of Mexico
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. One of the important aspects of Mesoamerican civilizations was their development of a form of writing, so that Mexico's written history stretches back hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519; this era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became the Spanish capital Mexico City, remains the most populous city in Mexico. From 1521, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire incorporated the region into the Spanish Empire, with New Spain its colonial era name and Mexico City the center of colonial rule, it became the capital of New Spain. During the colonial era, Mexico's long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture.
Nothing better represents this hybrid background than Mexico's languages: the country is both the most populated Spanish-speaking country in the world and home to the largest number of Native American language speakers in North America. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking and Western culture. After a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. A brief period of monarchy, called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, established under a federal constitution in 1824. Legal racial categories were eliminated. Slavery was not abolished at independence in 1821 or with the constitution in 1824, but was eliminated in 1829. Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917; the Age of Santa Anna is the period of the late 1820s to the early 1850s, dominated by criollo military-man-turned-president Antonio López de Santa Anna.
In 1846, the Mexican–American War was provoked by the United States, ending two years with Mexico ceding half of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to the United States. Though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office; the Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, ushering in La Reforma beginning in 1854. The Mexican Constitution of 1857 codified the principles of liberalism in law separation of church and state, equality before the law, that included stripping corporate entities of special status; the Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The War of the Reform saw the defeat of the conservatives on the battlefield, but conservatives remained strong and took the opportunity to invite foreign intervention against the liberals in order to forward their own cause; the French Intervention is the period when France invaded Mexico, nominally to collect on defaulted loans to the liberal government of Benito Juárez, but it went further and at the invitation of Mexican conservatives seeking to restore monarchy in Mexico, to set Maximilian I on the Mexican throne.
The US was engaged in its own Civil War at that time, so did not attempt to block the French invasion. Curiously, the famous "Cinco de Mayo" celebrations in the USA refer to the victory of the Mexican army in 1862 over the French invaders; the French had planned to support the Southern Confederacy in the USA after conquering Mexico. The French were foiled in that effort by the Mexicans, so in this sense, Mexico inadvertently aided Abraham Lincoln. For that reason, Abraham Lincoln supported the Mexican liberals. At the end of the Civil War in the US and the triumph of the Union forces, the US aided Mexican liberals against Maximilian's regime. France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867 and his monarchist rule collapsed in 1867 and Maximilian was executed. With the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period called the Restored Republic brought back Benito Juárez as president. Following his death from a heart attack, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada succeed him, he was overthrown by liberal military man Porfirio Díaz, who after consolidating power ushered in a period of stability and economic growth.
The half-century of economic stagnation and political chaos following independence ended. The Porfiriato is the era when army hero Porfirio Díaz held power as president of Mexico continuously from 1876–1911, he promoted "order and progress" that saw the suppression of violence, modernization of the economy, the flow of foreign investment to the country. The period ended with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Under Díaz, Mexico's industry and infrastructure were modernized by a strong, stable but autocratic central government. Increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, mining, foreign trade, national finances; the Mexican Revolution is the chaotic period between 1910 and 1920 when Mexicans fought to determine their future after the end of the Díaz era. The uncertainty about presidential succession in 1910, when 80 year-old Díaz was re-elected in fraudulent elections, touched off violence in northern Mexico and in the state of Morelos, just south of Mexico City.
The sparking forces of the Mexican Revolution were elites outside Díaz's inn
AXA is a French multinational insurance firm headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that engages in global insurance, investment management, other financial services. The AXA Group operates in Western Europe, North America, the Asia Pacific region, the Middle East, with a presence in Africa. AXA is a conglomerate of independently run businesses, operated according to the laws and regulations of many different countries; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The company was founded in 1816 as Mutuelle de L'assurance contre L'incendie, it became Mutuelles Unies. It went on becoming Mutuelles Unies/Drouot, it adopted the AXA name in 1985. The takeover of the American insurance company The Equitable, came in 1991, it bought Union des Assurances De Paris, France's largest insurer, in 1996 becoming AXA-UAP for a while before reverting to the name AXA in 1999. In February 1999 AXA acquired Guardian Royal Exchange. In May 2000 AXA acquired all shares it did not own in Sun Life & Provincial Holdings.
On June 14, 2006 AXA acquired the leading Swiss insurance company Winterthur Group from Credit Suisse for €9 billion. On September 12, 2018, AXA completed the acquisition of Bermuda based XL Group Ltd, a leading global Property & Casualty commercial lines insurer and reinsurer for $15.3 billion. According to a 2011 paper by Vitali et al. AXA was the second most powerful transnational corporation in terms of ownership and thus corporate control over global financial stability and market competition with Barclays and State Street Corporation taking the 1st and 3rd position, respectively. During May 2016,it announced it was to stop investing in tobacco shares and bonds and allow its portfolio of tobacco-related bonds to run off. Despite being written in upper case, "AXA" is not an acronym, but was chosen because its name can be pronounced by people who speak any language. After acquiring the Drouot Group in 1982, Chairman and CEO Claude Bébéar hired an outside consultant to conduct a computer-aided search for a new name.
