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Abandonware is a product software, ignored by its owner and manufacturer, for which no official support is available. Although such software is still under copyright, the owner may not be tracking copyright violations. Within an intellectual rights contextual background, abandonware is a software sub-case of the general concept of orphan works. Definitions of "abandoned" vary, but in general it is like any item, abandoned – it is ignored by the owner, as such product support and copyright enforcement are "abandoned", it can refer to a product, no longer available for legal purchase, over the age where the product creator feels an obligation to continue to support it, or where operating systems or hardware platforms have evolved to such a degree that the creator feels continued support cannot be financially justified. In such cases and support issues are ignored. Software might be considered abandoned when it can be used only with obsolete technologies, such as pre-Macintosh Apple computers. A difference between abandonware and a discontinued product is that the manufacturer has not officially'discontinued' the software, but only ended their official efforts at technical support.

Abandonware may be computer software or physical devices which are computerised in some fashion, such as personal computer games, productivity applications, utility software, or mobile phones. The term "abandonware" is broad, encompasses many types of old software. Commercial software unsupported but still owned by a viable company The availability of the software depends on the company's attitude toward the software. In many cases, the company which owns the software rights may not be that which originated it, or may not recognize their ownership; some companies, such as Borland, make some software available online, in a form of freeware. Others do not make old versions available for free use and do not permit people to copy the software. Many abandonware websites have been set up to archive and make available copies of unsupported and discontinued operating systems made by Microsoft and Apple, as well as rare development builds of such operating systems that have been leaked by the media or technicians working for said companies — the latter is popular among retrogaming and computing enthusiasts, who value the availability of these operating systems for the ease of access and compatibility with older software that they provide.

After Windows XP support was discontinued in April 2014, numerous websites started providing the operating system for free. The operating system's usage and popularity thus prevented it from being abandoned. Other older operating systems from Microsoft are readily distributed around the internet in the form of.iso files and Virtual machine images, again preventing them from being abandoned. Commercial software owned by a company no longer in business When no owning entity of a software exists, all activities in relationship to this software have ceased. If the rights to a software are non-recoverable in legal limbo the software's rights can not be bought by another company, there can not be copyright enforcement etc. An example of this is Digital Research's original PL/I compiler for DOS, considered for many years without owner. Shareware whose author still makes it available Finding historical versions, can be difficult since most shareware archives remove past versions with the release of new versions.

Authors may not make older releases available. Some websites collect and offer for download old versions of shareware and commercial applications. In some cases these sites had to remove past versions of software if the company producing that software still maintains it, or if software releases introduce digital rights management, whereby old versions could be viewed as DRM circumvention. Unsupported or unmaintained shareware Open source and freeware programs that have been abandoned In some cases, source code remains available, which can prove a historical artifact. One such case is PC-LISP, still found online; the DOS-based PC-LISP still runs well on Microsoft Windows. If a software product reaches end-of-life and becomes abandonware, users are confronted with several potential problems: missing purchase availability and missing technical support, e.g. compatibility fixes for newer hardware and operating systems. These problems are exacerbated if software is bound to physical media with a limited life-expectancy and backups are impossible because of copy protection or copyright law.

If a software is distributed only in a digital, DRM-locked form or as SaaS, the shutdown of the servers will lead to a public loss of the software. If the software product is without alternative, the missing replacement availability becomes a challenge for continued software usage. Once a software product has become abandonware for a developer historically important software might get lost forever easily, as numerous cases have shown. One of many examples is the closure of Atari in Sunnyvale, California in 1996, when the original source code of several milestones of video game history was thrown out as trash; the missing availability of software and the associated source code can be a hindrance for software archaeology and research. As response to the missing availability of abandonware, people have distributed old software since shortly after the beginning of personal computing, but the activity remained low-key until the advent of the Internet

Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Idris al-Razi

Abu Hatim, Muhammad ibn Idris al-Razi was a notable hadith scholar born in Ray. He is the father of Ibn Abi Hatim, his full name is Abu Hatim Muhammad bin Idris bin al-Mundhir bin Dawud bin Mahran ar-Razi al-Handhali al-Ghatafani. Some sources suggest that he was from Isfahan and was a mawla of the Ghatafan tribe. Other sources suggest that he acquired his nisbat from a region of Ray called "Darb Handhala", he died on the month of Sha’bân in the year 277H. The better known he narrated from: He narrated from many, such that al-Khalili said, “Abu Hatim al-Labban al-Hafidh said to me, ‘I had gathered who Abu Hatim ar-Razi narrated from. Yūnus bin ‘Abdil-A’la said, “Abu Zur’ah and Abū Hâtim are the two Imams of Khurasan.” He supplicated for them both and said, “Their continuance is an improvement for the Muslims.” Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Hatim said, “I heard Mūsâ bin Is·hâq al-Qâdî saying, ‘I have not seen more preserving than your father,’ and he had met Abū Bakr Ibn Abi Shaibah, Ibn Numair, Yahya ibn Ma'in, Yahya al-Himmani.”

