George Washington Air Junction
The George Washington Air Junction was a proposed airport for Fairfax County, Virginia. It was designed to be the world's largest airport, larger than those of New York, Berlin, Paris and Philadelphia combined, it was to have the world's longest runways and facilities to accommodate dirigible airships like the Zeppelin. It never opened, the land was seized; the George Washington Air Junction airport was a project of entrepreneur Henry Woodhouse. He was an aviation enthusiast and represented himself as president of the Aerial League of America, although there is no evidence that such an entity existed, he believed that dirigibles were the aircraft of the future, so as a real estate investor, entrepreneur he started planning in 1919 to buy up farms in the Hybla Valley of Fairfax County, Virginia. He bought some 1,500–2,000 acres in the 1920s from different land owners, his idea was to turn the dairy farms into the world's largest airport, with the longest runways anywhere in the world. The airport was to be an international base for all kinds of aircraft.
Woodhouse called his future intended airport the "George Washington Air Junction" because it was on land once owned by George Washington. He was hoping to make the land Washington, D. C.’s commercial national airport. He envisioned the airport as the largest in the world, complete with fields for Zeppelin flights to land after they had crossed the Atlantic from Europe. Woodhouse thought, he developed plans in 1929 to build a runway 7,500 feet long—the world's longest. The Herald Times wrote up an article in 1938 on the Washington Air Junction site, complete with a high altitude picture taken from an airplane looking south, illustrated with the intended layout; the picture showed a plan for three of the world's largest runways, a hangar, an administration building. It claimed that Hybla Valley was the largest airport site available near Washington, D. C, it explained that the layout geography of the 3,800 acres of land three miles south of the city of Alexandria was as flat as a tabletop. It further explained.
The idea was planted in this newspaper article that this could become larger than any airport in the world. The earliest indication of the George Washington Air Junction was a 1929 photo taken from an airplane by pilot Orville Blake, it showed three runways, cleared on the airport property. They were located just south of a dirt road that became Lockheed Boulevard in Hybla Valley, Virginia; the Washington Air Junction airport was depicted on a 1930 Standard Oil Company Virginia road map as being directly east of Groveton about a mile northwest of the Hybla Valley Airport and about two miles southwest from the Beacon Field Airport. The area was Zeppelin's manager Hugo Eckener's choice for an American terminal for his dirigible airships; the George Washington Air Junction airport was introduced with much fanfare by Woodhouse, the main owner of the airport. In May 1929 for a publicity stunt there was a gathering of George Washington's descendants at the christening ceremonies of the opening of the airport.
A picture was taken of them, promoted through various newspapers nationwide, next to a replica of the first passenger balloon that flew in the Western Hemisphere, watched by Washington himself. The land for the anticipated largest airport in the world was once part of George Washington's estate and near Mt. Vernon; the airport was designed to be larger than any in the world, bigger in size than the New York, Berlin, Paris and Philadelphia ones put together. Woodhouse claimed it would become the combined size of the airports of Croydon in London, Le Bourget in Paris, Tempelhof in Berlin, Roosevelt Field in New York, Chicago's Air Park, Boston's Jeffery Field. However, the airport never did develop as intended and a 1949 picture taken from an airplane showed no evidence of the three world's longest runways, illustrated in earlier depictions; the George Washington Air Junction airport never came into operation and no airlines operated out of it. Woodhouse's dream of the world's largest airport never came to fruition in spite of all the planning and preparation he did.
The airport never showed up on any government publications of official airports. It is listed in the Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields online database for southeastern Fairfax County, Virginia. Woodhouse lost all the property during the Great Depression of the 1930s through a combination of lawsuits, back taxes and foreclosures. A real estate holding company had taken possession of the property since it was never developed as an airport, it leased parcels to dairy farmers. The federal government purchased the acreage for $60,000 in 1941; the Bureau of Public Roads used the site between 1953 to test road surfaces. The U. S. Naval Research Laboratory took over in 1954 for communications research. In 1955, the Virginia National Guard used the land for an antiaircraft base. Fairfax County purchased the site for a dollar in 1975 and it was developed into the Huntley Meadows Park. Beacon Field Airport Hybla Valley Airport Washington-Virginia Airport Brown, Charlotte. Groveton. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4671-2009-8
Alexa Internet, Inc. is an American web traffic analysis company based in San Francisco. It is a subsidiary of Amazon. Alexa was founded as an independent company in 1996 and acquired by Amazon in 1999, its toolbar collects data on Internet browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis including its Alexa Rank. According to its website, Alexa provides web traffic data, global rankings, other information on 30 million websites; as of 2018, its website is visited by over 3 million people every month. Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by Bruce Gilliat; the company's name was chosen in homage to the Library of Alexandria of Ptolemaic Egypt, drawing a parallel between the largest repository of knowledge in the ancient world and the potential of the Internet to become a similar store of knowledge. Alexa offered a toolbar that gave Internet users suggestions on where to go next, based on the traffic patterns of its user community.
