Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Polar fleece is a soft napped insulating fabric made from polyester. Polar fleece is used in jackets, sweaters, cloth diapers, gym clothes, hoodies and high-performance outdoor clothing, it can be made from recycled plastic bottles and is light and easy to wash. Polar fleece can stretch more in one direction than in others. Polar fleece originated in Massachusetts in 1979 when Malden Mills, Patagonia developed Synchilla, it was a new, strong pile fabric meant to mimic, in some ways surpass, wool. Company CEO Aaron Feuerstein intentionally declined to patent polar fleece, allowing the material to be produced cheaply and by many vendors, leading to the material's quick and wide acceptance. A lightweight and soft fabric, fleece has some of wool's good qualities but weighs a fraction of the lightest available woolens. Polar fleece garments traditionally come in different thicknesses: micro, 100, 200, 300, with 300 being the thickest and least flexible, it is hydrophobic, holding less than 1% of its weight in water.
It retains much of its insulating quality when wet. It is machine dries quickly, it is a good alternative to wool for those who are sensitive to wool. It can be made out of recycled polyethylene terephthalate bottles, or recycled fleece. Regular polar fleece does not absorb moisture. Fleece generates static electricity, which causes the accumulation of lint and pet hair, it is susceptible to damage from high temperature washing, tumble drying, or ironing under unusual conditions. Lower-quality polyester fleece material is prone to pilling. Berners-Lee reckons the average greenhouse gas footprint of European polar fleece carpets at 5.55 kg CO2 equivalent per kilo. This gives it the same carbon footprint as wool but with greater durability. Non-recycled fleece is made from non-renewable petroleum derivatives. If made of recycled materials, fleece relies on a continued production of non-renewable fossil fuels for the raw material; when fleece goes through the laundry, it generates microplastics that become part of domestic waste water.
Municipal waste water systems discharge into rivers and oceans. PET does not biodegrade, suspended microplastics are ingested by marine life, thus entering the food chain. Microfiber Polartec, once Malden Mills, the original manufacturer of Polartec and Polarfleece
Yeshiva University is a private, non-profit research university located in New York City, United States, with four campuses in New York City. The university's undergraduate schools—Yeshiva College, Stern College for Women, Syms School of Business—offer a dual curriculum inspired by Modern-Centrist-Orthodox Judaism's hashkafa of Torah Umadda combining academic education with the study of the Torah. While the majority of students at the University are of the Jewish faith, many students at the Cardozo School of Law, the School of Business, the Graduate School of Psychology, the Medical School, are not Jewish. Yeshiva University is an independent institution chartered by New York State, it is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and by several professional agencies. The University, founded in 1886, is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States that combines Jewish scholarship with studies in the liberal arts, medicine, business, social work, Jewish studies and education, psychology.
It has its roots in the Etz Chaim Yeshiva founded in 1886 on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, a cheder-style elementary school founded by Eastern European immigrants that offered study of Talmud along with some secular education, including instruction in English. As of August 2012, Yeshiva University enrolls 6,400 undergraduate students, 3,500 graduate students, 1,000 students at its affiliated high schools - Yeshiva University High School for Boys and Yeshiva University High School for Girls - and Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, it conferred 1,822 degrees in 2007 and offers community service projects serving New York, Jewish communities, the United States and Canada. The university has run an operating deficit for seven consecutive years. In 2014, it lost $84 million, in 2013, it suffered a loss of $64 million. In March 2015, the faculty of Yeshiva College passed a "no-confidence motion" against Richard Joel, the university president. Professor Gillian Steinberg, a member of the Yeshiva College executive committee, told The New York Jewish Week that the vote was meant to “signal donors in a meaningful way” and “indicate that the board of trustees is moving in the wrong direction.”In January 2016, the University disclosed plans to cede half of its $1 billion endowment to the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, as the medical college enters a separate joint venture with Montefiore Health System.
