Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Erase Errata was a band from San Francisco, California. They named experimentalists such as Captain Beefheart, The Fall, the Minutemen as inspirations; the group favored improvisation as a compositional tool and each of their performances were a unique manifestation of established songs. Erase Errata formed in Oakland, California in 1999 and earned national attention after the release of their first eponymous 7" and via tours with electro grrl band Le Tigre and Japanese noise rockers Melt Banana, they released their acclaimed debut album Other Animals in 2001, followed by At Crystal Palace in 2003, both on the Troubleman Unlimited label. The group began counting Mission of Burma and The Ex among their fans. After founding guitarist Sara Jaffe left Erase Errata in 2004, singer Jenny Hoyston switched to guitar and the group drafted a male vocalist named Archie McKay; the group settled on a three-piece lineup, with Hoyston handling both guitar and vocal duties, joined the Kill Rock Stars roster for the 2006 album Nightlife.
Current membersJenny Hoyston - vocals, trumpet, keyboards Ellie Erickson - bass Bianca Sparta - drumsFormer MembersSara Jaffe - guitar Archie Mckay - vocals Other Animals CD/LP Troubleman At Crystal Palace CD/LP Nightlife CD/LP Lost Weekend "Erase Errata" Inconvenient Press "The Structure of Scientific Misconceptions" Toyo 7" split single with Black Dice Troubleman 7" compilation feat. Erase Errata, xbxrx, Tracy & the Plastics and more NFJM 7" split single with Numbers Tigerbeat6 "Mariah Carey and the Arthur Doyle Hand Cream"/"Glitter" split single with Sonic Youth Narnack 7" split single with Gossip KRS 7" "Clear Spot" b/w "Pass The Crimson" TomLab 7" "Damaged" b/w "Ouijaboardin'" KRS Rough Trade Shops: Post Punk Vol. 1, 2001 Fields And Streams, Kill Rock Stars, 2002 Official site Factsheet from Kill Rock Stars interview by Kim Gordon for Index Magazine PUNKCAST#1062 live video from Syrup Room, Nov 3 2006
SuicideGirls is an online community-based website that revolves around pin-up photography sets of models known as the Suicide Girls. The website was founded in 2001 by Sean Suhl. Most of the site is only accessible to paying members, it offers members access to images provided by models and photographers worldwide, as well as personal profiles, blogging platforms, the option to join numerous groups based upon different interests. There is an online merchandise store offering a range of clothing, DVDs. Suicide Girls have appeared in a variety of media outlets including television shows and music videos, they have been portrayed by actresses in others, such as the character Dani California on the TV show Californication. In 2001, Mooney returned to Portland, Oregon to study photography after working as director of technology at Ticketmaster. Inspired by Bunny Yeager, Mooney began photographing her friends in the pinup style and wanted to create a website that featured her photographs as well as message boards and blog posts from the models.
Mooney's friend, Sean Suhl joined her and the two founded the website. SuicideGirls was based in Portland, but relocated its operations to Los Angeles, California in 2003 to be closer to its distributor and publisher; that same year, 70 models from the website appeared in a music video for the band Probot. Mooney has stated that the purpose of the site is to give women control over how their sexuality is depicted; the site is co-owned. According to Missy, the term "Suicide Girl" comes from Chuck Palahniuk's novel Survivor where the character talks about masturbating to the troubles of young girls who look up to him: "It's the same with these suicide girls calling me up. Most of them are so young. Crying with their hair wet down in the rain at a public telephone, they call me to the rescue. Curled in a ball alone in bed for days, they call me. Messiah, they call me. Savior, they tell me what I ask for in every little detail. It's so perfect; the girl will just trust me. The phone in my one hand, I can imagine my other hand is her."