Ahmad bin Salamah an-Naisâbūrî said, “I have not seen after Ishaq and Muhammad bin Yahya more preserving of the hadîth or more knowledgeable of its meanings than Abi Hatim ar-Razi.” Uthman bin Khurrazadh said, “The most preserving of those I saw are four: Muhammad bin al-Minhal ad-Darir, Ibrâhîm bin ‘Ar’arah, Abu Zur’ah ar Razi, Abu Hatim.” Al-Khalili said, Abū Hâtim was a scholar of the Companions’ differences and the jurisprudence of the Followers and after them. I heard my grandfather and a group heard ‘Ali bin Ibrahim al-Qattan saying, “I have not seen the like of Abi Hatim.” So we told him, “ you had seen Ibrâhîm al-Harbî and Isma’il al-Qadi.” He said, “I have not seen more complete or more virtuous than Abi Hatim.” Abul-Qasim al-Lalika’i said, “Abū Hâtim was an imam, a hâfidh, a verifier.” Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi said, “Abū Hâtim was one of the credible, hâfidh imams.” Al-Dhahabi said, “He was from the oceans of knowledge. He excelled in the text and the chain, he gathered and compiled and accredited, authenticated and deemed defective.”

He said, “He was one of the notables and from the formidable imams of the People of the Relic … he was a neighbour in the arena of his comrade and relative, Hâfidh Abu Zur’ah.”

Marasmius oreades

Marasmius oreades, the Scotch bonnet, is known as the fairy ring mushroom or fairy ring champignon. The latter names tend to cause some confusion. Marasmius oreades grows extensively throughout North America and Europe in the summer and autumn, or year-round in warmer climates, it loves grassy areas such as lawns and dunes in coastal areas. Marasmius oreades grows gregariously in arcs, or rings; the cap is 1–5 cm across. The bare, pallid stem grows up to about 7 cm by 5mm in diameter; the gills are attached to the stem or free from it distant, white or pale tan, dropping a white spore-print. The spores, are 7-10 x 4-6 µ. Cystidia absent. Pileipellis without broom cells; this mushroom can be mistaken for the toxic Clitocybe rivulosa which lacks an umbo, is white to grey in color, has spaced decurrent gills. Many mushroom connoisseurs are fond of M. oreades and its sweet taste lends it to baked goods such as cookies. It is used in foods such as soups, etc. Traditionally, the stems are cut off and the caps are threaded and dried in strings.

A possible reason why this mushroom is so sweet-tasting is due to the presence of trehalose, a type of sugar that allows M. oreades to resist death by desiccation. When exposed to water after being dried out, the trehalose is digested as the cells revive, causing cellular processes, including the creation of new spores, to begin again. Marasmius oreades can be used for the biological remediation of bismuth in polluted soils


Blăjeni is a commune in Hunedoara County, Romania. It is composed of eight villages: Blăjeni, Blăjeni-Vulcan, Criș, Dragu-Brad, Groșuri, Plai, Reț and Sălătruc. At the 2002 census, 100% of inhabitants were ethnic Romanians and 99.4% were Romanian Orthodox. Crișul Alb River Țara Moților Apuseni Mountains Blăjeni Town Hall Website History of Blăjeni The Moţi meeting with history in Blăjeni and Dupăpiatră Blăjeni a pearl of the Apuseni Blăjeni commune, historical places and leading personalities

Christopher George

Christopher John George was an American television and film actor, best known for his starring role on the 1960s television series The Rat Patrol. He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award in 1967 as Best TV Star for his performance in the series, he was the recipient of a New York Film Festival award as the Best Actor in a Television Commercial. George was married to actress Lynda Day George. Christopher George was born in Royal Oak, Michigan, on February 25, 1931, the son of Greek immigrants John and Vaseleke George. John was born in Thebes and was a veteran of World War I, Vaseleke was born in Athens. George did not speak English until he was six years old, because his family only spoke Greek at home, his father was a traveling salesman during his childhood. He accompanied his father on selling trips to cities such as Akron, New York City, Chicago, St. Louis and Detroit. From Michigan, the family moved to New Jersey. Once he began learning to speak English, his father enrolled him in Greek school in addition to his regular school so that he would not forget the Greek language.

