Fábrica Nacional de Motores
Fábrica Nacional de Motores was a Brazilian manufacturer of engines and motor vehicles based in the Xerém district of Duque de Caxias near Rio de Janeiro that operated between 1942 and 1988. The company was created 1942 by the Brazilian state as part of the Estado Novo agenda of President Getúlio Vargas, it was one of several business launched by the state during this period to kick start an industrial sector in Brazil. The company produced American Curtiss-Wright aircraft engines under license along with ammunition, bicycles and refrigerators. After the Second World War it was decided to diversify production; the government was keen to launch a vehicle manufacturing industry. In 1949 an agreement was reached with the Italian manufacturer, Isotta Fraschini, whereby FNM would produce the Milanese company's heavy trucks under license. Isotta Fraschini commercial vehicles enjoyed an excellent reputation at this time, but the Italian company was economically troubled, although its formal bankruptcy would be put off till the end of 1951.
The disappearance of Isotta Fraschini as a vehicle manufacturer left FNM looking for a new technology partner. In 1952 an agreement was signed with another Milanese vehicle manufacturer. Unusually in Europe, Alfa Romeo was a state owned business, following bankruptcy and a government rescue in the 1930s. Under the agreement with Alfa Romeo, FNM would manufacture Alfa Romeo's commercial vehicle range under license. Though little known north of the Alps, Alfa Romeo commercial vehicles were well established in Italy, other south European markets. Between 1956 and 1960 FNM built more than 15,000 heavy trucks of Alfa Romeo design: it manufactured the chassis for buses and coaches. In the Brazilian heavy truck sector which FNM dominated till the early 1970s, FNM was the only manufacturer. Trucks produced by FNM were nicknamed "Fenemê". In the mid-fifties a company called Fabral S. A. a collaboration between Alfa Romeo and Brazilian investor Matarazzo, was set up to build the Alfa Romeo 2000. The car was to be built in the state of São Paulo.
The Matarazzo Group backed out in 1958, following troubled discussions about the suitability of building luxurious cars in poor Brazil. After pressure from then-President Juscelino Kubitschek FNM, in which Alfa Romeo held a minority interest, took over the project. In 1960 FNM's first passenger car was launched, the FNM 2000, a Brazilian version of the series 102 Alfa Romeo 2000 four-door sedan; the factory ended up being built in the Xerém neighborhood, of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro instead. The engine was the same 1,975 cc twin camshaft unit found in the Italian product, but detuned to produce only 95 PS and the car received the FNM logo; this series of cars was named "J. K." in honor of President Kubitschek who had helped make the deal take place. This was by far the most luxurious, most expensive, car built in Brazil in the period. A coupé version was offered from 1966. Known as the FNM Onça, the coupé did not follow the line of any Alfa Romeo design, but featured an elegant locally designed body unmistakably reminiscent of the original Ford Mustang.
The regular FNM 2000, was followed by more powerful versions, culminating with the 130 PS TIMB, now boasting usefully more power than was claimed for its Alfa Romeo cousins of the time. The TIMB featured a flat bonnet with a lower-mounted grille, as suggested by Lincoln Tendler aiming a better aerodynamic penetration, a divided front bumper to accommodate the lower centerpiece; this same front design was used for the succeeding FNM 2150, with some detail differences. In 1968 Alfa Romeo acquired a controlling share in the hitherto state-owned FNM business; the next year the FNM 2000 was replaced by a restyled version, the FNM 2150, the most obvious visual differences affecting the front of the car. For this application the twin camshaft four cylinder engine saw its capacity increased to 2132 cc, performance was further enhanced through the installation of a better set of carburetors; the five-speed gearbox was the same one used in all cars made up to that moment. The FNM 2150 would continue in production from 1969 till 1974.
In 1971, another coupé called. Based on chassis and mechanics of the FNM/JK 2150 cc model, the car was designed by Brazilian designer Toni Bianco. Only a few hand built examples were produced, but the stylish coupé may have helped the public image of the by now aging design of the mainstream FNM 2150. Bianco made some sporting creations carrying his own name. Alfa Romeo had disposed of its commercial vehicle operations in Italy in the 1960s, in 1973 the FNM commercial vehicle business was sold to Fiat's industrial vehicle division, while Alfa Romeo retained responsibility for the FNM automobile business – subsequently FNM's commercial vehicle business ended up being absorbed into Fiat's Brazilian Iveco business. 1974 saw the FNM 2150 replaced with the Alfa Romeo 2300. This was the end for the FNM badged cars: the FNM badge itself inspired by the Alfa Romeo badge, was replaced on this car with an actual Alfa Romeo badge; the general look of the new car was similar to that of the Italian built Alfetta sedan, designed by Giuseppe Scarnati and first offered in Europe in 1972, although the Brazilian car was 41 centimetres longer and 7 centimetres wider than the Alfetta.