Missy states that the name describe girls who commit'social suicide' by breaking away from the norm of society, created the site'as a place to celebrate beautiful women who choose not to fit into the norm and as a corner of the internet where outsiders could congregate and be appreciated for being themselves'. In September 2005, SuicideGirls announced that it would remove a large number of images from its pages, in an effort to collaborate with the U. S. Justice Department standards at the time; the images involved depicted weapons, or simulated blood. The Justice Department indicated that images of that type might be the subject of obscenity prosecutions. Although SuicideGirls was not mentioned as a target, they removed the images. In January 2007, the images were made visible again. In 2006, some of the Suicide Girls were featured in an episode of CSI: NY titled Oedipus Hex. In 2015, it was reported that the website had 5 million monthly visitors, with 51 percent of them being female. SuicideGirls 15th anniversary was celebrated at its Peek-A-Boo burlesque show, a regular act at Pour Vous nightclub in Los Angeles, was featured on the website of Maxim magazine.
In 2017, SuicideGirls released a line of marijuana vape pens and cartridges called the Chill Hustle Zero line. The website is an online community, formed around pin-up photosets of Suicide Girls. Photosets are a collection of images ranging from clothed to nude that must share a theme or concept and take place in the same setting; each photoset contains 40-60 images and is created by the model and photographer to portray images of "alternative" beauty, showcasing each model's ideas regarding her own beauty. As of May 2015, there were nearly 8 million images live on the site; each day, a'Set of the Day' is bought and featured, appearing on the front page, where official Suicide Girl status begins. The photographs are intended both as an homage to classic pin-up art and a portrayal of images of alternative beauty; the site hosts a collection of staff photographers, however anyone can submit photosets to the site. Actress Paget Brewster has photographed models for the site, as have guitarist Dave Navarro and singer Mike Doughty.
The members and the models all have the option to create a personal profile, keep journals, upload their own photos and videos, join public and private groups. The site features interviews conducted by members and a merchandise shop. SuicideGirls have released seven movies since 2005, each directed by Mike Marshall. SuicideGirls: The First Tour was self-produced and released on August 30, 2005, by Epitaph records, it chronicles the lives of 10 performers on the first North American Burlesque Tour. SuicideGirls: Italian Villa was released on October 24, 2006, it features interviews and photo shoots of 15 European Suicide Girls. The horror film Suicide Girls Must Die!, directed by Sawa Suicide, was released in certain theatres on March 12, 2010. The film was released as video on demand on July 16, 2010. SuicideGirls: Guide to Living was released on DVD and Blu-ray on March 16, 2010, features many Suicide Girls putting erotic twists on otherwise everyday activities. SuicideGirls: UK Holiday was released in September 2012 and is available on both DVD and Blu-ray.
It documents a week long stay in a converted mill within the UK countryside, featuring 30 Suicide Girls from across the globe. SuicideGirls: Retrospective was released on November 3, 2012, was a collection of videos from the previous decade. SuicideGirls: Relaunch is the latest offering, released August 8, 2015, it chronicles the recent
Brian Hugh Warner, known by his stage name Marilyn Manson, is an American singer, actor, record producer, visual artist and former music journalist. He is known for his controversial stage personality and image as the lead singer of the band Marilyn Manson, which he co-founded with guitarist Daisy Berkowitz and of which he remains the only constant member. Like other members of the band, his stage name was formed by combining and juxtaposing the names of two American pop cultural icons of the 1960s: actress Marilyn Monroe and criminal Charles Manson. Manson is best known for records released in the 1990s, most notably Antichrist Superstar and Mechanical Animals, which earned him a reputation in mainstream media as a controversial figure and negative influence on young people. In the U. S. alone, three of the band's albums have been awarded platinum status and three more went gold, the band has had eight releases debut in the top ten, including two number-one albums. Manson has been ranked number 44 in the "Top 100 Heavy Metal Vocalists" by Hit Parader, along with his band, has been nominated for four Grammy Awards.
