Persian known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken in Iran and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran, it is written right to left in a modified variant of the Arabic script. The Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire, its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone. There are 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran and Tajikistan. For centuries, Persian has been a prestigious cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia by the various empires based in the regions. Persian has had a considerable influence on neighboring languages the Turkic languages in Central Asia and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as Armenian and Indo-Aryan languages Urdu.
It exerted some influence on Arabic Bahrani Arabic, while borrowing much vocabulary from it after the Arab conquest of Iran. With a long history of literature in the form of Middle Persian before Islam, Persian was the first language in the Muslim world to break through Arabic's monopoly on writing, the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition in many eastern courts; some of the famous works of Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez and the two miscellanea of prose and verse by Saadi Shirazi, the Gulistan and the Bustan. Persian is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. Other Western Iranian languages are the Kurdish languages, Mazanderani and Balochi. Persian is classified as a member of the Southwestern subgroup within Western Iranian along with Lari and Luri. In Persian, the language is known by several names: Western Persian, the Arabic form of Parsi, is the name used by native speakers of the language.
In recent decades some authors writing in English have referred to the variety of Persian spoken in Iran as Farsi. Eastern Persian, Dari or Dari Persian was a synonym for Farsi but since the latter decades of the 20th century has become the name for the variety of Persian spoken in Afghanistan, where it is one of the two official languages. Tajiki or форси́и тоҷикӣ́ / forsi-i tojikī, is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the Tajiks. Persian, the more used name of the language in English, is an anglicized form derived from Latin *Persianus < Latin Persia < Greek Περσίς "Persia", a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century. Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Arab conquest of Iran, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic; the name Farsi, the language as a whole, originated in the Fars Province, which itself is the Arabicized form of Pārs.
Farsi is encountered in some linguistic literature as a name for the language, used both by Iranian and by foreign authors. The Academy of Persian Language and Literature, has declared that the name Persian is more appropriate, as it has the longer tradition in western languages and better expresses the role of the language as a mark of cultural and national continuity; some Persian language scholars such as Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, University of Arizona professor Kamran Talattof, have rejected the usage of "Farsi" in their articles. The international language-encoding standard ISO 639-1 uses the code fa, as its coding system is based on the local names; the more detailed standard ISO 639-3 uses the name "Persian" for the dialect continuum spoken across Iran and Afghanistan. This consists of the individual languages Iranian Persian. Voice of America, BBC World Service, Deutsche Welle, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty use "Persian Service" for their broadcasts in the language.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty includes a Tajik service and an Afghan service. The American Association of Teachers of Persian, the Centre for Promotion of Persian Language and Literature use the name "Persian". Persian is an Iranian language which belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. In general, Iranian languages are known from three periods referred to as Old and New periods; these correspond to three eras in Iranian history. According to available documents, the Persian language is "t