The company offered context for each site visited: to whom it was registered, how many pages it had, how many other sites pointed to it, how it was updated. Alexa's operations grew to include archiving of web pages as they are "crawled" and examined by an automated computer program; this database served as the basis for the creation of the Internet Archive accessible through the Wayback Machine. In 1998, the company donated a copy of the archive, two terabytes in size, to the Library of Congress. Alexa continues to supply the Internet Archive with Web crawls. In 1999, as the company moved away from its original vision of providing an "intelligent" search engine, Alexa was acquired by Amazon.com for US$250 million in Amazon stock. Alexa began a partnership with Google in early 2002, with the web directory DMOZ in January 2003. In December 2005, Alexa opened its extensive search index and Web-crawling facilities to third-party programs through a comprehensive set of Web services and APIs; these could be used, for instance, to construct vertical search engines that could run on Alexa's servers or elsewhere.
In May 2006, Google was replaced with Bing as a provider of search results. In December 2006, Amazon released Alexa Image Search. Built in-house, it was the first major application built on the company's Web platform. In May 2007, Alexa changed their API to limit comparisons to three websites, reduce the size of embedded graphs in Flash, add mandatory embedded BritePic advertisements. In April 2007, the company filed a lawsuit, Alexa v. Hornbaker, to stop trademark infringement by the Statsaholic service. In the lawsuit, Alexa alleged that Ron Hornbaker was stealing traffic graphs for profit, that the primary purpose of his site was to display graphs that were generated by Alexa's servers. Hornbaker removed the term "Alexa" from his service name on March 19, 2007. On November 27, 2008, Amazon announced that Alexa Web Search was no longer accepting new customers, that the service would be deprecated or discontinued for existing customers on January 26, 2009. Thereafter, Alexa became a purely analytics-focused company.
On March 31, 2009, Alexa launched a major website redesign. The redesigned site provided new web traffic metrics—including average page views per individual user, bounce rate, user time on website. In the following weeks, Alexa added more features, including visitor demographics and web search traffic statistics. Alexa introduced these new features to compete with other web analytics services. A key metric published from Alexa Internet analytics is the Alexa Traffic Rank simply known as Alexa Rank, it is referred to as Global Rank by Alexa Internet and is designed to be an estimate of a website's popularity. As of May 2018 Alexa Internet's tooltip for Global Rank says the rank is calculated from a combination of daily visitors and page views on a website over a 3-month period; the Alexa Traffic Rank can be used to monitor the popularity trend of a website and to compare the popularity of different websites. Alexa ranks sites based on tracking a sample set of Internet traffic—users of its toolbar for the Internet Explorer and Google Chrome web browsers.
The Alexa Toolbar includes a popup blocker, a search box, links to Amazon.com and the Alexa homepage, the Alexa ranking of the website that the user is visiting. It allows the user to rate the website and view links to external, relevant websites. In early 2005, Alexa stated that there had been 10 million downloads of the toolbar, though the company did not provide statistics about active usage. Web pages were only ranked amongst users who had the Alexa Toolbar installed, could be biased if a specific audience subgroup was reluctant to take part in the rankings; this caused some controversies over how representative Alexa's user base was of typical Internet behavior for less-visited sites. In 2007, Michael Arrington provided examples of Alexa rankings known to contradict data from the comScore web analytics service, including ranking YouTube ahead of Google; until 2007, a third-party-supplied plugin for the Firefox browser served as the only option for Firefox users after Amazon abandoned its A9 toolbar.
