Matthew Edward Gonzalez is an American politician and activist. He was an important figure in San Francisco politics in the years 2000–2005, in 2003, running as a member of the Green Party, lost a close race for mayor of San Francisco to Democrat Gavin Newsom. In the 2008 presidential election, Gonzalez ran for president as the running mate of candidate Ralph Nader. He currently works in San Francisco’s Public Defenders Office, matthew Edward Gonzalez was born in McAllen, Texas. After graduating from McAllen Memorial High School, he attended Columbia University, in 1990, he obtained a Juris Doctor degree from Stanford Law School. Gonzalez began working as a lawyer at the Office of the Public Defender in San Francisco in 1991. Gonzalez served one term on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in the years 2001–2005 and he was elected president of the Board in 2003. After losing the election in 2003, he chose not to seek re-election. Gonzalez entered politics when he ran for San Francisco District Attorney in 1999 and he campaigned to halt political corruption and marijuana prosecutions.
Gonzalez lost to incumbent Terence Hallinan, in a field of five candidates, he finished third with 20,153 votes. In 2000, a system of electing supervisors by district rather than citywide took effect, at the urging of Supervisor Tom Ammiano, Gonzalez moved from his home in the Mission District to run for supervisor in newly made District 5. In early November, shortly before the election, Gonzalez switched party affiliations from the Democratic Party to the nascent Green Party. His supporters saw his election as a point in local politics. Gonzalezs critics considered him a stubborn and willful ideologue, Gonzalez refused to meet with Brown during his first two years on the Board of Supervisors, saying he did so to avoid being subject to Browns influence rather than as a matter of disrespect. Two sources reported that Gonzalez defied Brown by walking out of the mayors State of the City address in 2002, Gonzalez told SF Weekly that he was never in attendance. Gonzalez hosted monthly art exhibits in his City Hall office, at the last reception, graffiti artist Barry McGee spray-painted Smash the State on the walls of the office as part of his exhibit.
Gonzalez told the press that he knew his office would be repainted for the next occupant, in August 2003, Gonzalez ran for Mayor of San Francisco in a bid to replace outgoing two-term mayor Willie Brown. Gonzalez received 19.6 percent of the vote to Newsoms 41.9 percent
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
Ed Lee (politician)
Edwin Mah Ed Lee is an American politician and attorney who is the 43rd and current Mayor of San Francisco, California. Lee won the election on November 8,2011 to serve a term as Mayor. Lee is the first Asian American mayor in San Franciscos history, before being appointed mayor, he was City Administrator. Prior to his employment with the City and County of San Francisco, Mayor Lee was the Managing Attorney for the San Francisco Asian Law Caucus, from 1989 to 1991, Lee worked as a Whistleblower Ordinance Investigator and the Deputy Director of Employment Relations in San Francisco. Lee worked as the director of the Human Rights Commission from 1991 to 1996, Lee became director of the City Purchasing Department in 1996 until his appointment to City Administrator in 2000. In 1989, Lee was appointed by Mayor Art Agnos as the Citys first investigator under the citys Whistleblower Ordinance, Agnos appointed him deputy director of human relations. In 1991, he was hired as director of the San Francisco Human Rights Commission, serving in that capacity under Mayors Agnos, Frank Jordan.
Brown appointed him Director of City Purchasing, among other responsibilities, in 2000, he was appointed Director of Public Works for the City, and in 2005 was appointed by Mayor Newsom to a five-year term as City Administrator, to which he was reappointed in 2010. As City Administrator, Lee oversaw the reduction of city government, speculation about possible appointees and debate on whether or not the old Board of Supervisors should cast the vote for the new mayor soon followed Newsoms election as lieutenant governor. The Board of Supervisors nominated four people, former Mayor Art Agnos, Sheriff Michael Hennessey, former Board of Supervisors president Aaron Peskin, and Lee. At the January 7 meeting, the old board voted 10–1 to elect Lee as mayor, at the time, Lee promised not to seek election if appointed, a statement which helped to gain support for his appointment. The vote was preliminary and non-binding, as Newsom had delayed his resignation until new members of the Board took office, a final vote was taken on January 11 by the new board to confirm Lee, one day after Newsoms resignation.