Under the skin, the 2300 was based technically on the older
Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale and Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint Speciale known as Giulietta SS and Giulia SS, are small sports cars manufactured by Alfa Romeo from 1959 to 1966. The first prototype of the Giulietta SS was presented in 1957 at the Turin Motor Show. After two more prototypes were presented in car shows, the official presentation of the production version for the press was on 24 June 1959 on the Monza race track; the first 101 cars produced had 750 SS designation. 100 cars minimum were needed to homologate a car in FIA regulations. While there were some all-aluminium cars produced, the majority of these cars had steel bodies with aluminium doors, engine bonnet and boot lid. First cars were equipped with Weber 40 DCO3 carburettors changed to 40 DCOE2; the drag coefficient of the Sprint Speciale is 0.28, the same as a Chevrolet Corvette, was not surpassed for more than twenty years. Cars used the 1,290 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, a design with hemispheric combustion chambers and valves controlled directly by twin overhead camshafts.
Small changes to a production version included steel doors, Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors, higher front nose, removal of plexiglas windows. Bumpers were fitted front and rear cars had some minimal sound-proofing. With the 1290 cc engine and 100 hp of power the maximum speed was around 200 km/h; the 1.3 litre engine and gearbox was the same as used in race-oriented Giulietta Sprint Zagato. All Giuliettas SS had three-shoe drum brakes at the rear. Export versions had 101.17 designation. Side badges had "Giulietta Sprint Speciale" script. There was a prototype by Bertone of a replacement for Giulietta SS, named "Giulia SS Bertone Prototipo", but the new shape did not enter production and the next generation Giulia SS carried over an unchanged Giulietta SS body. Giulia Sprint Speciale Bertone Prototipo The bigger engine 1.6 L Giulia series replaced the Giulietta and was introduced at the March 1963 Geneva Motor Show. As Giulietta is the diminutive for Giulia in Italian, the new Giulia name was a wordplay hinting that the new car was a grown-up version of the Giulietta.
In spite of a Giulia SS prototype, Alfa Romeo decided to retain the Giulietta-shaped SS in production. The 1,570cc engine made up to 200 km/h possible; the 1,570cc engine with Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors was taken from Giulia Sprint Veloce and delivered 112 hp of power. Most Giulia SS had disc brakes at front wheels. An easy way to distinguish the Giulia SS from the Giulietta SS is by the dashboard; the Giulia has a leather underside with the glovebox at a different angle than the main fascia. The dashboard in the Giulietta painted in one colour without a leather underside. Side badges carried "Giulia SS" scripts. Production ended in 1965, with a last single Sprint Speciale completed in 1966.1,366 Giulietta Sprint Speciale and 1,400 Giulia Sprint Speciale were produced. 25 cars were converted to right hand drive by RuddSpeed. Alfa Romeo Giulietta Alfa Romeo Giulia SSZ Stradale Media related to Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint at Wikimedia Commons Sprint Speciale Register
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus
Alfa Romeo 8C
The Alfa Romeo 8C was a range of Alfa Romeo road and sports cars of the 1930s. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which made it into production for 2007, the 8C Competizione; the 8C designates 8 cylinders, a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards. In its development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models, including a Touring Spider and Touring Berlinetta. In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987 cc P2, with common crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship in 1925.
Although it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used. The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race through Italy, had a common crankcase, now with two alloy four-cylinder blocks, which incorporated the heads; the bore and stroke, were the same as the 6C 1750. There was no separate head, no head gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead camshafts and ancillaries; as far as production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two models, the 8C 2300 and the more rare and expensive 8C 2900, bore increased to 68 mm and stroke to 100 mm. At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required to carry a mechanic, Alfa Romeo built the first single seater race car; as a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the chassis. As the resulting car was too heavy and complex, Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called Monoposto Tipo B for the 1932 Grand Prix season.
The Tipo B proved itself the winning car of its era, winning straight from its first outing at the 1932 Italian Grand Prix, was powered with an enlarged version of the 8C engine now at 2,665 cc, fed through a pair of superchargers instead of a single one. Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to private owners, but by autumn 1931 Alfa sold it as a rolling chassis in Lungo or Corto form with prices starting at over £1000; the chassis were fitted with bodies from a selection of Italian coach-builders such as Zagato, Carrozzeria Touring, Carrozzeria Castagna, Carrozzeria Pinin Farina and Brianza though Alfa Romeo did make bodies. Some chassis were clothed by coach-builders such as Graber and Tuscher of Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo had a practice of rebodying cars for clients, some racing vehicles were sold rebodied as road vehicles; some of the famous first owners include Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio, Raymond Sommer, Tazio Nuvolari.