On July 16, 2007, Alexa released. On 16 April 2008, many users reported drastic shifts in their Alexa rankings. Alexa confirmed this in the day with an announcement that they had released an updated ranking system, claiming that they would now take into account more sources of data "beyond Alexa Toolbar users". Using th
Beacon Field Airport
Beacon Field Airport was an airport located in the Groveton area of Fairfax County, from the 1920s until its closure in 1959. One of the nation's earliest private airports, in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, it received its name because it was the location of an airway beacon used to guide early airmail pilots, it became a popular training site, complete with FBO, for pilots learning to fly after World War II on the G. I. Bill; the site an antebellum estate called City View, is now the location of a shopping center. Hybla Valley Airport, a nearby associated defunct airport Washington-Virginia Airport, a prominent owned and operated airport in the Washington D. C. area from 1947-1970 BeaconFieldAirport.com: Website about the airport Abandoned & Little Known Airfields
Aviation archaeology is a recognized sub-discipline within archaeology and underwater archaeology as a whole. It is an activity practiced by both enthusiasts and academics in pursuit of finding, documenting and preserving sites important in aviation history. For the most part, these sites are aircraft wrecks and crash sites, but include structures and facilities related to aviation, it is known in some circles and depending on the perspective of those involved as aircraft archaeology or aerospace archaeology and has been described variously as crash hunting, underwater aircraft recovery, wreck chasing, or wreckology. The activity dates to post-World War II Europe when, after the conflict, numerous aircraft wrecks studded the countryside. Many times, memorials to those involved in the crashes were put together by individuals, landholders, or communities. Crash sites vary in content. Other sites, like in civilian/commercial crashes, the Federal Aviation Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board will have all of the aircraft and debris removed.
Remains of military aircraft crash sites may be removed by various aircraft restoration groups if the aircraft was found intact. In general, most recent-day aircraft crashes are removed due to environmental regulations, leaving little to indicate the existence of a wreck. For example, military crashes in Arizona originate from numerous air bases and present; because of the warm and sunny weather, much of the U. S. Army Air Forces flight training was located in the state, both during and after WWII. Numerous air bases dotted the states - creating conditions for numerous training accidents. Old abandoned US Army Air Corp auxiliary fields and those converted to city municipal airports provide archaeological sites to be researched and investigated. Keeping a record of a crash site, such as photographs, journals and all terrain and weather recordings are essential, i.e. the Glenwood Springs, Colorado, B-17 crash site or the Tells Peak, CA, B-17 crash site. The internet is an ideal media for sharing, recording and promoting aviation archaeology as a hobby, as well as research projects for local and state aviation historical groups.
For identifying aircraft type and manufacturer by part numbers and manufacturing inspection stamps can be analysed. From detailed GPS data & maps, to researching accident reports information, numerous resources help create a complete picture of the historic event. Accident reports, such as the official US Air Force Accident Report Form 14 becomes the foundation of archaeology research. From there, newspaper articles, county clerk records, sheriff & coroner reports, library records all aid an aviation archaeologist in their research. Legal protection of aircraft wreck sites is variable. In terms of protection by aircraft ownership, the U. S. Navy retains indefinite ownership of all Naval aircraft, including terrestrial or submerged wreck sites; the U. S. Air Force has no policies regarding disturbance of vintage aircraft wreck sites, unless human remains or weaponry remain unrecovered at the site. For vintage aircraft, including vintage military aircraft, that are considered abandoned when wrecked, the wreck site and all associated contents are subject to the protection laws of the land upon which it rests.
The language of cultural heritage protection laws are not aviation specific, so all protection laws pertaining to aviation sites are based on interpretation. Most federal and state laws are, explicit in describing cultural resources as either ‘objects, sites, or otherwise, of historic value’ or ‘military or social history’ and deem the time limit as over fifty years old. If an aircraft wreck is over fifty years old, which includes all aviation wreck sites from WWII, crashed on what is federal lands, the sites are automatically protected under National Park Service Law 36CFR2.1 against disturbance of any kind without a permit. Aviation sites, for example, a vintage hangar on an airport or a wreck site on the path of a proposed highway, are immediately subject to Section 106 review if they are to be disturbed by a project that either requires a federal permit or uses federal funds. In most cases, the State Historic Preservation Officer will determine whether or not an aviation site is eligible for the register.
The National Register deems aviation wreck sites as “any aircraft, crashed, damaged, stranded, or abandoned”. It designates the protection terms for aviation history sites as well, including abandoned airfields or facilities sites, testing or experimental sites, land or water air terminals, or airway beacons and navigational aids. State lands protection laws vary across the nation but the language describing a historical resource is the same as federal laws. Therefore, aviation properties and aircraft wrecks on State lands can be protected under various environmental, public resource, historical property laws as outlined per state for the protection of archaeological and historic resources. Any archaeological survey, excavation, or activity that disturbs wither wreck or aviation property remains can, in some cases, be permitted on federal and state lands under a permitting process through the regulating entity. If an aircraft wreck, or the remains of any aviation property, is located on private land it is not automatically protected by any federal, state, or local law and any survey or excavation work must be permitted by the land owner.
