A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member; the term column applies to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal, made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post, supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns.
In Ancient Egyptian architecture as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds, like papyrus and palm. Their form is thought to derive from archaic reed-built shrines. Carved from stone, the columns were decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, ritual imagery and natural motifs. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. One of the most important type are the papyriform columns; the origin of these columns goes back to the 5th Dynasty. They are composed of lotus stems which are drawn together into a bundle decorated with bands: the capital, instead of opening out into the shape of a bellflower, swells out and narrows again like a flower in bud; the base, which tapers to take the shape of a half-sphere like the stem of the lotus, has a continuously recurring decoration of stipules.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians the massive stone columns erected in Persepolis. They included double-bull structures in their capitals; the Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 × 70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I. Many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. Tall columns with bull's head capitals were used for porticoes and to support the roofs of the hypostylehall inspired by the ancient Egyptian precedent. Since the columns carried timber beams rather than stine, they could be taller and more widerly spaced than Egyptian ones; the Minoans used whole tree-trunks turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a base set in the stylobate and topped by a simple round capital. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos; the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals.
These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. The importance of columns and their reference to palaces and therefore authority is evidenced in their use in heraldic motifs such as the famous lion-gate of Mycenae where two lions stand each side of a column. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their stone bases have and through these we may see their use and arrangement in these palace buildings; the Egyptians and other civilizations used columns for the practical purpose of holding up the roof inside a building, preferring outside walls to be decorated with reliefs or painting, but the Ancient Greeks, followed by the Romans, loved to use them on the outside as well, the extensive use of columns on the interior and exterior of buildings is one of the most characteristic features of classical architecture, in buildings like the Parthenon. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most distinguished by the form of the column and its various elements.
Their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders. Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became much less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages; the classical forms were abandoned in both Byzantine architecture and the Romanesque and Gothic architecture of Europe in favour of more flexible forms, with capitals using various types of foliage decoration, in the West scenes with figures carved in relief. Furing the Romanesque period, builders continued to reuse and imitate ancient Roman columns wherever possible. Where new, the emphasis was as illustrated by twisted columns, they were decorated with mosaics. Renaissance architecture was keen to revive the classical vocabulary and styles, the informed use and variation of the classical orders remained fundamental to the training of architects throughout Baroque and Neo-classical architecture. Early columns were constructed of some out of a single piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture.
Other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of mortared or dry-fit together. In many classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a centre hole or depression so that they could be pegged together, using stone or metal pins; the design of
An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform. Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman civilization, the architectural orders are the styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by its proportions and characteristic profiles and details, most recognizable by the type of column employed; the three orders of architecture—the Doric and Corinthian—originated in Greece. To these the Romans added, in practice if not in name, the Tuscan, which they made simpler than Doric, the Composite, more ornamental than the Corinthian; the architectural order of a classical building is akin to the key of classical music. It is established by certain modules like the intervals of music, it raises certain expectations in an audience attuned to its language. Whereas the orders were structural in Ancient Greek architecture, which made little use of the arch until its late period, in Roman architecture where the arch was dominant, the orders became decorative elements except in porticos and similar uses.
Columns turned into pilasters. This treatment continued after the conscious and "correct" use of the orders following Roman models, returned in the Italian Renaissance. Greek Revival architecture, inspired by increasing knowledge of Greek originals, returned to more authentic models, including ones from early periods; each style has distinctive capitals at the top of columns and horizontal entablatures which it supports, while the rest of the building does not in itself vary between the orders. The column shaft and base varies with the order, is sometimes articulated with vertical hollow grooves known as fluting; the shaft is wider at the bottom than at the top, because its entasis, beginning a third of the way up, imperceptibly makes the column more slender at the top, although some Doric columns early Greek ones, are visibly "flared", with straight profiles that narrow going up the shaft. The capital rests on the shaft, it has a load-bearing function, which concentrates the weight of the entablature on the supportive column, but it serves an aesthetic purpose.
The necking is visually separated by one or many grooves. The echinus lies atop the necking, it is a circular block that bulges outwards towards the top to support the abacus, a square or shaped block that in turn supports the entablature. The entablature consists of three horizontal layers, all of which are visually separated from each other using moldings or bands. In Roman and post-Renaissance work, the entablature may be carried from column to column in the form of an arch that springs from the column that bears its weight, retaining its divisions and sculptural enrichment, if any. There are names for all the many parts of the orders; the height of columns are calculated in terms of a ratio between the diameter of the shaft at its base and the height of the column. A Doric column can be described as seven diameters high, an Ionic column as eight diameters high and a Corinthian column nine diameters high, although the actual ratios used vary in both ancient and revived examples, but keeping to the trend of increasing slimness between the orders.
Sometimes this is phrased as "lower diameters high", to establish which part of the shaft has been measured. There are three distinct orders in Ancient Greek architecture: Doric and Corinthian; these three were adopted by the Romans. The Roman adoption of the Greek orders took place in the 1st century BC; the three Ancient Greek orders have since been used in neo-classical European architecture. Sometimes the Doric order is considered the earliest order, but there is no evidence to support this. Rather, the Doric and Ionic orders seem to have appeared at around the same time, the Ionic in eastern Greece and the Doric in the west and mainland. Both the Doric and the Ionic order appear to have originated in wood; the Temple of Hera in Olympia is the oldest well-preserved temple of Doric architecture. It was built just after 600 BC; the Doric order spread across Greece and into Sicily where it was the chief order for monumental architecture for 800 years. Early Greeks were no doubt aware of the use of stone columns with bases and capitals in Ancient Egyptian architecture, that of other Near Eastern cultures, although there they were used in interiors, rather than as a dominant feature of all or part of exteriors, in the Greek style.
The Doric order originated on western Greece. It is the simplest of the orders, characterized by short, heavy columns with plain, round capitals and no base. With a height, only four to eight times its diameter, the columns are the most squat of all orders; the shaft of the Doric order is channeled with 16 flutes. The capital consists of a necking or Annulet, a simple ring; the echinus is convex, or circular cushion like stone, the abacus is square slab of stone. Above the capital is a square abacus connecting the capital to the entablature; the Entablature is divided into three horizontal registers, the lower part of, either smooth or divided by horizontal lines. The upper half is distinctive for the Doric order; the frieze of the Doric entablature is divided into metopes. A triglyph is a unit consisting of three vertical bands. Metopes are the carved reliefs between two triglyphs; the Greek forms of the Doric order come without an individual
Waltham Abbey Church
The Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross and St Lawrence is the parish church of the town of Waltham Abbey, England. It has been a place of worship since the 7th century; the present building dates from the early 12th century and is an example of Norman architecture. To the east of the existing church are traces of an enormous eastward enlargement of the building, begun following the re-foundation of the abbey in 1177. In the Late Middle Ages, Waltham was one of the largest church buildings in England and a major site of pilgrimage, it is still an active parish church for the town. The monastic buildings and those parts of the church east of the crossing were demolished at the dissolution, the Norman crossing tower and transepts collapsed in 1553; the present-day church consists of the nave of the Norman abbey church, the 14th-century lady chapel and west wall, a 16th-century west tower, added after the dissolution. King Harold Godwinson is said to be buried in the present churchyard. Archaeological investigations between 1984 and 1991 have revealed a much earlier origin of the site than had been believed.
There is evidence for five distinct churches at Waltham. Traces of the flint rubble foundations of a 7th-century wooden church have been found under the choir of the present building. A proposed date of circa 610 would place its construction in the reign of Sæberht of Essex, noted for his church-building activities. Other finds included a 7th-century Kentish jewellery book-clasp depicting eagles grasping a fish. During the reign of King Offa of Mercia, whose rule extended to Essex in the late 8th century, a building of Barnack stone was constructed around the earlier wooden church, it was half the length of the present building, was a porticus-type church with chambers along each side of the nave. It was intended as a minster serving several communities in the area. At the beginning of the 11th century, the church and manor of Waltham were held by an Anglo-Danish Thegn called Tovi the Proud. A legend, recorded in the 12th century De Inventione Sanctœ Crucis Nostrœ or "Waltham Chronicle", relates that, in about 1016, the blacksmith at another estate belonging to Tovi, at Montacute near Glastonbury, found a large black flint crucifix buried at the top of a hill, after a dream.
Tovi had the cross loaded onto an ox-cart, but the oxen would only go in one direction and continued every day until they reached Waltham, a journey of some 150 miles. This Holy Rood or Cross soon became the subject of pilgrimage. Tovi is said to have rebuilt the church, but modern evidence suggests that he retained the 8th century fabric of the building. After Tovi's death, his son fell into the estate passed to King Edward the Confessor, he gave it to Harold Godwinson, who rebuilt and richly endowed the church, dedicated in 1060. The new church was placed under a college of twelve married priests. Evidence suggests that stone and some of the foundations of the previous church were re-used for the new building, which had a nave the same length as the present one, aisles, a large transept and a small eastern apse. Starting in about 1090, Harold's building was demolished and a new church with crossing tower and transepts was begun in the Norman style, it reused the Saxon foundations and some of the stonework, with additional stone from Reigate and Caen in Normandy.
