Durango is a town and municipality of the historical territory and province of Biscay, located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the main town of one of the comarcas of Biscay; because of its economical activities and population, Durango is considered one of the largest towns in Biscay after the ones that compose the conurbation of Greater Bilbao. Durango has 29,318 inhabitants; the town is crossed by three rivers. The Ibaizabal river is the main river, lies in the middle of its wide valley, with the scenic Urkiola mountain range and natural park to the south; the most important peak is the majestic Anboto. In addition, inside the town stand out two mountains: Pagasarri mugarra mountain. There are many differing opinions about the origin of the name Durango. Basque linguist Alfonso Irigoyen has suggested its origin to be in the name Duranco used in the early Middle Ages. Other authors suggest the name to be an evolved form of Padurango. In the confirmation of the town's fuero it is referred to as Tavira de Durango.
Until the 16th century, the town was known as Uribarri de Durango, Uribarri being Basque for "New town". It has been postulated by the Royal Basque Academy of the Language that the name Durango stems from the Latin name Turanicus a Roman fundus like many others in the Basque Country. While it is not known when Durango was founded, it was suzerain to the Kingdom of Navarre, is attested on an 1179 document revolving around territorial litigation between Alfonso VIII of Castile and Sancho VI of Navarre, The Wise; the impending threat of a military intervention conducted by King Alfonso VIII against the Navarrese led King Sancho VI to found other fortified towns, such as San Sebastián and Vitoria-Gasteiz. Between 1199 and 1201, King Alfonso VIII of Castile occupied the lordship of Durango and its hinterland, as well as other key western Basque districts. Durango went on to form part of the Crown of Castile, but former laws and institutions were upheld by the Castilian king. In the 15th century, Durango got engaged in the wider War of the Bands, with various conflicts involving the Ibarguen and Unzueta families.
During this period, tower houses belonging to different clans were erected, such as the ones of Arandoño, Etxebarria, Lariz and Otalora. Henry III and Henry IV, the Castilian Kings, were both received in Durango, as well as Queen Isabel of Castile, who enticed Durango and the Lordship of Biscay to her cause in exchange for ratifying their laws and institutions, i.e. she swore the fueros, favourable trade conditions. According to the municipal records, both monarchs took shelter in the Lariz Tower. In 1517 Durango was devastated by a terrible epidemic of plague that caused many deaths amongst the inhabitants; some years after the epidemic, in 1544, heavy flooding inundated a good part of the town. Just the opposite, in 1554 the town was ravaged by fire, burning all wooden buildings to the ground, i.e. all the buildings were burnt down. In 1597 another plague epidemic spread across the town; the Town Hall is recorded to have been built in the 16th century. The name Durango was used by conquistadores like Francisco de Ibarra to found more Durangos in America named after the Basque original one, e.g. a state in Mexico called Durango, whose principal city is called Durango.
During the 17th century, the town of Durango had to face up to the enormous human and economic cost incurred on the various wars the Crown of Castile embarked upon against France. Following heavy human losses suffered in battles and an episode of cholera epidemic, the town ended up ruined. At the end of the 19th century in 1882, the railway line from Bilbao to Durango was inaugurated. While the construction was expensive, during the early 20th century Durango flourished. On 31 March 1937, Durango was bombed by the Legion Condor, it was a busy shopping day—St. Maria, the central church with a covered marketplace, was targeted. More than 500 people were killed in the following days; the Kurutziaga Cross. It was built between early 16th century, it tells a story and it has a gothic style with a clear Flemish, German influence. Baroque Santa Ana's Arch, designed by local architect Juan de Herdoiza for the now disappeared line of walls; the arch was constructed to symbolise the town gates, through which the King was required to pass when he visited.