Under the'Sunken Military Craft Act’ of 2004, it is illegal to disturb, remove, or injure the wreck sites or as
The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review known as "the Trib," is the second largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Although it transitioned to an all-digital format on December 1, 2016, it remains the second largest daily in the state, amassing nearly one million unique page views a month. Founded on August 22, 1811, as the Greensburg Gazette and in 1889 consolidated with several papers into the Greensburg Tribune-Review, the paper circulated only in the eastern suburban counties of Westmoreland and parts of Indiana and Fayette until May 1992, when it began serving all of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area after a strike at the two Pittsburgh dailies, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and Pittsburgh Press, deprived the city of a newspaper for several months; the Tribune-Review Publishing Company was owned by Richard Mellon Scaife, an heir to the Mellon banking and aluminum fortune, until his death in July 2014. Scaife was a major funder including the Arkansas Project.
Accordingly, the Tribune-Review has maintained a conservative editorial stance, contrasting with the more centrist Post-Gazette. In addition to its flagship paper, the company publishes 17 weekly community newspapers, the Pittsburgh Pennysaver, as well as TribLive.com and TribTotalMedia.com. The paper began as the Gazette on August 22, 1811. After a series of name changes and mergers it became the Greensburg Daily Tribune in 1889. In 1924, it and the Greensburg Morning Review, launched by David J. Berry in 1903, consolidated their interests under a single ownership. Both papers continued separate publication until 1955, when they merged to form the Greensburg Tribune-Review. Scaife bought the Tribune-Review in 1970. Scaife was a decade early in trying to unarm the Post-Gazette. In 1981 -- 82, he started The Daily-Sunday Tribune; the Tribune-Review owns several "satellite" papers that insert or surround the regional publication with neighborhood specific stories. The Valley News Dispatch, of Pittsburgh suburbs Tarentum and New Kensington is one such satellite.
Local journalism student John Filo worked for the publication while attending nearby Kent State University and served as the Valley News Dispatch's correspondent of the Kent State shootings. His photography that day won the paper its only Pulitzer Prize. During a newspaper strike that temporarily shut down the Post-Gazette and closed the Pittsburgh Press, Scaife launched the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, an edition of the Greensburg-based Tribune-Review covering Allegheny County and Pittsburgh. Over time, it became a stand-alone newspaper headquartered on Pittsburgh's North Side. In 1997, Scaife added to his small collection of newspapers by purchasing The Daily Courier of Connellsville, the Leader Times of Kittanning and The Valley Independent of Monessen from Thomson Newspapers. In late 1997, Scaife's NewsWorks facility opened in the North Hills. In December 1997, the Tribune-Review company purchased the North Hills News Record though four months earlier, then-Trib president Ed Harrell told the Pittsburgh Business Times that the company was not interested in the News Record.
Nine months after purchasing the North Hills News Record from Gannett Company, Tribune-Review Publishing Co. announced the paper would be merged with the Pittsburgh Trib. The News Record was most successful during the newspaper strike of the early 1990s. At its demise, the North Hills News Record had a daily circulation of more than 16,000, nearly 1,000 less than its circulation before the Trib bought it. In early 2000, the Trib announced the "News Record" name would retire after more than two years of a combined "Tribune-Review/North Hills News Record" banner. North Hills coverage would be wrapped into the Trib's neighborhoods section. In 2000, the Trib announced it would convert its Irwin-based paper, the daily Standard Observer, into a twice-weekly regional section of the Greensburg Tribune-Review. Citing a "sagging economy", the Trib laid off more than four percent of its workforce in 2003, including freelance writers. More shakeups continued in 2005 as circulation numbers dropped and a top official left.
An online message board featured forth fights between Pittsburgh and Greensburg employees. Edward Harrell, then-president of the Tribune Review Publishing Company, announced in January 2005 that most of the regional editions of the paper would have their newsroom and circulation departments merged and staff reductions would follow; the merged papers include the Tribune-Review of Greensburg, the Valley News Dispatch of Tarentum, The Leader-Times of Kittanning, The Daily Courier of Connellsville and the Blairsville Dispatch. The Valley Independent, the only paper with a unionized newsroom and contract, was not affected; the company incorporated as Trib Total Media in the summer of 2005, purchased Gateway Newspapers, a community publication group servicing 22 communities, at the time, in and around Pittsburgh's Allegheny County. Two managers were laid off; the exact number of proposed redundancies was not announced. In September 2005, Harrell announced his retirement as president of Tribune-Review Publishing Company, effective December 31, 2005.
He had served as president since 1989. Several staff writers were laid off in December 2005 as two of Gateway's newspapers were discontinued. In May 2008, the Post-Gazette and the Trib reached a deal for one company to deliver both papers; the Post-Gazette would begin delivering the Trib to most of the area with some exceptions. Terms of the deal were not disclosed. On June 20, 2008, Trib Total Media publicly announced it was closing several weekly newspapers in the Gateway Newspapers chain; the papers affected include: Bridgevi