Manson made his film debut in 1997 as an actor in David Lynch's Lost Highway. Since he has appeared in a variety of minor roles and cameos, he was interviewed in Michael Moore's political documentary about gun violence, Bowling for Columbine, discussing possible motivations for the 1999 Columbine massacre. From September 13 to 14, 2002, his first art show, The Golden Age of Grotesque, was held at the Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions center, he unveiled a series of 20 paintings in 2010 entitled Genealogies of Pain, an exhibition showcased at Kunsthalle gallery in Vienna, on which he collaborated with Lynch. Brian Hugh Warner was born in Canton, Ohio, on January 5, 1969, the only son of Barbara Warner Wyer and Hugh Angus Warner, he is of English and Irish descent. He has claimed that his mother's family, who hail from the Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia, have Sioux heritage; as a child, Warner attended his mother's Episcopal church. He attended Heritage Christian School from first to 10th grade.
In that school, his instructors tried to show children what music they were not supposed to listen to. Warner transferred to GlenOak High School and graduated from there in 1987. After relocating with his parents, he became a student at Broward Community College in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1990, he was working towards a degree in journalism and gaining experience in the field by writing articles for a music magazine, 25th Parallel. In his role as music interviewer, he soon met several of the musicians to whom his own band was compared, including Groovie Mann from My Life with the Thrill Kill Kult and Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails. Warner and guitarist Scott "Daisy Berkowitz" Putesky formed Marilyn Manson & the Spooky Kids following conversations at the Reunion Room in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1989; the name was shortened to Marilyn Manson. While with The Spooky Kids, Manson teamed with Jeordie White and Stephen Gregory Bier Jr. in two side-projects: Satan on Fire, a faux-Christian metal ensemble where he played bass guitar, drums in Mrs. Scabtree, a collaborative band formed with White and girlfriend Jessicka as a way to combat contractual agreements that prohibited Marilyn Manson from playing in certain clubs.
In 1993, the band drew the attention of Trent Reznor. Reznor produced their 1994 debut album, Portrait of an American Family and released it on his Nothing Records label; the band began to develop a cult following, which grew larger on the Downward Spiral Tour that featured Nine Inch Nails and Jim Rose Circus along with the release of Smells Like Children in 1995. That EP yielded the band's first big MTV hit with "Sweet Dreams", a cover of the 1983 Eurythmics hit. Antichrist Superstar was an greater success. In the U. S. alone, three of the band's albums have been awarded two platinum and three more went gold, the band has had seven releases debut in the top ten, including two number-one albums. Manson first worked as a producer with the band Jack Off Jill, he helped name the band and produced most of the band's early recordings, played guitar on the song "My Cat" and had the band open most of his South Florida shows. Manson wrote the liner notes to the band's album Humid Teenage Mediocrity 1992–1996, a collection of early Jack Off Jill recordings.
Commentators have referred to the band's lead singer as being one of the most iconic and controversial figures in heavy metal music, with some going so far as to call him a "pop culture icon". Paste magazine said there were "few artists in the 90s as shocking as Marilyn Manson, the most famous of the shock-rockers". Manson has appeared as a guest performer on DMX's album Flesh of My Flesh, Blood of My Blood and on Godhead's 2000 Years of Human Error album – the only album released on his vanity label Posthuman. In 2011 it was revealed that Manson was to appear on the singer Skylar Grey's album Invinsible on the track entitled "Can't Haunt Me". Manson released his eighth studio album, Born Villain, in May 2012. On November 10, 2014, Manson posted via his official Facebook page that his ninth studio album, The Pale Emperor, would be released on January 20, 2015. On August 15, 2015, Manson had New Orleans brass ensemble the Soul Rebels perform "Beautiful People" with him live in Japan at the Summer Sonic Music Festiva
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
A zine is a small-circulation self-published work of original or appropriated texts and images reproduced via photocopier. Zines are either the product of a single person, or of a small group and are popularly photocopied into physical prints for circulation. A fanzine is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon for the pleasure of others who share their interest; the term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and popularized within science fiction fandom, entering the Oxford English Dictionary in 1949. Popularly defined within a circulation of 1,000 or fewer copies, in practice many zines are produced in editions of fewer than 100. Among the various intentions for creation and publication are developing one's identity, sharing a niche-skill or art, or developing a story, as opposed to seeking profit. Zines have served as a significant medium of communication in various subcultures, draw inspiration from a "do-it-yourself" philosophy that disregard the traditional conventions of professional design and publishing houses proposing an alternative and self-aware contribution.