Bébéar wanted a short and snappy name to convey vitality and could be pronounced the same way in every language, consistent with the group's desire for an international presence. "Elan" was the top choice, but Canadian executives balked because "elan" is the French word for a moose or elk. In 1985, Bébéar chose the name AXA. AXA trades in the United Kingdom as AXA UK using a number of subsidiaries such as AXA Sun Life, AXA Insurance, AXA Investment Managers, AXA Wealth and AXA PPP Healthcare. AXA PPP Healthcare was created when AXA bought Guardian Royal Exchange, though it subsequently sold the other parts of GRE to Aegon; the company owns the online insurer Swiftcover, distribution business Bluefin and fund manager Architas. In January 2007 AXA was reorganised into "strategic business units" aimed at competing within their specific markets. In September 2013, AXA Wealth was fined £1.8m by the FCA for failing to ensure it gave suitable investment advice to its customers. The regulator says it found "serious defects" in the way AXA advisers in Clydesdale Bank, Yorkshire Bank and the West Bromwich Building Society advised customers on investments.
AXA runs its investment branch through AXA Investment Managers. AXA Sun Life was created following the merger between AXA Equity & Law and Sun Life Assurance Society PLC. In 2006 Winterthur Life in the UK was absorbed although AXA continues to use the Winterthur brand for high-net-worth wealth management business; the business units are: AXA Wealth – This includes AXA + Winterthur's Bonds + Individual Pensions, AXA Distribution Services who offer the Elevate wrap platform and Architas. Corporate Business – AXA + Winterthur's Group Pensions. AXA intend to create a "Market Leading" group pension proposition using Winterthur's'Embassy' IT platform. Protection – This business aims to market AXA's Protection Account as AXA continues to build on its presence in this area with the intention of becoming a leading protection provider. Traditional Business – Concentrating on policies which are still in force but no longer marketed. SunLife – This business focuses on selling protection & savings products directly to those in the UK.
Bancassurance – This business is responsible for an advisory and sales force that sell AXAs products and propositions. AXA sold AXA Sun Life Holdings Ltd to Resolution Limited in autumn 2010, whilst retaining AXA Wealth, SunLife and Bancassurance business units. Closure of the Bancassurance arm was announced in April 2013. AXA PPP healthcare is a UK private medical insurance provider. AXA PPP healthcare was known as The London Association of Hospital Services, set up in 1938 as a private healthcare scheme for people of middle income in London; the company has its headquarters in the town of Tunbridge Wells in Kent, is the town's largest private sector employer. AXA PPP healthcare provides individual private medical insurance for individuals and business as well as employee assistance programmes. AXA PPP healthcare has a main office in Leicester, East Midlands, England. In 2009, AXA PPP International was created. In 2018, it launched a virtual doctor service, called Global Care on Demand, for its customers with outpatient cover.
Provided by Advance Medical it offers access to medical advice by phone or video by doctors located in eight main hubs around the world who speak more than 20 languages, is targeted at expatriates. AXA Isle of Man Limited was created as a subsidiary of AXA Sun Life in the United Kingdom
First Mexican Republic
For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. The First Mexican Republic, known as the First Federal Republic, was a federated republic and nation-state designated the United Mexican States. "Independence transformed Mexico from Spain's largest and most prosperous colony to a sovereign nation suffering economic decline and political strife." The First Mexican Republic lasted from 1824 to 1835, when conservatives under Antonio López de Santa Anna transformed it into a centralized state, the Centralist Republic of Mexico. The republic was proclaimed on November 1, 1823 by the Constituent Congress, months after the fall of the Mexican Empire ruled emperor Agustin I, a former royalist military officer-turned-insurgent for independence; the federation was formally and established on October 4, 1824 when the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States came into force. It was bordered on the north by the United States and Oregon Country; the Federal Republic lasted twelve years with constant struggles between the main political parties: the Conservatives and former monarchists, favoring a strong central government and a confessional state.