The board voted unanimously for Lee and he took office immediately thereafter, as mayor, Lee reached an agreement with the Board of Supervisors to close a $380 million budget deficit. He implemented the City’s move to cleaner vehicles and an infrastructure to support electric vehicles, Mayor Lee developed and oversaw implementation of the City’s first ever Ten Year Capital Plan to guide our capital priorities and infrastructure investment. In 2012, Mayor Lee pushed for the approval of the Housing Trust Fund which invested $1.5 billion in affordable housing production. In 2014, Mayor Lee pledged to construct 30,000 new and rehabilitated homes throughout the City by 2020, with half available to low and middle income San Franciscans. Mayor Lee launched a Small Site Acquisition Program, which funds the purchase & stabilization of multi-family rental buildings in neighborhoods that are susceptible to evictions, Lee created preferences for Neighborhood Residents and Displaced Tenants in our affordable housing programs to help keep residents in their communities.
Lee launched the Ellis Act Housing Preference Program for tenants who are evicted under the State Ellis Act, Displaced tenants are now given preference for the City’s affordable housing programs
Tom Ammiano is an American politician and LGBT rights activist from San Francisco, California. Ammiano, a member of the California Legislative LGBT Caucus, served as a member of the California State Assembly from 2008 to November 30,2014. He had previously been a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and had mounted a bid for mayor of San Francisco in 1999. He was succeeded as Californias Assemblyman for District 17 by San Francisco Board of Supervisors President David Chiu on December 1,2014, Ammiano grew up in Montclair, New Jersey, part of a working-class family of Italian Americans. He attended Immaculate Conception High School, Ammiano attended Seton Hall University, earning a bachelors degree in communication in 1963. He moved to San Francisco in 1963, and earned a degree in special education from San Francisco State University in 1965. Ammiano was opposed to the Vietnam War and from 1966 to 1968 was an English teacher in a town in South Vietnam. After returning to San Francisco, Ammiano was a teacher at Buena Vista Elementary School in the Mission.
In 1975, he was one of the founders of a gay teachers organization which successfully pushed the board to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation. Ammiano came out publicly as a gay man in a conference that year. In 1980, Ammiano began to perform stand-up comedy, in 1977, with activists Hank Wilson and Harvey Milk, co-founded No on 6 against the Briggs Initiative, which would have banned any gay person from teaching in California. The movement achieved success the year, in 1978. In 1980 and 1988, Ammiano ran for the San Francisco Board of Education and he was subsequently elected its vice-president in 1991, and president in 1992. As president of the Board of Education, Ammiano was successful in his efforts to include a gay and this made San Francisco the first city in the nation to provide universal healthcare access. Ammiano was the architect of the citys Domestic Partners Ordinance. It requires companies which do business with the City and County of San Francisco to provide the same benefits.
In the San Francisco mayoral race of 1999, Ammiano mounted a successful campaign in the November election. There is a documentary about the 1999 mayoral election, titled See How They Run, Ammiano introduced Marijuana Control and Education Act, to the California State Assembly
San Francisco State University
1899 – Founded as San Francisco State Normal School. 1901 – First graduating class 1906 – The 1906 earthquake and fire forces the school to relocate from Nob Hill to a new campus at Buchanan and Haight Streets. 1966 – Beginning of the era of protests led by student organizations including the Black Students Union, Third World Liberation Front. The protests against college policies and off-campus issues such as the Vietnam War included sit-ins, marches, teach-ins, the protests were marked by counter-protests and widespread charges of corruption and election fraud in the student newspaper. 1968 – A lengthy student strike erupted that developed into an important event in the history of the U. S. in the late 1960s. The strike was led by the Black Student Union and the Third World Liberation Front and this became a major news event for weeks in the aftermath of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. At one point, University president S. I. Hayakawa famously pulled the out of the speakers on top of a van at a student rally.