The first model was the 1931'8C 2300', a reference to the car's 2.3 L engine designed as a racing car, but produced in 188 units for road use. While the racing version of the 8C 2300 Spider, driven by Tazio Nuvolari won the 1931 and 1932 Targa Florio race in Sicily, the 1931 Italian Grand Prix victory at Monza gave the "Monza" name to the twin seater GP car, a shortened version of the Spider; the Alfa Romeo factory added the name of events won to the name of a car.'8C 2300 tipo Le Mans' was the sport version of the'8C 2300' and it had a successful debut in the 1931 Eireann Cup driven by Henry Birkin. It won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1931; the 8C 2300 Le Mans model on display at the Museo Alfa Romeo was bought by Sir Henry Birkin in 1931 for competition use, but it is not the car in which Birkin and Howe won the 1931 Le Mans 24 hours. A 1933 8C 2300 Le Mans, chassis #2311201, is part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, US; the car was owned by Lord Howe who campaigned it in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1934 as well as in 1935 when it set the fastest lap before retiring.
In 1933 the supercharged dual overhead cam straight-8 engine, enlarged to 2.6 litres for the Tipo B, was fitted to the Scuderia Ferrari 8C Monzas. Scuderia Ferrari had become the "semi-official" racing department of Alfa Romeo, who were no longer entering races as a factory effort due to the poor economic situation of the company. With the initial 215 hp of the 2.6 engine, the Monoposto Tipo B racer could accelerate to 60 mph in less than 7 seconds and could reach 135 mph. For 1934 the race engines became 2.9 litres. Tazio Nuvolari won the 1935 German GP at the Nürburgring at the wheel of a 3.2 L Tipo B against the more powerful Silver Arrows from Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union. Eight 3.8-litre versions, sharing no castings with the earlier blocks, were individually built for racing in five months, most being used in the Alfa Romeo Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, as raced by Scuderia Ferrari. The 3.8 produced 330 bhp at 5500 rpm, had 320 lb⋅ft from 900 rpm to 5500 rpm. It had 15.5-inch drum brakes all round, using Pirelli 5.25 or 5.50 x 19 tyres at the front and 7.00 or 7.50 x 19 tyres at the rear.
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Overhead camshaft abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves and pushrods. Compared with OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system that drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance and greater design flexibility; the fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the engine's ability to exchange induction and exhaust gases. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length.
The OHC design allows for higher engine speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs, as a result of having lower valvetrain mass. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output. Disadvantages of the OHC design include the complexity of the camshaft drive, the need to re-time the drive system each time the cylinder head is removed, the accessibility of tappet adjustment if necessary. In earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design. In an inline engine, this means there is one camshaft in the head, whilst in an engine with more than one cylinder head, such as a V engine or a horizontally-opposed engine – there are two camshafts, one per cylinder bank. In the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves traditionally via a bucket tappet. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads. Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure.
SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared with overhead valve designs when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. An example of an SOHC design using shim and bucket valve adjustment was the engine installed in the Hillman Imp, a small, early-1960s two-door saloon car with a rear-mounted aluminium-alloy engine based on the Coventry Climax FWMA race engines. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the same side of the engine block; this did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs. In the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder; the Toyota system used hydraulic tappets. The Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve-clearance adjustment; the multivalve Sprint version of the Triumph Slant-4 engine used a system where the camshaft was placed directly over the inlet valves, with the same cams that opened the intake valves directly opening the exhaust valves via rocker arms.
Honda used a similar valvetrain system in their motorcycles, using the term "Unicam" for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the inlet valve, indirectly, through a short rocker arm, on the exhaust valve; this allows a light valvetrain to operate valves in a flat combustion chamber. The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes and has been used on the Honda VFR1200 since 2010. A dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves; this design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with an SOHC engine, since the rocker arms are reduced in size or eliminated. A DOHC design exhaust valves than in SOHC engines; this can give a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds. DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug, which in turn improves combustion efficiency.
Engines having more than one bank of cylinders with two camshafts in total remain SOHC and "twin cam" unless each cylinder bank has two camshafts. Although the term "twin cam" is used to refer to DOHC engines, it is imprecise, as it includes designs with two block-mounted camshafts. Examples include the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam engine, Riley car engines from 1926 to the mid 1950s, Triumph motorcycle parallel-twins from the 1930s to the 1980s, Indian Chief and Scout V-twins from 1920 to the 1950s; the terms "multivalve" and "DOHC" do not refer to the same thing: not all multivalve engines are DOHC and not all DOHC engines are multivalve. Examples of DOHC engines with two valves per cylinder include the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, the Jaguar XK6 engine and the Lotus Ford Twin Cam engine. Most recent DOHC engines are multivalve, with between five valves per cylinder. More than two overhead camshafts are not known to have been tried in a production engine. However, MotoCzysz has designed a motorcycle engine with a triple overhead camshaft configuration, with the intake ports descending through the cylind
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe