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Abandinus was a name used to refer to a Celtic god or male spirit worshipped in Godmanchester in Cambridgeshire during the Romano-Celtic period. Abandinus is represented in Britain on a single altarstone, he is unknown throughout the rest of the Roman Empire and is therefore thought to have been a local god of the Roman fort at Godmanchester in Cambridgeshire associated with either a natural spring or a stream in the neighbourhoodThe Roman fort at Godmanchester, a strategic site on Ermine Street at the crossing of the River Great Ouse, is thought to have been called Durovigutum. The god is known only from an inscribed bronze feather likely some sort of votive object, dedicated to him; the inscription on the bronze feather reads: "DEO ABANDINO VATIAVCVS D S D" ‘To the god Abandinus, Vatiacus dedicates this out of his own funds’. The semantics of the theonym are unknown. All the same, linguistic knowledge of Proto-Celtic lexis permits a narrowing of the possibilities of the theonym's semantics.

The name could be interpreted as an extended form of a stem composed of Proto-Celtic elements deriving from Proto-Indo-European roots *ad- ‘to’ + either *bʰend- ‘sing, rejoice’ or *bʰendʰ- ‘bind’. Along these lines, the name would mean ‘ who sings to ’ or ‘ who binds to.’ However, it is possible to see the name as an extended form of a variant form of the Proto-Celtic word *abon- ‘river,’ derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *ab-, *h₂eb- ‘water, river’. The shorter element *abo- existed in the Proto-Celtic hydronomy as a word for ‘river’ or ‘water.’ It is evident in Romano-Celtic as an unspecific variant name for the rivers flowing into the Humber, documented as Abus. This element developed in Modern Welsh as aber- meaning ‘river estuary’; this *abo- element could have been the source of the Ab-- element in the theonym Abandinus. So the name can be analysed as *Ab-Andinus ‘Andinus of the River,’ Andinus being a theonym attested elsewhere in the ancient Roman Empire


Superstripes is a generic name for a phase with spatial broken symmetry that favors the onset of superconducting or superfluid quantum order. This scenario emerged in the 1990s when no-homogeneous metallic heterostructures at the atomic limit with a broken spatial symmetry have been found to favor superconductivity. Before a broken spatial symmetry was expected to suppress the superconducting order; the driving mechanism for the amplification of the superconductivity critical temperature in superstripes matter has been proposed to be the shape resonance in the energy gap parameters ∆n, a type of Fano resonance for coexisting condensates. The superstripes show multigap superconductivity near a 2.5 Lifshitz transition where the renormalization of chemical potential at the metal-to-superconductor transition is not negligeable and the self-consistent solution of the gaps equation is required. The superstripes lattice scenario is made of puddles of multigap superstripes matter forming a superconducting network where different gaps are not only different in different portions of the k-space but in different portions of the real space with a complex scale free distribution of Josephson junctions.

The term superstripes was introduced in 2000 at the international conference on "Stripes and High Tc Superconductivity" held in Rome to describe the particular phase of matter where a broken symmetry appearing at a transition from a phase with higher dimensionality N to a phase with lower dimensionality N-1 favors the superconducting or superfluid phase and it could increase the normal to superconducting transition temperature with the possible emergence of high-temperature superconductivity. The term superstripes scenario was introduced to make the key difference with the stripes scenario where the phase transition from a phase with higher dimensionality N to the phase with broken symmetry and lower dimensionality competes and suppresses the transition temperature to the superfluid phase and favors modulated striped magnetic ordering. In the broken symmetry of superstripes phase the structural modulation coexists and favors high-temperature superconductivity; the prediction of high-temperature superconductivity transition temperatures is rightly considered to be one of the most difficult problems in theoretical physics.

The problem remained elusive for many years since these materials have a complex structure making unuseful theoretical modelling for a homogeneous system. The advances in experimental investigation on local lattice fluctuations have driven the community to the conclusion that it is a problem of quantum physics in complex matter. A growing paradigm for high-temperature superconductivity in superstripes is that a key term is the quantum interference effect between pairing channels, i.e. a resonance in the exchange-like, Josephson-like pair transfer term between different condensates. The quantum configuration interaction between different pairing channels is a particular case of shape resonance belonging to the group of Fano Feshbach resonances in atomic and nuclear physics; the critical temperature shows a suppression, due to a Fano antiresonance, when the chemical potential is tuned at a band edge where a new Fermi surface spot appears i.e. an "electronic topological transition" or 2.5 Lifshitz transition or, a metal-to-metal topological transition.