The conflict caused severe political violence. The republic was ruled by nine presidents. Guadalupe Victoria was the only president who completed his full term in this period and in 30 years of independent Mexico. On October 23, 1835, after the repeal of the Constitution of 1824, the Federal Republic was changed to a Centralist Republic; the unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the seven constitutional laws. The Spanish overseas possession of the Viceroyalty of New Spain lasted for 300 years, from 1521 with the fall of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan and the foundation of Mexico City until the collapse of the viceroyalty in following years of civil war and military stalemate. An insurgency for independence from Spain lasted from the initial 1810 mass revolt, led by secular cleric Miguel Hidalgo and continued under another secular cleric, José María Morelos, carried on the hot country of Mexico's south by Vicente Guerrero. Augustin Iturbide, a royalist military officer born in New Spain of Spanish parents, made a strategic alliance with Guerrero under the Plan of Iguala, in which the former foes fought in tandem to oust Spanish rule.
The plan proclaimed Mexico a nation-state. On September 27, 1821, Mexico obtained its sovereignty under the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized New Spain as an independent empire, which took the name the Mexican Empire. Elite American-born Spaniards in New Spain had no real experience with exercising political power other than on their city councils, so that monarchy was the familiar form of rule. No European of royal blood stepped in to assume the royal title in Mexico. A minority of the Constituent Congress in search of stability chose as monarch the general Agustín de Iturbide, who had led the war effort against Spain, he was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico on May 18, 1822. Political turmoil ensued, with Iturbide dissolving the Constituent Congress in October 1822 and jailing the legislators. Several members were jailed for expressing their disagreement with Iturbide; when Iturbide eliminated the elected Congress, he established an appointed National Board in its place. The dismissal of the Congress, the dictatorial style of government adopted by the Emperor, the absence of solutions to the serious problems that the country was going through increased the conspiracies to change the imperial system.
The military men sent to crush the opposition instead proclaimed against Iturbide and issued the Plan of Casa Mata, which sought to create a new constituent assembly. Generals Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria drafted the Plan of Casa Mata in December 1822, proclaimed on 1 February 1823, it appealed to the political subdivisions of Mexico who sought home rule. Several insurrections occurred in the Mexican provinces beginning in December, but they were all put down by the Imperial Army, except for Santa Anna's forces in Veracruz. Santa Anna had made a secret agreement with General Echávarri, the commander of the Imperial forces. By this agreement, the Plan of Casa Mata was to be proclaimed throughout Mexico on February 1, 1823, Echávarri was to switch sides to join the insurgents; this plan did not recognize the First Mexican Empire and called for the convening of a new Constituent Congress. The insurrectionists sent their proposal to the provincial delegations and requested their adherence to the plan.
In the course of just six weeks, the Plan of Casa Mata traveled to such remote places as Texas, all the provinces supported the plan. Antonio López de Santa Anna proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata, joined by Vicente Guerrero and Nicolás Bravo. Iturbide was forced to reinstate the Congress, in a vain attempt to save the order and keep the situation favorable to his supporters, he abdicated on March 19, 1823. However, the restored Congress declared the appointment of Iturbide void ab initio, thus refused recognition of the abdication. On 8 April, the Congress declared the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba void
The Mexican Revolution known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution, its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; the origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero and Pancho Villa.
In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a fair election. Opposition to his regime grew from both the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative. Madero and his vice president Pino Suárez were forced to resign in February 1913, were assassinated; the counter-revolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by business interests and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces; when the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war. The Constitutionalist faction under wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza emerged as the victor in 1915, defeating the revolutionary forces of former Constitutionalist Pancho Villa and forcing revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata back to guerrilla warfare.
Zapata was assassinated in 1919 by agents of President Carranza. The armed conflict lasted for the better part of a decade, until around 1920, had several distinct phases. Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order under Díaz to a multi-sided civil war in particular regions, with shifting power struggles among factions in the Mexican Revolution. One major result of the revolution was the dissolution of the Federal Army in 1914, which Francisco Madero had kept intact when he was elected in 1911 and General Huerta used to oust Madero. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces. Although the conflict was a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles; the United States played an significant role. Out of Mexico's population of 15 million, the losses were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. 1.5 million people died.
Many scholars consider the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as the end point of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions", with the constitution providing that framework. The period 1920–1940 is considered to be a phase of the Revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked in the 1920s, the revolutionary constitution of 1917 was implemented; this armed conflict is characterized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century. The revolution committed the resulting political regime with "social justice", until Mexico underwent a neoliberal reform process that started in the 1980s; the Porfiriato is the period in late nineteenth-century Mexican history dominated by General Porfirio Díaz, who became president of Mexico in 1876 and ruled continuously until his forced resignation in 1911.