Handwrittenzines, or carbon zines are individually made, emphasizing personal connection between creator and reader, turning imagined communities into embodied ones. Written in a variety of formats from desktop-published text to comics and stories, zines cover broad topics including fanfiction, poetry, art & design, personal journals, social theory, intersectional feminism, single-topic obsession, or sexual content far outside the mainstream enough to be prohibitive of inclusion in more traditional media. Although there are a few eras associated with zine-making, this "wave" narrative proposes a limited view of the vast range of topics and environments zines occupied. Dissidents and members of marginalized groups have published their own opinions in leaflet and pamphlet form for as long as such technology has been available; the concept of zines had an ancestor in the amateur press movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, which would in its turn cross-pollinate with the subculture of science fiction fandom in the 1930s.
The popular graphic-style associated with zines is influenced artistically and politically by the subcultures of Dada, Fluxus and Situationism. Many trace zine's' lineage from as far back as Thomas Paine's exceptionally popular 1775 pamphlet Common Sense, Benjamin Franklin's literary magazine for psychiatric patients at a Pennsylvania hospital and The Dial by Margaret Fuller and Ralph Waldo Emerson. During and after the Great Depression, editors of "pulp" science fiction magazines became frustrated with letters detailing the impossibilities of their science fiction stories. Over time they began to publish these overly-scrutinizing letters, complete with their return addresses. Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses. By 1927 readers young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine; this allowed these fans to begin writing to each other, now complete with a mailing list for their own science fiction fanzines that allowed them to write not only about science fiction but about fandom itself and, in self-proclaimed perzines, about themselves.
Science fiction fanzines vary in content, from short stories to convention reports to fanfiction were one of the earliest incarnations of the zine and influenced subsequent publications. "Zinesters" like Lisa Ben and Jim Kepner honed their talents in the science fiction fandom before tackling gay rights, creating zines such as "Vice Versa" and "ONE" that drew networking and distribution ideas from their SF roots. A number of leading science fiction and fantasy authors rose through the ranks of fandom, creating "pro-zines" such as Frederik Pohl and Isaac Asimov; the first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis; the first version of Superman appeared in the third issue of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction. The first media fanzine was a Star Trek fan publication called Spockanalia, published in September 1967 by members of the Lunarians; some of the earliest examples of academic fandom were written on Star Trek zines K/S slash zines, which displayed a gay relationship between the two.
Author Joanna Russ wrote in her 1985 analysis of K/S zines that slash fandom at the time consisted of around 500 core fans and was 100% female. Russ observed that while SF fans looked down on Star Trek fans, Star Trek fans looked down on K/S writers. Kirk/Spock zines contained fanfiction and poetry created by fans. Zines were sent to fans on a mailing list or sold at conventions. Many had high production values and some were sold at convention auctions for hundreds of dollars."K/S not only speaks to my condition. It is written in Female. I don't mean that of course. What I mean is that I can read it without translating it from the consensual, public world, sexist, unconcerned with women per se, managing to make it make sense to me and my condition." Janus called Aurora, was a science fiction feminist zine created by Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll in 1975. It contained short stories and film reviews. Among its contributors were authors such as Octavia Butler, Jo
A chapbook is a type of street literature printed in early modern Europe. Produced cheaply, chapbooks were small, paper-covered booklets printed on a single sheet folded into books of 8, 12, 16 and 24 pages, they were illustrated with crude woodcuts, which sometimes bore no relation to the text. When illustrations were included in chapbooks, they were considered popular prints; the tradition of chapbooks arose in the 16th century, as soon as printed books became affordable, rose to its height during the 17th and 18th centuries. Many different kinds of ephemera and popular or folk literature were published as chapbooks, such as almanacs, children's literature, folk tales, nursery rhymes, pamphlets and political and religious tracts; the term "chapbook" for this type of literature was coined in the 19th century. The corresponding French and German terms are bibliothèque bleue and Volksbuch, respectively. In Spain they were known as pliegos de cordel; the term "chapbook" is in use for present-day publications short, inexpensive booklets.