Mikeldi idol, of pre-Roman times. Lariz Tower is an urban palace, built around the end of the 15th century, it was renovated in 2009 and it is the Tourist Information Office of the town. It is believed that the Queen Isabella Catholic stayed overnight when she visited Durango in order to swear the regional laws and those of the Merindad de Durango. In the building there are decorative elements of the final Gothic such as large windows of seat or heights of taste Hispanic-Fleming and others of the Renaissance There is less heavy industry in the town than in the late 20th century, as it is being replaced by high density housing projects and shopping facilities. Durango was for many years the home of Euskal Telebista; this public television company broadcasts in Spanish. It has a global presence with satellite channel beamed across the world. ETB has moved to a new headquarters in Bilbao. In Durango, bes
Mungia is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country of northern Spain. The town has 17,000 inhabitants. Mungia lies 20 metres above sea level in an area full of open spaces, with a landscape of rolling hills; the more important mountains nearby are Jata. There are many small streams and underground springs, such as the Atxuri, Lauromendi, Atebarri, or Mantzorriko Erreka, which are all tributaries of the Butroi river and provide water to the numerous fountains built in the town. In the past those waters helped to run more than 20 mills. Although there are still traces which show that the area where Mungia stands today was inhabited in prehistoric times the first documented reference we have dates back to the year 1051, when an abbot from Mungia confirmed a gift from the Lord of Biscay to the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. At the beginning, whose name comes from the Basque Mune - Ganean, was not much more than a tiny village with a dispersed population.
At that time the church was the only focus of the community, but the settlement began to acquire its own significance as a result of the presence of an abbot and of its location in a strategic pass between the interior of the feudal holding and the coast at Bermeo, which had begun to stand out as an export harbour. Under these conditions, important families belonging to the nobility settled in the surrounding areas of the village and built there their tower houses; the economic power of these noblemen was based on landholdings. However, as a consequence of a stockbreeding and agricultural crisis at the end of the 13th century, these families began to suffer. To face this situation they sought hard to improve their income streams, the easiest recourse they could have was to violence. On the pretext of "being more worthy" they fought with each other, their peasants were decimated and deprived of their scarce belongings, or involved in faction fights themselves. In the area of Mungia, we find representatives of two factions: the Billela family, part of the Ganboar faction. and the Butroi family which led the faction of Oinaz.
As the tower houses of both families were next to each other their fights were a common event. The borough of Mungia came to be as a consequence of this situation; some of the inhabitants in the area, witnessing the outrages of the nobility, requested the Lord of Biscay, the Infante Juan, to grant the title of borough to their town, in order to enable the fortification of the town and thus effective defence against attacks. By this means on 1 August 1376, under the Fueros of Logroño, the borough of Mungia was created in the centre of an anteiglesia similar in extent to the Parish) of the same name. Both belonged to the merindad of Uribe, each had an autonomous municipality. In the same way, they each had their own representation in the Juntas of Gernika, numbering 69 for the anteiglesia and 15 for the borough, but the fact of designating a borough did not avoid a great number of fights in the area. Thus, there were various episodes of different nature, arising from the wars between the factions.
Just to name a few of the most important of those small skirmishes, we mention the battle of Berteiz or the battle of Mungia, which took place on 27 April 1479 and in which the factions of Oinaz and Ganboa, enemies up to that moment, formed an alliance to fight against the Earl of Haro. Leaving these episodes aside, life in Mungia is thought to have been calm. Economic activity was based on farming, with a few mills located on the banks of the many streams which washed the area, as well as small craft workshops settled down in the borough; the daily round was disturbed. In 1602 there was a fire, a larger fire 1778 on 9 November with fourteen of the main buildings in the village burned down. From this time, to prevent accidents happening, all inflammable products such as straw and coal were stored in a place outside the enceinte; this site was known as Atzekaldeta, a basque name which refers to the location of the place in the rear part of the town. Thus time passed for both the borough of Mungia and the anteiglesia of the same name.
They were independent entities, although they joined together for the sake of some services and improvements. Thus, the school was common to both, when the time arrived to canalise the water from the Gondramendi mountain to the village both shared the expenditure. Little by little, more tasks were performed together and as a result of this co-operation bigger problems arose leading to the idea of joining both bodies and becoming one unique entity; this happened on 6 October 1900. The fountain which today lies in Beko Kale, in front of Arnaga, is the symbol of this unity under the motto "Biak bat eta biena". Up to 1936 life for the inhabitants passed by without major events, based on fundamental rural and agricultural activities, but with an i
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.
This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.
Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.
There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.
From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as «the botxo», that is, «the hole», since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the XIX century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Mu
Amorebieta-Etxano known as Zornotza, is a town and municipality located in Biscay in the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community in northern Spain. At the time of the 2014 census, the population of the municipality was 18,579, with 16,907 inhabitants living in Amorebieta; the mayor is Andoni Agirrebeitia. Amorebieta-Etxano is an inland town in the comarca of Duranguesado in the province of Biscay in northern Spain, it is about 25 km east of Bilbao and close to the European route E70 which runs along the north coast of Spain. It is located in the valley of the River Ibaizabal. Amorebieta-Etxano has a rich historical heritage; the municipality of Amorebieta-Etxano came into being on 26 January 1951 as the result of a merger between Amorebieta and Etxano, two communities in the historic administrative district of Merindad de Zornotza. The other parts of the district were merged into the neighbouring municipality of Muxika; the new coat of arms shows the union between Etxano. In the 2014 census, Amorebieta had a population of 16,907 while that of Etxano was 221.