That was. When he was 14, he and his family moved to Florida; as a child, he lived in the Coconut Grove section of Miami and attended Shenandoah Elementary School and Miami Senior High School. In school, he played soccer and baseball and ran track. While in Florida, he used to hunt for alligators in the Everglades. After obtaining his driver's license, he worked for his father, driving trucks between Miami and other cities along the Eastern seaboard; when he was young, George felt bound to enter the Greek Orthodox Church and his family prepared him for it. He served as an altar boy at St. Sophia Greek Orthodox Cathedral in Miami. George enlisted in the United States Marine Corps on October 13, 1948, at Jacksonville, Florida, at age 17, he lied about his age on his recruitment form by giving his year of birth as 1929, which stuck with him for most of his adult life. He attributed his enlistment to being inspired by John Wayne, saying, "You know, he caused the enlistment of hundreds of kids in the Marines and I was one of them."

According to his military record at the National Personnel Records Center, he attended boot camp at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, South Carolina, graduated with a meritorious promotion to private first class on December 31, 1948. His first duty station was Marine Corps Air Station Quantico, Virginia. In April 1950, he transferred to Aircraft Engineering Squadron 12 located at Quantico. AES-12 maintained the aircraft for school pilots and used them as a demonstration squadron for members of the United States Congress, demonstrating new rockets and bombs. While assigned to AES-12, he rose to the rank of sergeant, he had forced landings in airplanes while he was in the Marines, while stationed at Quantico, was sick, lying in the hospital with "a 110-degree fever."While stationed at Quantico, George was a passenger in an aircraft flown by one of AES-12's officers The weather was clear and sunny that day when both of the engines failed at 8,000 feet above the Carolinas. Both pilots worked to get the engines restarted, dipping to an altitude of about 1,000 feet before they succeeded.

Another time, an aircraft caught fire. During the Korean War, George skippered a Marine Corps crash boat, served as gunner aboard the type of rescue aircraft used to fly wounded out of Korea, he completed a three-year enlistment with the Marines and stayed for an additional year, before requesting an honorable discharge and returning home to Miami. He left active service on August 29, 1952. After that, as a sergeant in the Marine Corps Reserves, he joined Marine Fighter Squadron 142 of the Marine Air Reserve Training Command, Marine Corps Air Station Miami, Florida, he served in the 4th Supply Company, in Stockton, California. He reverted to inactive reserve status and was assigned to Headquarters, 6th MCR&RD, Georgia, until completing his enlisted service and receiving a discharge on September 3, 1956. While in the Marine Corps, his superior officers encouraged him to apply for flight school and a commission, he passed a high school equivalency exam. During the summer of 1976, he appeared in a recruiting film made for the Marine Corps Air Reserves.

On May 5, 2009, the Marine Corps flew a flag over the Iwo Jima Memorial in honor of his service in the Corps. George earned the National Defense Service Medal; these awards are documented in his official military personnel file available at the National Archives and Records Administration. After completing his enlistment, George attended the University of Miami from 1953–1958, where he earned a Bachelor's in Business Administration degree from the school of business, he was a member of Sigma Phi Epsilon, along with his brother Nick, who attended the University of Miami. George held down a variety of jobs before he began acting for a living, including working as a private investigator and as a bartender in a Miami bar, he owned and operated eateries and beer bars, one called the Dragnet Drive-In in Miami and another in Stockton, California. The inn in Stockton where he worked for five months during a break from college had

Elgin Burghs (UK Parliament constituency)

Elgin Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. Until 1832, when Peterhead was added, the constituency comprised the parliamentary burghs of Elgin, Banff and Kintore, lying in Elginshire and Aberdeenshire; the British parliamentary constituency was created in 1708 following the Acts of Union, 1707 and replaced the former Parliament of Scotland burgh constituencies of Elgin, Cullen and Kintore. The constituency elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system until the seat was abolished in 1918. In 1918, Elgin became part of Moray and Nairn and Cullen part of Banffshire and Kintore part of Kincardine and Aberdeenshire West and Peterhead part of East Aberdeen and Kincardine. Duff resigned by accepting the office of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds. Duff resigned after being appointed Governor of Madras. Asher was appointed as Solicitor General for Scotland.

Asher was re-appointed as Solicitor General for Scotland. Asher is appointed Solicitor General for Scotland. Elgin Burghs by-election, 1918