During the course of the strike, large numbers of police drawn from many jurisdictions occupied the campus, SF State is on the semester system. The university awards degrees in 115 areas of specialization, masters degrees in 97. SFSU ranks 18th among the top 20 undergraduate schools whose alumni go on to be admitted to the State Bar, the Cinema department, in the College of Liberal & Creative Arts, was named one of the nations top film schools by Entertainment Weekly in 2000. The university is accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities, the College of Business is accredited by The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The college of engineering is accredited by the ABET except the computer engineering program, San Francisco State was ranked the 24th top college in the United States by Payscale and CollegeNets Social Mobility Index college rankings. Among Western Universities, of which there are 112, San Francisco State was ranked 10th in terms of diversity by USNWR.
Furthermore, U. S. News & World Report ranks San Francisco State as 8th nationally in the number of transfer students, San Francisco State Universitys joint physical therapy masters program with UCSF is consistently ranked among the top 20 in the country. The Philosophical Gourmet Report lists San Francisco State University as one of the top eight universities to earn a terminal MA in philosophy, SFSU is listed as having one of the nations top film schools by Entertainment Weekly having produced countless leading filmmakers. The Universitys College of Extended Learning offers the only American Bar Association-approved paralegal studies program in San Francisco, SFSU was one of the first California State University campuses to offer a doctorate of education. It was instrumental in the establishment of the International University Of Kyrgyzstan, the University is the only one in California to offer a bachelors degree in technical and professional writing. In 1968, what was the longest student strike in the nations history resulted in establishment of a College of Ethnic Studies and increased recruiting, in 2002 there was much tension between pro-Israel and pro-Palestinian students
Willie Brown (politician)
Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. is an American politician of the Democratic Party. He served over 30 years in the California State Assembly, spending 15 years as its speaker, and served as the 41st mayor of San Francisco, the first African American to do so. Under the current California term-limits law, no Speaker of the California State Assembly will be permitted to have a longer tenure than Browns, the San Francisco Chronicle called Brown one of San Franciscos most notable mayors who had celebrity beyond the citys boundaries. Brown was born in Mineola and graduated from Mineola Colored High School in 1951 and he moved to San Francisco in 1951, attending San Francisco State University and graduating in 1955 with a degree in liberal studies. Brown earned a J. D. from University of California and he spent several years in private practice before gaining election in his second attempt to the California Assembly in 1964. Brown became the Democrats whip in 1969 and speaker in 1980 and he was known for his ability to manage people and maintain party discipline.
According to The New York Times, Brown became one of the countrys most powerful state legislators and his long tenure and powerful position were used as a focal point of Californias initiative campaign to limit the terms of state legislators, which passed in 1990. During the last of his three allowed post-initiative terms, Brown maintained control of the Assembly despite a slim Republican majority by gaining the vote of several Republicans, near the end of his final term, Brown left the legislature to become mayor of San Francisco. Brown served as San Francisco mayor from January 8,1996 until January 8,2004 and his tenure as mayor is marked by a significant increase in real estate development, public works, city beautification, and other large-scale city projects. He presided over the era at a time when San Franciscos economy was rapidly expanding. Brown presided over the city’s most diverse administration with more Asian Americans, Latinos, gays and he increased San Franciscos funding of Muni by tens of millions of dollars and ended the citys policy of punishing people for feeding the homeless.