The church was cruciform, with two smaller towers at the west end. The nave had massive Norman pillars with incised decoration and semi-circular arches supporting a triforium and clerestorey above. A long eastern chapel may have housed the Holy Cross; the rebuilding, which had started at the eastern end, was completed by about 1150. Although there is a marked stylistic resemblance to Durham Cathedral, a recent study of the features of the church and comparison with other sites has concluded that the master mason at Waltham was trained in East Anglia; this construction is the fabric that has survived to the present. In 1177, the abbey was re-founded once more, this time as an Augustinian priory with 16 canons, by Henry II as part of his penance for the murder of Thomas Becket; the rebuilding, in the Early English style, made the abbey far more extensive than the original Norman establishment, as can be seen today from traces in the abbey grounds. Those parts of the Norman church east of the Norman crossing were demolished, a new church, with its own nave, a second pair of transepts and a further tower at the new crossing, were constructed.
The Norman nave was retained as a parish church, divided from the new work by a screen. The whole building was now longer than Winchester Cathedral. A cloister was built to the north of the new nave. A short passage that led into the cloister still exists. In 1184, Henry raised the status of the church to an abbey; the completed abbey was re-dedicated on 30 September 1242, by William, Bishop of Norwich. The Holy Cross attracted many pilgrims and the Abbey became a popular place for overnight stays for kings and other notables hunting in Waltham Forest. Henry VIII was a frequent visitor and is said to have had a house or lodge at Romeland, adjacent to the abbey. During their summer progress of 1532, Henry an
Alton is a market town and civil parish in Hampshire, near the source of the River Wey. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 17,816. Alton was recorded in the Domesday Survey of 1086 as Aoltone. During the Saxon period Alton was known as Aweltun; the Battle of Alton occurred in the town during the English Civil War. It has connections with Sweet Fanny Adams and Jane Austen; the Alton Hoard of Iron Age coins and jewellery was found in the vicinity of the town in 1996 and is now in the British Museum. A Roman road ran from Chichester to Silchester and there is evidence of a Roman posting station at Neatham near Alton called Vindomis, a ford across the River Wey. Centuries an Anglo-Saxon settlement was established in the area and a large 7th century cemetery has been discovered during building excavations, it contained a selection of grave goods which included the Alton Buckle, on display in the Curtis Museum, is considered to be the finest piece of Anglo Saxon craftsmanship found in Hampshire.
The buckle was found in the grave of a warrior, has a silver-gilt body, set with garnets and glass. The River Wey has a source in the town, the name Alton comes from an Anglo-Saxon word "aewielltun" meaning "farmstead at the source of the river". In 1001 Danish forces invaded England during the First Battle of Alton; when they reached Alton, the forces of Wessex fought against them. About 81 Englishman were killed, including Ethelwerd the King's high-steward, Leofric of Whitchurch, Leofwin the King's high-steward, Wulfhere a bishop's thane, Godwin of Worthy, Bishop Elfsy's son. Danish casualties were higher, but the Danes won the battle and fleeing Englishmen took refuge in Winchester. Alton is listed as having the most valuable recorded market in the Domesday Book under the name Aoltone in the'Odingeton Hundred — Hantescire'; the Treaty of Alton was an agreement signed in 1101 between William the Conqueror's eldest son Robert, Duke of Normandy and his brother Henry I of England. Henry had seized the throne.
Robert returned landing in Portsmouth. The two brothers agreed terms which formed the Treaty of Alton. Part of the main street through Alton is called Normandy Street reflecting this event; the first recorded market in Alton was in 1232, although the market at Neatham first recorded in the Domesday Book may have been in the town. Blome wrote in 1673 of a'market on Saturdays, great for provisions, where are sold good store of living cattle'; the Saturday market is featured on Kitchin's map of Hampshire which marks the town as Alton Mt. Sat.1307 was, in fact, the first year of Edward II’s reign but Edmund of Woodstock was not lord of the manor then. According to the Victoria County History:- ‘In 1273 Edward I granted the manor to his mother, Queen Eleanor, who died in 1291, when it reverted to the Crown and was granted in 1299 as dower to his second wife, Margaret of France. On the death of Queen Margaret in 1317, it again came to the Crown, Edward II gave it in 1319 to his brother Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent.’As can be seen, Queen Margaret held the manor until 1317 and so the fair could not have been granted to Edmund of Woodstock in 1307.