After the presidency of his ally, General Manuel González, Díaz ran for the presidency again and served in office until 1911. Under his administration, the constitution had been amended to allow unlimited presidential re-election. Díaz had challenged Benito Juárez on the platform of "no re-election." During the Porfiriato, there were regular elections, marked by contentious irregularities. Although Díaz had publicly announced in an interview with journalist James Creelman that he would not run in the 1910 election, setting off a flurry of political activity, he changed his mind and decided to run again at age 80; the contested 1910 election was a key political event. As Díaz aged, the question of presidential succession became important. In 1906, the office of vice president was revived, with Díaz choosing his close ally Ramón Corral from among his Científico advisers to serve in the post. By the 1910 election, the Díaz regime had become authoritarian, opposition to it had increased in many sectors of Mexican society.
In the 19th century, he had been a national hero, opposing the French Intervention in the 1860s and distinguishing himself in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862. Díaz entered politics fo
Second Federal Republic of Mexico
For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Called the United Mexican States, a federal republic was implemented again on August 22, 1846 when interim president José Mariano Salas issued a decree restoring the 1824 constitution. Like the Mexican Empire, the First Federal Republic and the Centralist Republic it was a chaotic period, marked by political instability that resulted in several internal conflicts. Mexico's loss of the war with the United States saw half the territory Mexico claimed become part of the United States. Though Antonio López de Santa Anna played a major role in much of this history, he returned to the presidency yet again, selling northern territory coveted by the United States contiguous to territory it just gained in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; the sale of the Mesilla Valley was for many the final straw, liberals promulgated of the Plan of Ayutla, calling for the overthrow of Santa Anna.
Santa Anna went into the liberals set about implementing their vision of Mexico. Liberals enacted a series of separate reforms and the Constitution of 1857, collectively known as the Liberal Reform, which sparked a civil war, known as the War of the Reform; the conservatives lost the War of the Reform. After losing the war, conservatives sought another political alternative, which involved the second French intervention in Mexico, with Mexican conservative support, established the Second Mexican Empire. Mexican conservatives' political interests were in tandem with the expansionism of Napoleon III of France. Conservatives invited Maximilian Hapsburg to serve as monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. Mexican republicans fought against the French invaders and were defeated on the battlefield, but Benito Juárez did not resign the presidency, operated a government in exile, which the United States continued to recognize as the legitimate Mexican government; the republic was restored by Juárez in 1867 after the withdrawal of the French and the execution of Maximilian.
With conservatives discredited by their support of the ill-fated monarchy, Juárez was able to implement liberal policies. This period of federalism in Mexico is known as the Restored Republic, lasting from 1867 to the 1876 coup of liberal army general, Porfirio Díaz, ushering in a long period of authoritarian rule and economic development known as the Porfiriato; the liberal constitution remained nominally in force, with regular elections held that were seen as fraudulent. The Constitution of 1857 was supplanted by the Mexican Constitution of 1917, as an outcome of the Mexican Revolution. In the midst of war with the United States, Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga staged a coup against the government of interim President José Joaquín de Herrera. Shortly afterwards, the Congress appointed him interim president. On July 28, 1846 Mariano Paredes left the presidency to command the army in battle against the invaders from the United States, vice president Bravo took office. On August 4 the federalists led an uprising.
Mariano Salas took office as provisional president on August 6. With the constitution again in force, centralism ended and the federal system was restored; the war between Mexico and the United States began on May 13, 1846, but there had been battles before that date. Mexico, in turn, declared war on the United States on May 23. After the declarations of war, US forces invaded Mexican territory in Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila and Alta California, while at the same time blocking the ports of Tampico, Guaymas and San Blas and occupying Santa Fe, San Diego and Los Angeles; the main US force continued through to the Rio Grande and into Mexico, defeating the forces of Pedro Ampudia in the Battle of Monterrey. On December 24, the Congress declared Antonio López de Santa Anna acting president and Valentín Gómez Farías vice president. Gómez Farías assumed the presidency in place of Santa Anna, fighting the US. After the battles of Angostura, Padierna and Molino del Rey, the Castle of Chapultepec was defended by young cadets who became known as Niños Héroes.
During the assault, the castle's commanders, were taken prisoner. The fall of Chapultepec had two immediate consequences: the US occupation of Mexico City and the resignation of Santa Anna from the presidency on September 16, 1847. Following the resignation of Santa Anna, Manuel de la Peña y Peña assumed the office. On September 26 he established the seat of federal power in nearby Toluca and in Querétaro, where Congress convened. On November 11, De la Peña left office to serve as chancellor and negotiate peace with the United States Congress. Anaya, refusing to satisfy the land claims of the United States, resigned on January 8, 1848. Manuel de la Pena y Pena was again named provisional president, was dedicated to negotiating peace. On February 2 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, in which Mexico ceded 2,400,000 square kilometres of northern territo