The Tc amplification is switched on when the chemical potential is tuned above the band edge in an energy region away from the band edge of the order of 1 or 2 times the energy cut off of the pairing interaction. The Tc is further amplified at the shape resonance if in this range the Fermi surface of the appearing fermi surface spot changes its dimensionality; the tuning of the chemical potential at the shape resonance can be obtained by changing: the charge density and/or the superlattice structural parameters, and/or the superlattice misfit strain and/or the disorder. Direct evidence for shape resonances in superstripes matter is provided by the anomalous variation of the isotope effect on the critical temperature by tuning the chemical potential, it was known. In 1993 it was proposed that these materials belong to a particular class of materials called heterostructures at atomic limit made of a superlattice of superconducting atomic layers intercalated by a different material with the role of spacer.

All new high-temperature superconducting materials discovered in the years 2001–2013 are heterostructures at atomic limit made of the active atomic layers: honeycomb boron layer in diborides, graphene in intercalated graphite, CoO2 atomic bbc monolayers in cobaltates, FeAs atomic fluorite monolayers in pnictides, FeSe atomic fluorite monolayers in selenides. In these materials the joint effect of increasing the lattice misfit strain to a critical value, tuning the chemical potential near a Lifshitz transition in presence of electron-electron interactions induce a lattice instability with formation of the network of superconducting striped puddles in an insulating or metallic background; this complex scenario has been called "superstripes scenario" where the 2D atomic layers show functional lattice inhomogeneities: "ripples puddles" of local lattice distortion have been observed in La2CuO4+y in Bi222. And photoinduced effects. Superstripes (

Alderney camps

The Alderney camps were prison camps built and operated by Nazi Germany during its World War II occupation of the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands were the only part of the British Isles to be occupied; when a team of specialists came to Alderney to investigate, the Alderney Government shut it down, saying they would not allow them to carry on. The Nazis built four camps on Alderney; the Nazi Organisation Todt operated each subcamp and used forced labour to build fortifications in Alderney including bunkers, gun emplacements, air raid shelters and concrete fortifications. The camps commenced operating in January 1942, they were named after the Frisian Islands. The four camps on the Island had a total inmate population that fluctuated but is estimated at about 6,000. Exact details are impossible to determine; the two work camps were: Lager Borkum Lager HelgolandThe Borkum and Helgoland camps were "volunteer" labour camps and the labourers in those camps were treated harshly but better than the inmates at the Sylt and Norderney camps.

Borkum camp was used for "volunteers" from different countries of Europe. Helgoland camp was used for Russian Organisation Todt workers; the other two camps became concentration camps when they were handed over to be run by the SS from 1 March 1943, they became subcamps of the Neuengamme camp outside Hamburg: Lager Norderney Lager SyltThe prisoners in Lager Sylt and Lager Norderney were slave labourers forced to build the many military fortifications and installations throughout Alderney. Sylt camp held Jewish enforced labourers. Norderney camp housed European and Russian enforced labourers; the Lager Sylt commandant, Karl Tietz had a black French colonial as an under officer. A German naval officer, shocked to see a black man beating up white men from the camp, threatened to shoot the colonial officer if he saw him doing it again. Tietz was brought before a court-martial in April 1943 and sentenced to 18 months' penal servitude for the crime of selling on the black market after he sold cigarettes and valuables he had bought from Dutch OT workers.

In March 1943, Lager Norderney, containing Russian and Polish POWs, Lager Sylt, holding Jews, were placed under the control of the SS, with SS Hauptsturmführer Max List commanding. More than 700 camp inmates lost their lives before the camps were closed and the remaining inmates transferred to France in 1944. There are 397 known graves in Alderney. Apart from malnutrition and ill treatment, there were losses on ships bringing OT workers to or taking them from Alderney. In January 1943 there was a big storm and two ships, the Xaver Dorsch and the Franks, anchored in Alderney harbour were blown ashore onto the beach, they contained about 1,000 Russian OT workers. Kept locked in the holds for two weeks whilst the ships were salvaged resulted in a number of deaths. On 4 July 1944 the Minotaure an ocean going tug sailing from Alderney to St Malo with about 500 OT workers was hit three times by torpedoes but somehow managed to stay afloat, some 250 died with the ship being towed into St Malo. Two of the escort vessels, V-208 and V-210 were sunk.

