Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the marble to refer to metamorphosed limestone, however. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material and this stem is the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning marble-like. In Hungarian it is called márvány, Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the carbonate rock have typically been modified or destroyed. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure limestone or dolomite protolith, green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally magnesium-rich limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure, examples of historically notable marble varieties and locations, White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times.
This preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the marble is used for any crystalline calcitic rock useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation. Ashgabat, the city of Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the worlds highest concentration of white marble buildings. According to the United States Geological Survey, U. S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at about $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate.
For comparison,2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate, U. S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, the largest dimension marble application is tile. In 1998, marble production was dominated by 4 countries that accounted for almost half of production of marble
It is usually a basic copper carbonate, but near the sea will be a basic copper chloride. If acetic acid is present at the time of weathering, it may consist of copper acetate, the name verdigris comes from the Middle English vertegrez, from the Old French verte grez, an alteration of vert-de-Grèce. The modern French spelling of this word is vert-de-gris and it was used as a pigment in paintings and other art objects. It was originally made by hanging copper plates over hot vinegar in a pot until a green crust formed on the copper. Another method of obtaining verdigris pigment, used in the Middle Ages, was to attach copper strips to a block with acetic acid. A few weeks the pot was dug up and the verdigris scraped off, in eighteenth-century Montpellier, France, it was manufactured in household cellars, where copper plates were stacked in clay pots filled with distilled wine. The verdigris was scraped off weekly by the women of the household, the chemical reaction exhibited between wine and copper to produce verdigris may be related to wines own oxidization process.
Another method, used in the nineteenth century, had to do with reacting copper sulfate solution with solutions of lead, barium. Their sulfates are insoluble, forming precipitates and leaving the copper acetate in solution, natural or artificially created coatings of verdigris is commonly used as a patina to protect copper or bronze objects, especially in architecture. It is used industrially as a fungicide, a catalyst for organic reactions, Verdigris has been used in medicine. The vivid green color of copper acetate made this form of verdigris a much used pigment, until the 19th century, verdigris was the most vibrant green pigment available and was frequently used in painting. Verdigris is lightfast in oil paint, as examples of 15th-century paintings show. However, its lightfastness and air resistance are very low in other media, Copper resinate, made from verdigris by boiling it in a resin, is not lightfast, even in oil paint. In the presence of light and air, green copper resinate becomes stable brown copper oxide, in addition, verdigris is a fickle pigment requiring special preparation of paint, careful layered application and immediate sealing with varnish to avoid rapid discoloration.
Verdigris has the property in oil painting that it is initially bluish-green. Verdigris fell out of use by artists as more stable green pigments became available, Copper acetate is soluble in alcohol and water and slightly soluble in ether and glycerol. It melts at 115 °C and decomposes at 240 °C and it can be prepared by reacting copper oxide, CuO, or copper carbonate, CuCO3, with acetic acid, CH3COOH. Verdigris is a chemical mixture of compounds and water
Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. It is located on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula, in the centre of Denmark,187 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen and 289 kilometres north of Hamburg. The inner urban area contains 264,716 inhabitants and the population is 330,639. Aarhus is the city in the East Jutland metropolitan area. The history of Aarhus began as a fortified Viking settlement founded in the 8th century, the city was founded on the northern shores of a fjord at a natural harbour and the primary driver of growth was for centuries seaborne trade in agricultural products. Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades, in the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest in the country by the 20th century, today Aarhus is at the cultural and economic core of the region and the largest centre for trade and industry in Jutland.
The city ranks as the 92nd largest city in the European Union and it is a top 100 conference city in the world. Aarhus is the industrial port of the country in terms of container handling. Major Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and it is a centre for research and education in the Nordic countries and home to Aarhus University, Scandinavias largest university, including Aarhus University Hospital and INCUBA Science Park. Aarhus is notable for its musical history, in the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the music scene diversified into rock and other genres, in the 1970s and 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmarks rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags. Aarhus is home to the annual eight-day Aarhus International Jazz Festival, the SPoT Festival, in 2017 Aarhus are European Capital of Culture. In Valdemars Census Book the city was called Arus, and in Icelandic it was known as Aros and it is a compound of the two words ār, genitive of ā, and ōss.
The name originates from the location around the mouth of Aarhus Å. The spelling Aarhus is first found in 1406 and gradually became the norm in the 17th century, aarhus/Århus spelling With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, Aa was changed to Å. Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg, Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness. In 2010, the city voted to change the name from Århus to Aarhus in order to strengthen the international profile of the city
Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, and is used for pavement roads and buildings. In England, it was commonplace since ancient times for flat stones with a narrow edge to be set on edge to provide an even paved surface. This was known as a surface and was common all over Britain. Pitched surfaces predate the use of regularly-sized granite setts by more than a thousand years, such pitched paving is quite distinct from that formed from rounded stones, although both forms are commonly referred to as cobbled surfaces. Most surviving genuinely old cobbled areas are in reality pitched surfaces, a cobbled area is known as a causey, cassay or cassie in Scots. Cobblestones are typically set in sand or similar material, or are bound together with mortar. Paving with cobblestones allows a road to be used all year long. It prevents the build-up of ruts often found in dirt roads and it has the additional advantage of not getting muddy in wet weather or dusty in dry weather.