The correct date for the grant seems to be 22 November 1320. The grant was for a 9-day fair - the feast of Whitsuntide and seven days after; the two main manors in Alton - Alton Eastbrook and Alton Westbrook - had a fair each. That of Alton Eastbrook has no extant charter, may never have had one, it was held on St Lawrence’s Day and so its origin was the patronal festival. The religious aspect would have ceased; this fair seems to have been held on Crown Close in the early 19th century. When this land was built upon, the fair moved and was held where the Westbrook fair was - the Market Place, various meadows and the Butts; the date of the Eastbrook fair was changed to Michaelmas in the mid-18th century as it came during harvest time and the farmers were not satisfied. Some accounts for this fair in the early 18th century do survive and show that there was a cheese fair as well the usual mix of travelling and local people with stalls and stands - people selling lace, books, bodices, sugar plums, toys and knives, to name but a few.
By the late 19th century, this fair was said to be for horses and hops. Alton still has an annual fair. Eggar's School was founded in 1640 by John Eggar of Moungomeries as the Free Grammar School, it became known as Eggar's Grammar School. It occupied a site in Anstey Road until it moved to a new site in Holybourne in 1969. A battle was fought in Alton during the English Civil War. A small Royalist force was quartered in the town when on 13 December 1643 they were surprised by a Parliamentary army of around 5,000 men; the Royalist cavalry fled, leaving his infantry to fight. Outnumbered, the Royalists were forced into the Church of St Lawrence, where Bolle was killed along with many of his men. Over 700 Royalist soldiers were captured and bullet holes from the battle are still visible in the church today. In 1665, Alton suffered an outbreak of bubonic plague, but soon recovered. On Saturday, 24 August 1867, an eight-year-old girl, Fanny Adams, was murdered in Alton, her assailant, Frederick Baker, a local solicitor's clerk, was one of the last criminals to be executed in Winchester.
Fanny Adams' grave can still be seen in Alton cemetery. The br
Tower of London
The Tower of London Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill, it was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite; the castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although, not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence; as a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion under Kings Richard I, Henry III, Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries; the general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite activity on the site.
The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times, controlling it has been important to controlling the country; the Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public record office, the home of the Crown Jewels of England. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle; this was a trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century, the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle, its defences lagged behind developments to deal with artillery; the peak period of the castle's use as a prison was the 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, Sir Walter Raleigh, Elizabeth Throckmorton, were held within its walls.
This use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower". Despite its enduring reputation as a place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within the Tower before the World Wars of the 20th century. Executions were more held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period. In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of the vacant post-medieval structures. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage. After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired, the castle reopened to the public. Today, the Tower of London is one of the country's most popular tourist attractions.
Under the ceremonial charge of the Constable of the Tower, operated by the Resident Governor of the Tower of London and Keeper of the Jewel House, the property is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site. The Tower was orientated with its strongest and most impressive defences overlooking Saxon London, which archaeologist Alan Vince suggests was deliberate, it stood out to traffic on the River Thames. The castle enclosures; the innermost ward is the earliest phase of the castle. Encircling it to the north and west is the inner ward, built during the reign of Richard I. There is the outer ward which encompasses the castle and was built under Edward I. Although there were several phases of expansion after William the Conqueror founded the Tower of London, the general layout has remained the same since Edward I completed his rebuild in 1285; the castle encloses an area of 12 acres with a further 6 acres around the Tower of London constituting the Tower Liberties – land under the direct influence of the castle and cleared for military reasons.
The precursor of the Liberties was laid out in the 13th century when Henry III ordered that a strip of land adjacent to the castle be kept clear. Despite popular fiction, the Tower of London never had a permanent torture chamber, although the basement of the White Tower housed a rack in periods. Tower Wharf was built on the bank of the Thames under Edward I and was expanded to its current size during the reign of Richard II; the White Tower is a keep, the strongest structure in a medieval castle, contained lodgings suitable for the lord – in this case, the king or his representative. According to military historian Allen Brown, "The great tower was by virtue of its strength and lordly accommodation, the donjon par excellence"; as one of the largest keeps in the Christian world, the White Tower has been described as "the most complete eleventh-century palace in Europe". The White Tower, not including its projecting corner towers, measures 36 by 32 metres at the base, is 27 m high at the southern battlements.