Documents from the ITS Archives in Germany show prisoners of numerous nationalities were incarcerated in Alderney, with many dying on the island. The causes of death included suicide, being shot, heart failure and explosions. Detailed death certificates were filled out and the deaths were reported to OT in St Malo. After World War II, a court-martial case was prepared against former SS Hauptsturmführer Max List, citing atrocities on Alderney. However, he did not stand trial, is believed to have lived near Hamburg until his death in the 1980s; the four German camps in Alderney have not been preserved or commemorated, aside from a small plaque at the former SS camp Lager Sylt. One camp is now a tourist camping site, while the gates to another form the entrance to the island's rubbish tip; the other two have been left to fall into ruin and become overgrown by brambles

Zhao Sun

Zhao Sun was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Southern Han, serving for about a year as a chancellor. Traditional histories did not provide information on where Zhao Sun was born, he was from a prominent aristocratic family, with his grandfather Zhao Yin's having served as a chancellor during the reign of the late Tang emperor Emperor Xuānzong. Zhao Sun's father Zhao Guangyi, as well as his uncles Zhao Guangfeng and Zhao Guangyin all served in the imperial government in the late Tang times, as well as during Tang's successor state Later Liang. In 908, Later Liang's emperor Zhu Quanzhong sent Zhao Guangyi and another official, Li Yinheng, to bestow the Later Liang vassal, the warlord Liu Yin, the titles of military governor of Qinghai and Jinghai Circuits. After the ceremony, Liu Yin did not allow Zhao or Li to return to the Later Liang court, but kept them to serve on his staff. In 917, when Liu Yin's brother and successor Liu Yan declared himself emperor of a new state of Yue — whose name was shortly after changed to Han and therefore became known as Southern Han — Zhao, Li, another official, Yang Dongqian, were made chancellors.

Despite Zhao's service as Southern Han's chancellor, he had long longed to return to central China, as he felt that, as a member of a prominent Central Plains aristocratic family, it was shameful to serve for a regional state. Knowing this, Liu Yan wanted to comfort him, therefore forged a letter in his handwriting style and sent a secret messenger to Luoyang to summon Zhao Sun and another son Zhao Yi to Southern Han, Zhao Sun and Zhao Yi subsequently took their families and went to Southern Han, their arrivals was a pleasant surprise for Zhao Guangyi, it was said that thereafter he wholeheartedly served Liu Yan. Zhao Sun himself rose in the ranks of the Southern Han imperial government becoming chief imperial scholar and Shangshu Zuocheng, one of the secretaries general at the executive bureau of government. Zhao Guangyi died in 940. After Zhao Guangyi's death, Liu Yan commissioned Zhao Sun as chancellor as well as Menxia Shilang. Zhao Sun himself died in 941. Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms, vol.

62. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 282

Borussia Dortmund II

Borussia Dortmund II are the reserve team of Borussia Dortmund. They play at Stadion Rote Erde; until 2005, the team played as Borussia Dortmund Amateure. The second team of Borussia Dortmund played at the Kreisliga and was promoted to the Bezirksliga in 1957. After a third-place finish in 1957, they were promoted into the Landesliga Westfalen in 1964. In 1969, Borussia Dortmund II won the Landesliga Westfalen eight points clear of Teutonia Lippstadt, gaining promotion into the Westfalenliga, the highest amateur league in Westphalia at the time. Three years the team got relegated into the Landesliga, into the Bezirksliga in 1974. In 1977, the team gained promotion again into the Landesliga. In the 1977–78 season, the team finished fifth, missing out the promotion play-off by just two points; the team returned to the Westfalenliga in 1983 and went on to become one of the leading teams in the league. In 1987, Borussia Dortmund II finished three points ahead of SV Langedreer 04 and gained promotion into the Oberliga Westfalen.

The team finished fourth on the table in 1989, 1991 and 1993, before finishing eighth in 1994, missing out promotion into the newly established Regionalliga West/Südwest. Meanwhile, the team reached the final of the 1991 Westphalia Cup, losing 1–6 against Arminia Bielefeld; because of that, the team was eligible for the only time for the DFB Cup. The team met 1. FC Saarbrucken in the first round of the 1991/92 season, with the Saarland club going through at 5–2 in front of 1,800 fans at the Stadion Rote Erde. Borussia Dortmund continued to play in the Oberliga Westfalen and was runner-up behind FC Gütersloh in 1995. In 1998, under the guidance of coach Michael Skibbe, the team were crowned champions of Oberliga Westfalen with a ten-point advantage ahead of FC Schalke 04 II. In the following season in the Regionalliga, the team finished fourth last, inside the relegation zone; the team, avoided the drop, benefiting from the fact that two higher-ranked teams in Wuppertaler SV and FC 08 Homburg were relegated for failing to pay dues to the league.

