Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, it covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,800,000 inhabitants.. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015, it is the largest region in France by area, with a territory larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants; the region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, La Rochelle, as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles.
The agricultural region of Europe with the greatest turnover, it is the French region with the most tourism jobs, as it has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast:, as well as several ski resorts, is the fifth French region for business creation. Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture, tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector, industrial ceramics. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast; the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Oïl cultures. It is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine, extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine; the region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula, a former vice president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine".
The decision came after the popular favorite, "Aquitaine", faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favorite, "Grande Aquitaine," was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. For the recent history of each former administrative regions and departments before 2016, For the history of past entities covering much of the area of the region before the French revolution, At 84,061 square kilometers, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three autonomous communities in Spain to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres and Haute-Vienne, its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory: Bordeaux Bayonne Limoges Poitiers Pau La Rochelle. In addition, the region has a network of medium towns scattered throughout its territory, including: Angoulême Agen Brive-la-Gaillarde Niort Périgueux Bergerac Villeneuve-sur-Lot Dax Mont-de-Marsan The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin and the Limousin plate and the western part of the Pyrenees, it is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente and Dordogne (and their extension, the
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The city is located in the heart of the former sovereign Principality of Béarn, of which it was the capital from 1464. Bordered by the Gave de Pau, the city is located 100 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean and 50 kilometres from Spain; this position gives it an exceptional panorama across the mountain range of the Pyrenees as well as on the hillsides of Jurançon. The name of Horizons Palois aims to protect this vision, in particular with the famous Boulevard des Pyrénées which extends for 1.8 kilometres from the Château de Pau to the Parc Beaumont. Alphonse de Lamartine said: "Pau has the world's most beautiful view of the earth just as Naples has the most beautiful view of the sea." Archaeology has asserted. It wasn't until the first half of the 12th century that the first mentions of Pau as a settlement are found; the town originated from the construction of its castle from the 11th century by the Viscounts of Béarn, to protect the ford, a strategic point for access to the Bearn valleys and to Spain.
The city thus took its name from the stockade. The village, built around the castle took advantage of its strategic position as well as the protection of the Viscounts of Béarn to develop over the following centuries. Pau became the capital of Béarn in 1464, thus becoming the political and economic centre of this small State which continued to defend its independence from the neighbouring French and Spanish territories; the town and its castle took on a new dimension by becoming the seat of the Kings of Navarre, at the capture of Pamplona, by the Kingdom of Castile in 1512. Pau became a leading political and intellectual centre under the reign of Henry d'Albret and his wife Marguerite; the history of Pau is marked by the birth of Henry of Bourbon 13 December 1553 in the castle of his grandparents. He gained access to the throne of France in 1589 under the title of Henry IV; the image of the city is since associated with that of this monarch made famous for his willingness to put an end to the endless Wars of Religion.
With the end of Béarnaise independence in 1620, Pau lost its influence but remained the same at the head of a autonomous province. It was home to the Parliament of Navarre and Béarn which wrote its texts in Occitan until the Revolution and its dismantling to create the Department of Basses-Pyrénées, it was during the 18th century when another famous person was born in Pau, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte who became Marshal of the Empire and King of Sweden, today still the ruling dynasty of Sweden and of Norway when that country was under the Swedish monarchy. The Belle Époque marked a resurgence for the Béarnaise capital with a massive influx of wealthy foreign tourists, they came to spend the winter to take advantage of the benefits of Pau's climate described by the Scottish physician Alexander Taylor. Pau turned with the construction of many villas and mansions to accommodate these wintering rich people, the city developed all elements of modernity for their comfort: baths and railway station, it was at this time that Pau became one of the world capitals of the nascent aerospace industry under the influence of the Wright brothers, crowned heads pressed there to observe the flight of the first flying school in the world.
With the decline of tourism during the 20th century, the Pau economy shifted towards the aviation industry and to that of petrochemicals with the major discovery of the Lacq gas field in 1951. Pau today is a city of about 80,000 inhabitants, the main urban area of Pau and of the Communauté d'agglomération Pau Béarn Pyrénées with 30 neighbouring communes which carry out local tasks together; the Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, founded in 1972, accounts for a large student population. The city plays a leading role for Béarn but for a wide segment of the Adour area. An administrative capital, it boasts a dense economic fabric including service activities. Pau plays the role of cultural capital with many events, including sports. Pau's heritage extends over several centuries, its diversity and its quality allowed it to obtain the label of City of Art and History in 2011; the name of its people is Palois and the motto of Pau is in Latin: Urbis palladium et gentis. Pau is 50 km from the Pyrenees.