The structure was three storeys high, comprising a basement floor, an entrance level, an upper floor. The entrance, as is usual in Norman keeps, was above ground
Repton is a village and civil parish in the South Derbyshire district of Derbyshire, located on the edge of the River Trent floodplain, about 4.5 miles north of Swadlincote. The population taken at the 2001 Census was 2,707. Repton is close to the county boundary with neighbouring Staffordshire and about 4.5 miles northeast of Burton upon Trent. The village is noted for St Wystan's Church, Repton School and the Anglo-Saxon Repton Abbey and medieval Repton Priory. Christianity was reintroduced to the Midlands at Repton, where some of the Mercian royal family under Peada were baptised in AD 653. Soon a double abbey under an abbess was built. In 669 the Bishop of Mercia translated his see from Repton to Lichfield. Offa, King of Mercia, seemed to resent his own bishops paying allegiance to the Archbishop of Canterbury in Kent who, while under Offa's control, was not of his own kingdom of Mercia. Offa therefore created his own Archdiocese of Lichfield, which presided over all the bishops from the Humber to the Thames.
Repton was thus the forebear of the archdiocese of Lichfield, a third archdiocese of the English church: Lichfield, the other two being Canterbury and York. This lasted for only 16 years, before Mercia returned to being under the Archbishopric of Canterbury. At the centre of the village is the Church of England parish church dedicated to Saint Wystan, a prince of Mercia, murdered by his guardian in 849, in the reign of Wiglaf. In 873–74 the Danish Great Heathen Army overwintered at Repton, one of only a few places in England where a Viking winter camp has been located. Excavations from 1974 to 1988 found a D-shaped earthwork on a bluff, overlooking an arm of the River Trent, opened a mound containing a mass grave; the mass grave contained the remains of at least 264 individuals. The bones were disarticulated and jumbled together. Forensic study revealed that the individuals ranged in age from their late teens to about forty, four men to every woman. Five associated pennies fit well with the overwintering date of 873–74.
The absence of injury marks suggest that the party had died from some kind of contagious disease. An early 18th century account describes how, in the last quarter of the 17th century, Thomas Walker, a workman looking for stone, opened the mound and found the skeleton of a "nine foot tall" man in a stone coffin in the remains of a building. According to the account, human bones had been neatly stacked around the coffin, it seems that Walker just threw most of the bones back once he had removed the stone he was seeking, but he was recorded as having kept the skull of the principal burial. The church is notable for its Anglo-Saxon crypt, built in the 8th century AD as a mausoleum for the Mercian royal family. Wystan, or Wigstan, was a prince of Mercia, murdered by his guardian in 849, in the reign of Wiglaf, his remains were buried in the crypt at Repton and miracles were ascribed to them. Repton proceeded to become a place of pilgrimage. At the north edge of the village is St Wystan's Church, an Anglo-Saxon church dedicated to the Anglo-Saxon Saint Wystan and designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.
The 8th century crypt beneath the church is the burial place to Saint Wigstan, as well as his grandfather, King Wiglaf of Mercia. Buried there is King Æthelbald of Mercia, under whose reign the building was first constructed, for whom it was first converted to a mausoleum. Upon the burial of St Wigstan, the crypt became a place of pilgrimage; the cruciform Anglo-Saxon church itself has had several additions and restorations throughout its history. These include Medieval Gothic north and south aisles in the nave that were rebuilt in the 13th century and widened early in the 14th century, the addition in 1340 of the west tower and recessed spire; the church was restored between 1885 and 1886 by Arthur Blomfield. King Æthelbald of Mercia was buried here in 757 AD. Beornrad of Mercia was buried here Saint Guthlac of Croyland was a monk here in about AD 697. Russell Osman, international footballer, was born here in 1959. King Wiglaf of Mercia was buried here Basil Rathbone lived in his childhood here Saint Wigstan of Mercia was buried here, although his remains were removed to Evesham Abbey Industrialist Walter Somers was born in Repton in 1839.