The town is divided into several districts. The church of Santa María de la Asunción is in the centre of Amorebieta on the banks of the Ibaizaba, it is a large Renaissance building started in 1555 and opened for worship in 1608 and is noted for its altarpiece. Another Renaissance church is the Parroquia de San Juan Bautista de Larrea; this dates back to 1647, in 1704 it was given to the Carmelite Order to found a convent. In San Antonio is the hermitage of San Miguel de Dudea, nearby is the Neoclassical López Palace. A branch of the international company Tecnalia Research & Innovation is located here in the Parque Empresarial Boroa where the firm employs 1500 people. Xabier Etxeita Jon Aurtenetxe Beñat Intxausti, a professional cyclist. Amorebieta Etxano, Official web page Amorebieta-Etxano in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Erandio is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. In 1415, during the War of the Bands, the corregidor, the royally-appointed governor of the Biscayan hermandad, acting on royal orders, siphoned off Biscayan wheat to the Asturias, inciting a rebellion; the Biscayans were defeated at Erandio with the loss of sixty men and the wheat transfers continued. Several annual festivals are celebrated in Erandio. Most of them are fiestas patronales; the local public holiday of the municipality rotates yearly on August 10, August 28 and the corpus Christi day. June 11, Saint Barnabas in Fano / Faoeta. June 13, Saint Anthony of Padua in Martiartu, Goierri. June 29, Saint Peter in Kukularra. July 3, Saint Tryphon in Arriaga. July 10, Saint Christopher in Goierri. Second half of July in Asua. August 10, Saint Lawrence in Astrabudua. August 15, Andra Maria in Erandio Goikoa. August 17 and 18: Saint Mammes in Santimami. August 29, Saint Augustine in Altzaga.
First week of September in Enekuri. Third week of September in Lutxana. Erandio has celebrated a street music festival called Musikale, with music bands marching and playing in the neighbourhoods of Altzaga and Astrabudua. Musikale was conceived in the neighbouring municipality of Leioa. For some years it was held in Leioa, Erandio and Sestao, but the other municipalities dropped it, in 2013 only Erandio organised it. Erandio is connected to other municipalities of Biscay by Bizkaibus bus services and by Line 1 of Metro Bilbao, which has three stations in Erandio, it is connected to Barakaldo by regular fluvial transport over the Estuary of Bilbao. Ramon Rubial, politician. Rafael Eguzkiza, footballer Telmo Zarraonaindia, footballer Luis María Echeberría, footballer Alex Angulo, actor Sendoa Agirre, footballer ERANDIO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran
Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located near Barakaldo and Ortuella. Iron ore has been mined here since Roman times and the two parts of the municipality, which are at different altitudes, are linked by a funicular railway. Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran is located 12 km from Bilbao in the Triano mountain range in the province of Biscay; the municipality is divided into two zones. Ninety percent of the population live in the lower zone in the neighbourhoods of Durañona, El Juncal, Galindo-Salcedillo, Valle de Trápaga, the administrative centre, Trápaga-Caused and Ugarte; the upper zone is in the mountains of Triano, the neighbourhoods here are La Arboleda, Matamoros-Burzaco, Parcocha-Barrionuevo and La Reineta. The European route E70 running along the north coast of Spain passes the town; the upper zone is connected by a funicular railway. The town of Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran expanded with the mining activities and most of the buildings date from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The church of San José Obrero is built in Romanesque style while the churcht of San Juan Bautista is neoclassical, as is the city hall, built in the first decade of the twentieth century. Iron ore has been mined here since Roman times and there was a great increase in mining activity and residential development in the upper zone after the building of the railway in the late nineteenth century; the iron ore deposits became exhausted in the mid-twentieth century and now the area is residential and recreational, although traces of its industrial past remain. Many of the former mines have been flooded and turned into recreational areas with sports facilities and lakes stocked with fish. Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Elorrio is a town and a municipality located in the eastern part of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, in northern Spain. As of 2017, it has a population of 7,307 inhabitants, it covers an area of 37.20 square kilometers and it has a population density of 193.58 people per square kilometer. It holds the medieval title of Noble Villa. Elorrio was founded in 1356 by the Infante Tello Alfonso of Castile, the 20th Lord of Biscay, near the elizate of Saint Agustín of Etxebarria. San Agustin Etxebarria was part of the medieval County of Durango, Elorrio remains part of the comarca of Durangaldea. In 1630, Elorrio annexed Saint Agustín of Etxebarria. Elorrio had municipal representation in the medieval Juntas Generales; the town has been affected by its main economic activity: the industrial sector. It is renowned for its rich architectural heritage, being listed as a Conjunto histórico by the Ministry of Culture. In the Basque language, elorrio is the word for the red fruit of the common hawthorn.