Spain is 50 km away. The frontier is crossed by the col du Pourtalet. Access to the crossings accounts for Pau's strategic importance. Pau is located 30 km from Tarbes and Lourdes, 25 km from Oloron; the conglomeration of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz is at Bordeaux 190 km. To the north: Buros and Morlaàs To the east: Bizanos and Idron To the south: Gelos and Jurançon To the west: Lons and Billère Pau is served by the Pau Pyrénées Airport 10 km away. Limited scheduled flights serve Amsterdam, Southampton, Dublin and Paris. A TGV rail line runs from Bayonne to Toulouse; the A64 autoroute goes to the east. The A65 autoroute was opened in December 2010, linking Pau with the Dordogne. The
A Lay Abbey was a basic component of the Middle Ages in the western foothills of the northern Pyrenees. The adjective lay, it is possible to identify a hundred lay abbeys, some only by conjecture due to the disappearance of the texts. The founding principle was the creation of a parish by a lord or by a large farmer, sometimes small, in order to tithe, so that he could maintain a church. Although he was not a member of the church, the lord called himself Father, a term appearing in the 11th century; the meaning of "father", came from the Latin abbatus which came from the Hebrew abba. The Father's house was distinctive called the abadia and was to a certain extent the foundation of a parish. Considering that a tithe is one tenth of the income, only thirty farms were sufficient to build a viable lay abbey. Lay abbeys existed in the Béarn, the Bigorre and their margins. To the west, the Soule, to the north Chalosse and the Tursan south to Armagnac, the Astarac, the Adour valley. Overall, the inner basin of the Adour.
There were no lay abbeys beyond.. According to the assumptions made based on the theses of Pierre de Marca these foundations followed the Carolingian Empire, when Islam was approaching the Pyrenees. Faced with the threat of invasion, illustrated by the Viking incursions into the Adour in the 9th century, the church tolerated these foundations that allowed it to establish its presence in areas of recent or uncertain evangelization; this interpretation is discussed by modern archeo-geographers. They see local customs of tithe distribution continuing in this form; some lay abbeys became successful, with powerful lords, others remained modest parishes, or sometimes fell into disuse and were taken over by monastic abbeys, such as the Abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde for example. In the late Middle Ages, many conflicts occurred with the Church who saw itself deprived of income while no longer weighing the threat of Islam, it was the same in Dauphiné, freed from the Saracens and the Normans in 975 living a period of feudal anarchy detrimental to ecclesiastical lordships until the end of the 12th century and the arrival of reforming bishops.
There may be two or more lay abbeys in one commune. In old Béarn a lay abbey was entitled to an income or religious rights to be held by a lay priest and, transmitted to his descendants; some of these abbeys were allowed to confer nobility on their owner. This was the case, for example, of the lay abbey of Aramits, built in "domengeadure", to say as a noble house by Gaston Phoebus around 1376; the Aramits family, whose spelling varied over time remained owners of the area until the day the son of the famous musketeer immortalized by Alexandre Dumas sold it to a cousin. It is common to confuse "Father of the clergy" and "Father priest" Alexandre Dumas was no exception with his character Aramis in The Three Musketeers. A facsimile of Henry Aramitz, he is a religious priest, or a bishop; the model of his character was a lay priest and Protestant. Marie of Aramitz was the sister of Charles Aramitz, his father and she was the wife of Jean Peyrer, another lay priest. From this union was born Jean-Armand du Peyrer the famous Count of Troisville.
According to Paul Raymond, there were two Aramits lay abbeys: Abadie-Jusan. In the absence of cartularies, burrows or notaries, it is possible to distinguish some secular abbeys by indications, such as a church in the countryside, away from the village and sometimes flanked by a large house called Labadie on maps. There are Castèth or Lassalle. In some cases, there are fortified churches, formed in part with a tower, or a gatehouse, a home; the name Abadie and its derivatives Labadie and Labadiole is the most common surname in the Hautes-Pyrenees, while there is the surname Aphatie found in la Soule
Gabaston is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Gabaston is watered by the Gabas river; the river was known as the fluvius gavasensis in 982. Piers Gaveston, Gascon knight, favorite of King Edward II of England. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
Baleix is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Baleichoises. Baleix is located in the Montanérès overlooking the Lées Valley some 26 km north-east of Pau and 10 km south of Lembeye. Access to the commune is by the D7 road from Saint-Jammes in the west which passes through the length of the commune and the village and continues east to Casteide-Doat; the D145 comes from Lespourcy in the south-west and passes through the village to continue north to Anoye. Apart from the village there is the hamlet of Tisné north-east of the village; the commune is farmland with a few scattered small forests. The Lées flows through the east of the commune from the south and continues north to join the Adour near Aire-sur-l'Adour; the Petit Lées comes from the south and flows north-east through the commune to join the Lées. Michel Grosclaude said that etymologically the name comes from the Gascon Balèch meaning "plateau".