Elsie Steele, the oldest documented person in Britain at the time of her death, lived at the Dales Residential Home in Fisher Close during the final few years of her life. Page, W. H. ed.. "Houses of Austin canons: The priory of Repton, with the cell of Calke". A History of the County of Derby, Volume 2. Victoria County History. Pp. 58–63. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Derbyshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 303–308. ISBN 0-14-071008-6. Swanton, Michael; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92129-5. Repton in the Domesday Book Repton: historical and genealogical information at GENUKI
Anglo-Saxon architecture was a period in the history of architecture in England, parts of Wales, from the mid-5th century until the Norman Conquest of 1066. Anglo-Saxon secular buildings in Britain were simple, constructed using timber with thatch for roofing. No universally accepted. There are, many remains of Anglo-Saxon church architecture. At least fifty churches are of Anglo-Saxon origin with major Anglo-Saxon architectural features, with many more claiming to be, although in some cases the Anglo-Saxon part is small and much-altered, it is impossible to reliably distinguish between pre- and post-Conquest 11th century work in buildings where most parts are additions or alterations. The round-tower church and tower-nave church are distinctive Anglo-Saxon types. All surviving churches, except one timber church, are built of stone or brick, in some cases show evidence of re-used Roman work; the architectural character of Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical buildings range from Celtic influenced architecture in the early period.
In the last decades of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom a more general Romanesque style was introduced from the Continent, as in the now built-over additions to Westminster Abbey made from 1050 onwards influenced by Norman style. In recent decades architectural historians have become less confident that all undocumented minor "Romanesque" features post-date the Norman Conquest. Although once common, it has been incorrect for several decades to use the plain term "Saxon" for anything Anglo-Saxon, than the initial period of settlement in Britain. Early Anglo-Saxon buildings in Britain were simple, constructed using timber with thatch for roofing. Preferring not to settle within the old Roman cities, the Anglo-Saxons built small towns near their centres of agriculture, at fords in rivers or sited to serve as ports. In each town, a main hall was provided with a central hearth; the fall of Roman Britain at the beginning of the fifth century, according to Bede, allowed an influx of invaders from northern Germany including the Angles and Saxons.
The Angles and the Saxons had their own religion. St Patrick, a Romano-British man, converted Ireland to Christianity, from where much of Western Scotland was converted and much of Northumbria was reconverted. Links were established between the Christian communities in Ireland and those in Wales and the West country at sites such as St Piran's Oratory which represents some of the earliest Christian architecture extant on the British mainland; the architecture though was influenced by Coptic monasticism. Examples of this can be seen today in the form of rectangular dry-stone corbelled structures such as at Gallarus Oratory and Illauntannig, Ireland. Christianity and Irish influence came to England through missionaries. In 635, a centre of Celtic Christianity was established at Lindisfarne, where St Aidan founded a monastery. In 597, the mission of Augustine from Rome came to England to convert the southern Anglo-Saxons, founded the first cathedral and a Benedictine monastery at Canterbury; these churches consisted of a nave with side chambers.
In 664 a synod was held at Whitby and leaders of both the Celtic and Roman Church united the church throughout England. Larger churches developed for example at Brixworth; the Romano-British populations of Wales, the Westcountry, Cumbria experienced a degree of autonomy from Anglo-Saxon influence, represented by distinct linguistic and architectural traditions, having much in common with the Irish and Breton cultures across the Celtic Sea, allying themselves with the Viking invaders. This was however elided by centuries of English dominance. Characteristically circular buildings as opposed to rectangular in stone as well as timber, along with sculptured Celtic crosses, holy wells and the reoccupation of Iron Age and Roman sites from hillforts such as Cadbury Castle, promontory hillforts such as Tintagel, enclosed settlements called Rounds characterise the western Sub-Roman Period up to the 8th century in southwest England and continue much in independent Wales at post-Roman cities such as Caerleon and Carmarthen.
Subsequent Danish invasion marked a period of destruction of many buildings in Anglo-Saxon England, including in 793 the raid on Lindisfarne. Buildings including cathedrals were rebuilt, the threat of conflict had an inevitable influence on the architecture of the time. During and after the reign of Alfred the Great, Anglo-Saxon towns were fortified. Contemporary defensive banks and ditches can still be seen today as a result of this. Oxford is an example of one of these fortified towns, where the eleventh century stone tower of St. Michael's church has prominent position beside the former site of the North gate; the building of church towers, replacing the basilican narthex or West porch, can be attributed to this late period of Anglo-Saxon architecture. The earliest surviving Anglo-Saxon architecture dates from the 7th century. Church designs at the time differed between the North of England, which are narrow with square ended chancels. Exceptions to this include Winchester; the most complete example of the northern type of church is at Escomb, but in the south there is no surviving com