Bernard Revel 1915—1940 Samuel Belkin, 1943—1975 Norman Lamm, 1976—2003 Richard M. Joel, 2003—2017 Ari Berman, 2017—present The University's main campus, Wilf Campus, is located in Washington Heights. A 1928 plan to build a spacious Moorish Revival campus around several gardens and courtyards was canceled by the Great Depression of 1929 after only one building had been erected. Building continued after the Depression in modern style and by the acquisition of existing neighborhood buildings. Since it was founded in 1886, Yeshiva University has expanded to comprise some twenty colleges, affiliates and institutions, with several affiliated hospitals and healthcare institutions, it has campuses and facilities in Manhattan, the Bronx and Israel. The Yeshiva University Museum is the cultural arm of Yeshiva University. Founded in 1973, Yeshiva University Museum is AAMG accredited and aims to provide a window into Jewish culture around the world and throughout history through multi-disciplinary exhibitions and publications.
Yeshiva University maintains four campuses in New York City: The Resnick Campus in the Morris Park neighborhood of the eastern Bronx houses the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, along with dormitories, a library, a hospital and other medical facilities. The Brookdale Center in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of downtown Manhattan contains the Benjamin Cardozo School of Law, law clinics and office, a dormitory; the Center for Jewish History, which includes the Yeshiva University Museum along with other institutions, is nearby in the Chelsea neighborhood. The Beren Campus in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Midtown Manhattan is home to the undergraduate schools for women, including Stern College for Women and the Midtown branch of the Syms School of Business, along with dormitories and other facilities; the Azrieli School has classes on this campus as well. The Wilf Campus is centered around the area of Amsterdam Ave and West 185th Street in the Washington Heights neighborhood of upper Manhattan.
Yeshiva University's main office is located within the Wilf Campus, at 500 185th St. and Wilf is considered the main campus. It is home to the undergraduate schools for men, the rabbinical seminary, the Belz School of Jewish Music, the high school for boys, the Azrieli Graduate School for Jewish Education and Administration, the Wurzweiler School for Social Work, the Bernard Revel Graduate school, along with other divisions, libraries and other facilities; the high school for girls is located in the Holliswood neighborhood of eastern Queens. The university's building in Jerusalem, in the Bayit VeGan neighborhood, contains a branch of the rabbinical seminary and an office coordinating the S. Daniel Abraham Israel Program, a formal arrangement between Yeshiva University and 42 men's yeshivot and women's midrashot in Israel that enables students to incorporate study in Israel into their college years. While studying in Israel, students study Jewish subjects while learning firsthand about Israel's land, people and culture.
Yeshiva University Israel advisers visit each school to offer academic guidance, career planni
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Brookline is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, in the United States, is a part of Greater Boston. Brookline borders six of Boston's neighborhoods: Brighton, Fenway–Kenmore, Mission Hill, Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury; the city of Newton lies to the west of Brookline. At the 2010 census, the population of the town was 58,732, it is the most populous municipality in Massachusetts to have a town form of government. Brookline was first settled in 1638 as a hamlet in Boston, but was incorporated as a separate town in 1705. Brookline was the hometown of John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States. Once part of Algonquian territory, Brookline was first settled by European colonists in the early 17th century; the area was an outlying part of the colonial settlement of Boston and known as the hamlet of Muddy River. In 1705, it was incorporated as the independent town of Brookline; the northern and southern borders of the town were marked by two small rivers or brooks, hence the name. The northern border with Brighton was Smelt Brook.