The Basque word elorri means "hawthorn". The coat of arms of the town shows a hawthorn. Colloquially, the town was called Elorrixo in Basque; the Argiñeta tombs that today lie just outside the town of Elorrio are both pre-Christian and Christian. In 1053, the San Agustín de Etxebarria monastery was founded, which in time was renovated and became present-day church. In 1356, Don Tello, Lord of Biscay created Elorrio on the land where the monastery stood, as a means of creating a town to defend his borders against invasion from neighboring Gipuzkoa. In 1468 the town was the site of a major battle between warring clan factions in the Basque Country. However, incidents of this type decreased, between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries, the town's fortunes grew, gaining renown for its iron-forges, the production of lances; as a result of this economic expansion, a number of important buildings were constructed that are today considered monuments of significant historical and architectural importance.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, although it remained a predominantly rural town, became a tourist destination, as people visited the locality to attend one of its two well-known spas. After the Spanish Civil War, Elorrio went through a period of industrialization, with a number of small, family firms and worker cooperative enterprises emerging. In 1964, the whole town was the first one in Biscay to be declared a Centre of Historical and Artistic Importance, its population, which grew from 3,500 in 1950 to 8,000 in 1981 numbers just over 7,000 people. Elorrio is located at the easternmost point of Biscay, in the comarca of Durangaldea, northern Spain, it limits at north with Berriz and Zaldibar at northwest with Abadiño, at west with Atxondo, at east with the province of Gipuzkoa and at south with the province of Álava. The town is surrounded by various mountains, such as Intxorta and Udalatx, is traversed by the Zumelegi river that, after joining the River Arrazola in Atxondo, goes on to form the Ibaizabal river.
The town is situated 39 km from the provincial capital of Bilbao. The National Institute of Statistics estimates that the population of Elorrio was 7,294 in January 1, 2013; the economy of the municipality is based on the industrial activity. Nonetheless, the farming activities still have relevance in the area. Most of the rural exploitations are based on beef and milk production and, in less numbers, the exploitation of pines; the most important economical activity in the area is the industry. The only mean of transport is by road. In Durango the road connects with the AP-8 highway to Bilbao and Donostia-San Sebastián while in Arrasate-Mondragón it connects to the AP-1 highway to Eibar and Vitoria-Gasteiz. From Elorrio starts the BI-2632 road to Bergara and Elgeta and the BI-3321 road to Berriz. Two lines of the Bizkaibus network have stations in Elorrio. Elorrio has buses to Bilbao every hour and to Durango and other lesser municipalities every 30 minutes. Aniceto Sagastizabal, born in 1940, using the name'Gasti' was known as'The World's Greatest Jai-Alai Player'.
Gasti had a successful career as a professional player of the Basque sport Cesta Punta from the mid-50s thru the early 80s in Italy and the United States. Saint Balendin Berrio-Otxoa, one of the Vietnamese Martyrs, was born in Elorrio in 1827. Ordained in 1851, he became a Dominican and was sent to Manila and Tonkin as a missionary. At the age of thirty-one, he was named a bishop, but was killed in Tonkin in 1861, he was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1988. José Antonio Ardanza, born in 1941, was lehendakari or president of the Basque Autonomous Community, 1985-1999, he was the CEO of Euskaltel, a Basque telecommunications company, until his retirement in 2011. Alejandro Goicoechea, born in 1895, was the engineer who developed with José Luis Oriol the Talgo railway vehicle, he died in 1984. Anne Igartiburu, born in 1969, is actress. Victor Maria Bereicua, born in 1954, is a professional Jai-Alai player, who used the name'Elorrio,' in honor of his hometown. Elorrio is famous