The SF Board of Supervisors opposed Browns agenda and some of his initiatives, in particular office, Brown was restricted by term limits from running for mayor and was succeeded by a political protege, Gavin Newsom. Brown was born in Mineola, a segregated town in east Texas marked by racial tensions, to Minnie Collins Boyd. Brown was the fourth of five children, during Browns childhood, mob violence periodically erupted in Mineola, keeping African Americans from voting. His first job was as a boy in a whites-only barber shop. He worked as a janitor, fry cook, and field hand and he learned his work ethic at a young age from his grandmother. He graduated from MacFarland High School, a school he described as substandard. Brown originally wanted to attend Stanford University and his interviewer from Stanford taught at San Francisco State and was surprised by Brown’s ambition
Members of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors
The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislative body of San Francisco, California. The body consists of members elected from single-member districts through ranked choice voting. From 1977 to 1979, and starting again in 2000, supervisors were elected from eleven single-member districts, prior to 1977 and from 1980 to 1998, members were elected at-large, all running on one ballot, with the top vote-getters winning office. Similar cases of supervisors elected to truncated terms happened in 1977 and 2000, several members were initially appointed by the mayor. A few members were elected to the board, but appointed to their seat by the mayor during the weeks between the election and the beginning of their term. This has generally been done when supervisors were elected to the state legislature, the most recent example occurred in 2008, when David Campos was elected to the District 9 seat held by Tom Ammiano. In the same election, Ammiano was elected to the California State Assembly, mayor Gavin Newsom appointed Campos to the seat on December 4,2008, a month before he would otherwise have taken office.
The president of the Board of Supervisors presides over all meetings and appoints members to board committees. Board presidents are elected by their colleagues at the beginning of every odd-numbered year, no official list of supervisors in office prior to 1906 exists as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake destroyed all Board of Supervisors records. However, the names of San Francisco supervisors are recorded in many documents, the San Francisco Common Council was the predecessor of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. The Common Council was made up of the Board of Aldermen, the first elections to these posts took place on May 1,1850, and the Common Council took office on May 6,1850. The Common Council had authority only within the city limits, which stretched west to Divisadero and Castro streets, the first Board of Supervisors served only from July 8 to November 15,1856, and consisted of one justice of the peace for each of the citys four districts. These four men chose George J. Whelan as the citys mayor, Supervisors from the 19th century are listed in surviving copies of municipal reports, contemporary newspapers, and similar sources.
Former mayors of the city were allowed non-voting seats on the board, members who served as president of the Board of Supervisors during part of their tenure on the board are denoted with an asterisk. Supervisors are elected on non-partisan ballots, but all current members of the Board of Supervisors are registered Democrats, supervisor Jane Kim was previously a member of the Green Party, but switched her registration to Democratic before running for supervisor. 1996 Charter of the City and County of San Francisco,1996 Charter of the City and County of San Francisco. AIDS activist Sheehy to succeed Wiener as SF supervisor
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Chinatown, San Francisco
The Chinatown centered on Grant Avenue and Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, is the oldest Chinatown in North America and the largest Chinese community outside Asia. It is the oldest of the four notable Chinatowns in the city, since its establishment in 1848, it has been highly important and influential in the history and culture of ethnic Chinese immigrants in North America. Chinatown is an enclave that continues to retain its own customs, places of worship, social clubs, there are two hospitals, numerous parks and squares, a post office, and other infrastructure. Chinatown has been defined by the neighborhoods of North Beach, and Telegraph Hill areas as bound by Bush Street, Taylor Street, Bay Street. Officially, Chinatown is located in downtown San Francisco, covers 24 square blocks, within Chinatown there are two major thoroughfares. It is dominated by buildings that are three to four stories high, with shops on the ground floor and residential apartments upstairs. A major focal point in Chinatown is Portsmouth Square, since it is one of the few open spaces in Chinatown and sits above a large underground parking lot, Portsmouth Square bustles with activity such as Tai Chi and old men playing Chinese chess.