The southern boundary, abutting Boston, was the Muddy River. The Town of Brighton was merged with Boston in 1874, the Boston-Brookline border was redrawn to connect the new Back Bay neighborhood with Allston-Brighton; this merger created a narrow strip of land along the Charles River belonging to Boston, cutting Brookline off from the shoreline. It put certain lands north of the Muddy River on the Boston side, including what are now Kenmore Square and Packard's Corner; the current northern border follows Commonwealth Avenue, on the northeast, St. Mary's Street; when Frederick Law Olmsted designed the Emerald Necklace of parks and parkways for Boston in the 1890s, the Muddy River was integrated into the Riverway and Olmsted Park, creating parkland accessible by both Boston and Brookline residents. Throughout its history, Brookline has resisted being annexed by Boston, in particular during the Boston–Brookline annexation debate of 1873; the neighboring towns of West Roxbury and Hyde Park connected Brookline to the rest of Norfolk County until they were annexed by Boston in 1874 and 1912 putting them in Suffolk County.
Brookline is now separated from the remainder of Norfolk County. Brookline has long been regarded as a verdant environment. In the 1841 edition of the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Andrew Jackson Downing described the area this way: The whole of this neighborhood of Brookline is a kind of landscape garden, there is nothing in America of the sort, so inexpressibly charming as the lanes which lead from one cottage, or villa, to another. No animals are allowed to run at large, the open gates, with tempting vistas and glimpses under the pendent boughs, give it quite an Arcadian air of rural freedom and enjoyment; these lanes are clothed with a profusion of trees and wild shrubbery almost to the carriage tracks, curve and wind about, in a manner quite bewildering to the stranger who attempts to thread them alone. Brookline residents were among the first in the country to propose extending the vote to women. Benjamin F. Butler, in his 1882 campaign for Governor, advocated the idea. Two branches of upper Boston Post Road, established in the 1670s, passed through Brookline.
Brookline Village was the original center of retail activity. In 1810, the Boston and Worcester Turnpike, now Massachusetts Route 9, was laid out, starting on Huntington Avenue in Boston and passing through the village center on its way west. Steam railroads came to Brookline in the middle of the 19th century; the Boston and Worcester Railroad was constructed in the early 1830s, passed through Brookline near the Charles River. The rail line is still in active use, now paralleled by the Massachusetts Turnpike; the Highland Branch of the Boston and Albany Railroad was built from Kenmore Square to Brookline Village in 1847, was extended into Newton in 1852. In the late 1950s, this would become the Green Line "D" Branch; the portion of Beacon Street west of Kenmore Square was laid out in 1850. Streetcar tracks were laid above ground on Beacon Street in 1888, from Coolidge Corner to Massachusetts Avenue in Boston, via Kenmore Square. In 1889, they were extended over the Brighton border at Cleveland Circle.
They would become the Green Line "C" Branch. Thanks to the Boston Elevated Railway system, this upgrade from horse-drawn carriage to electric trolleys occurred on many major streets all over the region, made transportation into downtown Boston faster and cheaper. Much of Brookline was developed into a streetcar suburb, with large brick apartment buildings sprouting up along the new streetcar lines. Brookline was known as the hamlet of Muddy River and was considered part of Boston until the Town of Brookline was independently incorporated in 1705, it is said. According to the United States Census Bureau, Brookline has a total area of 6.8 sq mi, all but 0.039 sq mi of, land. The northern part of Brookline north of the D-line tracks, is urban in character, as walkable and transit rich; the population density of this part of town is nearly 20,000 inhabitants per square mile, on a par with the densest neighborhoods in nearby Cambridge and Chelsea, Massachusetts
Lawrence is a city in Essex County, United States, on the Merrimack River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 76,377, which had risen to an estimated 78,197 as of 2014. Surrounding communities include Methuen to the north, Andover to the southwest, North Andover to the southeast. Lawrence and Salem were the county seats of Essex County, until the Commonwealth abolished county government in 1999. Lawrence is part of the Merrimack Valley. Manufacturing products of the city include electronic equipment, footwear, paper products and foodstuffs. Lawrence was the residence of poet Robert Frost for his early school years. Native Americans, namely the Pennacook or Pentucket tribe, had a presence in this area. Evidence of farming at Den Rock Park and arrowhead manufacturing on the site of where the Wood Mill now sits have been discovered. Europeans first settled the Haverhill area in 1640, colonists from Newbury following the Merrimack River in from the coast; the area that would become Lawrence was part of Methuen and Andover.