Chapbook is first attested in English in 1824, seems to derive from the word for the itinerant salesmen who would sell such books: chapman. The first element of chapman comes in turn from Old English cēap. Broadside ballads were popular songs, sold for a penny or halfpenny in the streets of towns and villages around Britain between the 16th century and early 20th centuries, they preceded chapbooks, but had similar content and distribution systems. There are records from Cambridgeshire as early as in 1553 of a man offering a scurrilous ballad "maistres mass" at an alehouse, a pedlar selling "lytle books" to people, including a patcher of old clothes in 1578; these sales are characteristic of the market for chapbooks. Chapbooks disappeared from the mid-19th century in the face of competition from cheap newspapers and in Scotland, religious tract societies that regarded them as "ungodly." Although the form originated in Britain, many were made in the U. S. during the same period. Because of their flimsy nature such ephemera survive as individual items.
They were aimed at buyers without formal libraries, and, in an era when paper was expensive, were used for wrapping or baking. Paper has always had hygienic uses. Many of the surviving chapbooks come from the collections of Samuel Pepys between 1661 and 1688 which are now held at Magdalene College, Cambridge; the antiquary Anthony Wood collected 65 chapbooks, which are now in the Bodleian Library. There are significant Scottish collections, such as those held by the University of Glasgow. Modern collectors, such as Peter Opie, have chiefly a scholarly interest in the form. Chapbooks were cheap, anonymous publications that were the usual reading material for lower-class people who could not afford books. Members of the upper classes owned chapbooks bound in leather with a personal monogram. Printers tailored their texts for the popular market. Chapbooks were between four and twenty-four pages long, produced on rough paper with crude recycled, woodcut illustrations, they sold in the millions. After 1696 English chapbook peddlers had to be licensed, 2,500 of them were authorized, 500 in London alone.
In France, there were 3,500 licensed colporteurs by 1848, they sold 40 million books annually. The centre of chapbook and ballad production was London, until the Great Fire of London the printers were based around London Bridge. However, a feature of chapbooks is the proliferation of provincial printers in Scotland and Newcastle upon Tyne. Chapbooks were an important medium for the dissemination of popular culture to the common people in rural areas, they were a medium of entertainment and history. In general, the content of chapbooks has been criticized, for their unsophisticated narratives which were loaded with repetition and emphasized adventure through anecdotal structures. However, they are nonetheless valued as a record of popular culture, preserving cultural artifacts that may not survive in any other form. Chapbooks were priced for sales to workers, although their market was not limited to the working classes. Broadside ballads were sold for a few pence. Prices of chapbooks were from 2d. to 6d.
When agricultural labourers wages were 12d. per day. The literacy rate in England in the 1640s was around 30 percent for males and rose to 60 percent in the mid-18th century. Many working people were readers, if not writers, pre-industrial working patterns provided periods during which they could read. Chapbooks were undoubtedly used for reading to family groups in alehouses, they contributed to the development of literacy. The author and publisher Francis Kirkman wrote about how they fired his imagination and his love of books. There is other evidence of their use by autodidacts; the numbers printed are astonishing. In the 1660s as many as 400,000 almanacs were printed annually, enough for one family in three in England. One 17th-century publisher of chapbooks in London had in stock one book for every 15 families in the country. In the 1520s the Oxford bookseller, John Dorne, noted in his day-book selling up to 190 ballads a day at a halfpenny each; the probate inventory of the stock of Charles Tias, of The sign of the Three Bibles on London Bridge, in 1664 included books and printed sheets to make c.90,000 chapbooks and 37,500 ballad sheets.