A replica of the Goddess of Democracy used in the Tiananmen Square protest was built in 1999 by Thomas Marsh and it is made of bronze and weighs approximately 600 lb. According to the San Francisco Planning Department, Chinatown is the most densely populated area west of Manhattan. In the 1970s, the density in Chinatown was seven times the San Francisco average. The estimated total population in the 2000 Census was at 100,574 residents, during the time from 2009 to 2013, the median household income was $20,000 - compared to $76,000 citywide - with 29% of residents below the national poverty threshold. The median age was 50 years, the oldest of any neighborhood, as of 2015, two thirds of the residents lived in one of Chinatowns 105 single room occupancy hotels,96 of which had private owners and nine were owned by nonprofits. Most residents are speakers of Mandarin or Cantonese, in 2015. Many of those Chinese immigrants who gain some wealth while living in Chinatown leave it for the Richmond District, working-class Hong Kong Chinese immigrants began arriving in large numbers in the 1960s.
Despite their status and professional qualifications in Hong Kong, many took low-paying employment in restaurants, an increase in Cantonese-speaking immigrants from Hong Kong and Mainland China has gradually led to the replacement in Chinatown of the Hoisanese/Taishanese dialect by the standard Cantonese dialect. These outer neighborhoods have been settled largely by Chinese from Southeast Asia, there are many suburban Chinese communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially in Silicon Valley, such as Cupertino and Milpitas, where Taiwanese Americans are dominant. Despite these developments, many continue to commute in from these neighborhoods and cities to shop in Chinatown, causing gridlock on roads and delays in public transit. To address this problem, the public transit agency, Muni, is planning to extend the citys subway network to the neighborhood via the new Central Subway
Financial District, San Francisco
The Financial District is a neighborhood in San Francisco, that serves as its main central business district. It is home to the citys largest concentration of headquarters, law firms, insurance companies, real estate firms, banks and loans. All six San Francisco Fortune 500 companies—McKesson, Wells Fargo, PG&E, Charles Schwab, the citys tallest buildings, including 555 California Street and the Transamerica Pyramid, and many other tall buildings, such as 101 California Street and 345 California Street are located there. Montgomery Street is the heart of the district. Since the 1980s, restrictions on high rise construction have shifted new development to the adjacent South of Market area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center and this area is sometimes called the South Financial District by real estate developers, or simply included as part of the Financial District itself. It was not until 1835 that the first settlers established themselves on the shore of Yerba Buena Cove, Yerba Buenas potential as a seaport made it the eventual center for European and American settlement.
Gold Rush wealth and business made it the capital of the west coast as many banks. The west coasts first and only skyscrapers, were built in the area along Market Street, the neighborhood was completely destroyed in the 1906 Earthquake and Fire. By 1910, the area was rebuilt with low-rise, masonry-clad buildings ranging from six to twelve stories in height. Due to new building and earthquake retrofitting technologies, the restrictions were lifted. This boom accelerated under mayor Dianne Feinstein during the 1980s, something her critics labelled as Manhattanization and this caused widespread opposition citywide leading to the skyscraper revolt similar to the freeway revolt in the city years earlier. The skyscraper revolt led to the city imposing extremely strict, European-style height restrictions on building construction citywide. Due to these restrictions, lack of buildable lots, and changes in the local real estate market. To encourage new development south of Market, and to fund the replacement for the Transbay Terminal.
As a result, nearly all new high rise construction since the 1980s has taken place South of Market, notable examples include the JPMorgan Chase Building,555 Mission Street,101 Second Street, the Four Seasons Hotel, The Paramount, and the Millennium Tower. Adjacent to the Financial District to the west is the Union Square shopping district, to the northwest is Chinatown, and to the north is North Beach and Jackson Square. To the east lies the Embarcadero waterfront and the Ferry Building, to the south lies Market Street and the South of Market district. The Financial District is served by more than two dozen Muni bus and rail lines, including one cable car line, as well as Montgomery Street Station, the nickname FiDi is occasionally employed, analogous to nearby SoMa