Shod horses are able to get better traction on stone cobbles, pitches or setts than tarmac/asphalt. In England, the custom was to strew the cobbles outside the house of a sick or dying person with straw to dampen the sound, cobblestones set in sand have the environmental advantage of being permeable paving, and of moving rather than cracking with movements in the ground. Cobblestones were largely replaced by quarried granite setts in the nineteenth century, the word cobblestone is often wrongly used to describe such treatment. Setts were relatively even and roughly rectangular stones that were laid in regular patterns and setted streets gradually gave way to macadam roads, and to tarmac, and finally to asphalt concrete at the beginning of the 20th century. However, cobblestones are often retained in areas, even for streets with modern vehicular traffic. Many older villages and cities in Europe are still paved with cobblestones or pitched, in recent decades, cobblestones have become a popular material for paving newly pedestrianised streets in Europe.
In this case, the nature of the surface is an advantage as pedestrians can hear approaching vehicles. The visual cues of the cobblestones clarify that the area is more than just a normal street, the use of cobblestones/setts is considered to be a more upmarket roadway solution, having been described as unique and artistic compared to the normal asphalt road environment. In some places such as Saskatoon, Canada, as late as the 1990s some busy intersections still showed cobblestones through worn down sections of pavement. In Toronto streets using setts were used by routes and disappeared by the 1980s
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Indre By, Aarhus
Indre By is a neighborhood in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The neighborhood is one of the three neighborhoods in the district of Aarhus C, along with Frederiksbjerg and Vesterbro. Indre By is composed of areas from different time periods, the area is characterized by narrow, curved streets paved with cobblestones exemplified by Badstuegade and Volden. The central square of Pustervig Torv was constructed in conjunction with a works project in the 1960s. Nowadays the square serves a more recreational purpose with cafés, restaurants and occasional events, today the Latin Quarter contains many fashion and specialty shops, cafés and theatres as well as the art cinema Øst for Paradis and Hotel Royal. The historical centre extends to the Central Station by Ryesgade, the busiest commercial street in Denmark. The Central Station and the area around it was developed in the 1920s and is characterized by wide streets and large brick buildings with mansard roofs. The area around the Concert Hall presents a variety of differing styles within a small area.
Next to them the modernistic glass encased Concert Hall from 1982 contrasts the 1940s marble clad City Hall across from the City Hall Park, the area is the original Aarhus founded in the 8th century during the Viking Age. The oldest historical parts along the coast and river were ringed by defensive ramparts from 934 until they were removed in 1477. The streets Volden and Graven were built on the former defences
Pavement in construction is an outdoor floor or superficial surface covering. Paving materials include asphalt, stone such as flagstone and setts, artificial stone, tiles, in landscape architecture pavements are part of the hardscape and are used on sidewalks, road surfaces, courtyards, etc. Pavement comes from Latin pavimentum meaning a floor beaten or rammed down, the meaning of a beaten down floor was obsolete before the word became English. Pavement laid in such as mosaics were commonly used by the Romans. A paver is a stone, brick or brick-like piece of concrete commonly used as exterior flooring. In a factory, concrete pavers are made by pouring a mixture of concrete and some type of coloring agent into a mold of some shape and they are applied by pouring a standard concrete foundation, spreading sand on top, and laying the pavers in the desired pattern. No actual adhesive or retaining method is used other than the weight of the paver itself except edging, Pavers can be used to make roads, patios and other outdoor platforms.
An interlocking concrete paver is a type of paver and this special type of paver, known as a segmental paver, has emerged over the last couple of decades as a very popular alternative to brick, clay or concrete. Segmental pavers have been used for thousands of years, the Romans built roads with them that are still there. But it was not until the mid-1940s that pavers began to be produced out of concrete and it started in the Netherlands where all the roads are made to be flexible because the country is below sea level and the ground shifts and sinks. Poured concrete is not an option because it will crack, individual units not set in concrete, and placed in sand perform far better than concrete. Before the paver was made concrete, either real stone or a clay product was used. The first concrete pavers were shaped just like a brick, 4” by 8” and they were called Holland Stones and these units turned out to be economical to produce and were exceedingly strong. In addition to being economical, interlocking concrete pavers are available in water-permeable designs.
Some permeable paver installations are designed to harvest rainwater, which can be repurposed for uses such as irrigation or washing a car, a stone paver is another type of paver. This type of paver is used widely in building and landscaping as it is prized for beauty, strength. Stone pavers are made of materials including limestone, basalt, sandstone. Travertine is a durable, low-porous stone that stays cool in direct sunlight, making it a choice for pool-sides, walkways