In 2000, under coach Edwin Boekamp, the team managed a mid-table finish and qualified for the newly created two-tier Regionalliga in the following season. The team was relegated at the end of the 2000/01 season, finishing second last but managed to gain promotion back into the league under coach Horst Koppel in the following season. After a fifth-place finish in the 2002/03 season, the team stayed in the Regionalliga for a further two years and was relegated back to the Oberliga at the end of the 2004/05 campaign only by a two-goal goal difference against Chemnitzer FC, who managed a goalless draw against the already-relegated KFC Uerdingen 05 in the last round; the team again staged a direct comeback the following season, this time under coach Theo Schneider. In the 2006/07 season, Borussia Dortmund II had more luck than two years ago and managed to avoid relegation on goal difference against Holstein Kiel in the league. In 2008, Borussia Dortmund II finished thirteenth in the Regionialliga and failed to qualify for the newly created 3.

Liga by a four-point margin. A year the team managed to win the Regionalliga West three points ahead of the 1. FC Kaiserslautern and secured promotion to the 3. Liga under coach Theo Schneider. Finishing third from bottom in the 2009/10 season, the team was relegated. In Summer 2011, David Wagner took over as coach of Borussia Dortmund II. With a 5–3 win at Wuppertaler SV Borussia on the final day of the 2011/12 season, the team gained promotion into the 3. Liga again. On 9 August 2014, the Stadion Rote Erde was sold out with 9,999 spectators for the first time in its history at a home match of Borussia Dortmund II, it was Matchday 4 of the 2014/15 3. Liga season at home against SSV Jahn Regensburg; the game was the inauguration of a fan shop near the stadium. Regionalliga West Champions: 2009, 2012 Oberliga Westfalen Champions: 1998, 2002, 2006 Runners-up: 1995 Westphalia Cup Runners-up: 1991 The recent season-by-season performance of the club: With the introduction of the Regionalligas in 1994 and the 3.

Liga in 2008 as the new third tier, below the 2. Bundesliga, all leagues below dropped one tier. In 2000 all clubs from the disbanded Regionalliga West/Südwest from North Rhine-Westphalia joint the Regionalliga Nord, in 2008 these clubs left the league again to join the new Regionalliga West. Borussia Dortmund II plays their matches at the Stadion Rote Erde, which has a capacity of 9,999 for league matches; the stadium belongs to the City of Dortmund. The stadium came under criticism several times due to inadequate space, lack of soil heating and the poor condition of the infrastructure; because of this, Borussia Dortmund is considering the purchase of the stadium. As of 8 December 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official website Borussia Dortmund II at


Cirrhipathes is a genus of black coral from the family Antipathidae. Coral species in this genus are known as whip or wire corals because they exhibit a twisted or coiled morphology. In addition to their colorful appearance, with colors ranging from yellow to red passing through blue and green, these species possess a dark skeleton, characteristic to every black coral. Found in tropical and subtropical areas, these corals are part of the reefs in the Indian and Pacific oceans, at depths greater than 50 metres. Long and unbranched, Cirrhipathes species are attached to coral reefs. Like all corals, Cirrhipathes species are covered by polyps; these polyps are responsible for providing defense and feeding mechanisms in the form of stinging structures known as nematocysts. These structures, which are present in their tentacles, are fired at predators; the characteristic barbed-wire-like appearance of Cirrhipathes species is the result of their inability to retract their polyps. They can grow up to more than three meters in length.

Corals in this genus have different ways of obtaining nutrients. While some species obtain nutrients from their mutualistic interaction with photosynthetic zooxanthellae, others obtain their food by capturing small floating animals with their tentacles. From their interaction with the zooxanthellae, the Cirrhipathes obtain essential molecules and in return and access to sunlight are provided to the zooxanthellae. Furthermore, important habitats that house numerous species of marine organisms are formed by these corals, it is believed that the survival of two species of shrimp depends on these corals. Gaino and Francesca Scoccia. "Female gametes of the black coral Cirrhipathes cfr. anguina from the Indonesian Marine Park of Bunaken." Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 51.3: 119-126. Gaino, Elda, et al. "Sperm morphology in the black coral Cirrhipathes sp.." Invertebrate Biology 127.3: 249-258. Bavestrello, Giorgio, et al. "Helicospiral growth in the whip black coral Cirrhipathes sp.." The Biological Bulletin 222.1: 17-25.

Wagner, Daniel G. Luck, Robert J. Toonen. "2 The Biology and Ecology of Black Corals."Advances in marine biology 63: 67. "Cirrhipathes" at the Encyclopedia of Life de Blainville. "Cirrhipathes". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved April 23, 2015. Advanced Aquarist - Black Corals