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Lescar: Cartulary of Lescar Marca: Pierre de Marca, History of Béarn. Fors de Béarn Census: Census of Béarn Terrier: The Terrier of Baleix. Paul Raymond noted on page 20 of his 1863 dictionary that in 1385 there were 22 fires and it depended on the bailiwick of Pau. Baleix fief was subject to the Viscounts of Béarn; the commune has long been occupied as evidenced by the discovery of a fortified camp surrounded by a moat with visible remains of earthworks. During the medieval period the commune was a member of the Commandery of the Order of Malta of Caubin and Morlaàs. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of four inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Pays de Morlaàs.
The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: A Farmhouse at Sarthou A House at Jean David A House at Castille The Bourdallé House The Coulomé Farmhouse The Bélengou House The Arnautou House at Clos Houses and Farms The Parish Church of Saint-Martin is registered as an historical monument; the Church contains a large number of items that are registered as historical objects. For a complete list with links to descriptions click here. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Archaeological Map of Gaul, Archaeological pre-inventory published under the responsibility of Michel Provost, Pyrénées-Atlantiques Baleix on Lion1906 Baleix on the 1750 Cassini Map Baleix on the INSEE website INSEE
Béarnese is a dialect of Gascon spoken in Béarn. As a written language, it benefited from the fact that Béarn was an independent state from the mid-14th century to 1620. Béarnese was used in legal and administrative documents long after most other Gascon provinces were incorporated into France.. Béarnese is the most prominent variety of Gascon, it is used in the normativization attempts to reach a standard Gascon and is the most dialect to succeed, due to the stronger cultural identity and output of this area. A 1982 survey of the inhabitants of Béarn indicated that 51% of the population spoke Béarnese, 70% understood it, 85% were in favor of preserving the language. However, use of the language has declined over recent years as Béarnese is transmitted to younger generations within the family. There is a revival of focus on the language which has improved the situation, leading children to be taught the language in school; the majority of the cultural associations consider Gascon an Occitan dialect.
However, other authorities consider them to be distinct languages, including Jean Lafitte, publisher of Ligam-DiGam, a linguistic and lexicography review of Gascon. A detailed sociolinguistic study presenting the current status of the language has been made in 2004 by B. Moreux: the majority of native speakers have learned it orally, tend to be older. On the other hand, the proponents for its maintenance and revival are classified into three groups: Béarnists and Occitanists, terms which summarize the regional focus they give to their language of interest: Béarn, Gascony or Occitania. Concerning literature and poems, the first important book was a Béarnese translation of the Psalms of David by Arnaud de Salette, at the end of the 16th century, contemporary with the Gascon translation of these Psalms by Pey de Garros. Both translations were ordered by Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre and mother of Henry IV of France, to be used at Protestant churches. Henri IV was first Enric III de Navarra, the king of this independent Calvinist and Occitan-speaking state.
The Béarnese dialect was his native language that he used in letters to his subjects. During the 17th century, the Béarnese writer Jean-Henri Fondeville composed plays such as La Pastorala deu Paisan and his anti-Calvinist Eglògas. Cyprien Despourrins is one of the main 18th-century Béarnese poets. From the 19th century we can mention poet Xavier Navarrot and Alexis Peyret, who emigrated to Argentina for political reasons where he edited his Béarnese poetry. After the creation of the Felibrige, the Escole Gastoû Fèbus was created as the Béarnese part of Frédéric Mistral's and Joseph Roumanille's academy. Simin Palay, one of its most prominent members, published a dictionary. Anatole, Cristian - Lafont, Robert. Nouvelle histoire de la littérature occitane. París: P. U. F. 1970. Molyneux R-G. Grammar and Vocabulary of the language of Bearn. For Beginners. Pyremonde/PrinciNegue. ISBN 978-2-84618-095-5. Moreux, B.. Bearnais and Gascon today: language behavior and perception; the International Journal of the Sociology of Language,169:25-62.
The Ostau Bearnés
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a