The first settlement came in 1655 with the establishment of a blockhouse in Shawsheen Fields, now South Lawrence. The future site of the city, was purchased by a consortium of local industrialists; the Water Power Association members: Abbott Lawrence, Edmund Bartlett, Thomas Hopkinson of Lowell, John Nesmith and Daniel Saunders, had purchased control of Peter's Falls on the Merrimack River and hence controlled Bodwell's Falls the site of the present Great Stone Dam. The group allotted fifty thousand dollars to buy land along the river to develop. In 1844, the group petitioned the legislature to act as a corporation, known as the Essex Company, which incorporated on April 16, 1845; the first excavations for the Great Stone Dam to harness the Merrimack River's water power were done on August 1, 1845. The Essex Company would sell the water power to corporations such as the Arlington Mills, as well as organize construction of mills and build to suit; until 1847, when the state legislature recognized the community as a town, it was called interchangeably the "New City", "Essex" or "Merrimac".
The post office, built in 1846, used the designation "Merrimac". Incorporation as a city would come in 1853, the name "Lawrence" chosen as a token of respect to Abbott Lawrence, who it cannot be verified saw the city named after him. Canals were dug on both the north and the south banks to provide power to the factories that would soon be built on its banks as both mill owners and workers from across the city and the world flocked to the city in droves; the work was dangerous: injuries and death were not uncommon. Working conditions in the mills were unsafe and in 1860 the Pemberton Mill collapsed, killing 145 workers; as immigrants flooded into the United States in the mid to late 19th century, the population of Lawrence abounded with skilled and unskilled workers from several countries. Lawrence was the scene of the infamous Bread and Roses Strike known as the Lawrence Textile Strike, one of the more important labor actions in American history. Lawrence was a great wool-processing center; the decline left Lawrence a struggling city.
The population of Lawrence declined from over 80,000 residents in 1950 to 64,000 residents in 1980, the low point of Lawrence's population. Like other northeastern cities suffering from the effects of post-World War II industrial decline, Lawrence has made efforts at revitalization, some of them controversial. For example, half of the enormous Wood Mill, powered by the Great Stone Dam and once the largest mills in the world, was knocked down in the 1950s; the Lawrence Redevelopment Authority and city officials utilized eminent domain for a perceived public benefit, via a top down approach, to revitalize the city throughout the 1960s. Known first as urban redevelopment, urban renewal, Lawrence's local government's actions towards vulnerable immigrant and poor communities, contained an undercurrent of gentrification which lies beneath the goals to revitalize Lawrence. There was a clash of differing ideals and perceptions of blight and what constituted a desirable community; the discussion left out those members of the community who would be directly impacted by urban redevelopment.
Under the guise of urban renewal, large tracts of downtown Lawrence were razed in the 1970s, replaced with parking lots and a three-story parking garage connected to a new Intown Mall intended to compete with newly constructed suburban malls. The historic Theater Row along Broadway was razed, destroying ornate movie palaces of the 1920s and 1930s that entertained mill workers through the Great Depression and the Second World War; the city's main post office, an ornate federalist style building at the corner of Broadway and Essex Street, was razed. Most of the structures were replaced with one-story, steel-frame structures with large parking lots, housing such establishments as fast food restaurants and chain drug stores, fundamentally changing the character of the center of Lawrence. Lawrence attempted to increase its employment base by attracting industries unwanted in other communities, such as waste treatment facilities and incinerators. From 1980 until 1998, private corporations operated two trash incinerators in Lawrence.
Activist residents blocked the approval of a waste treatment center on the banks of the Merrimack River near the current site of Salvatore's Pizza on Merrimack Street. The focus of Lawrence's urban renewal has shifted to preservat
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed