He designed a method of histographic visualizations which he called the Carte chronographique. He first embarked on studies, but abandoned this to devote his life to science. He studied medicine in Paris and obtained a doctorate in 1748 and he was a keen follower of the work of Benjamin Franklin, and they maintained a regular friendly correspondence. He translated some of Franklins early experimental work into French in 1762 and published it in Gazette dEpidaure and he went on to publish his French translation of Franklins Observations and Experiments in 1773. Barbeu-Dubourg was a member of the Royal Society of Medicine in Paris, the Medical Society of London and he wrote numerous books and papers, Chronographie, ou Description des tems, contenant toute la suite des souverains de lunivers et des principaux événements de chaque siècle. One of the most ambitious of the chronographic charts produced during that period, the chart was 54 feet long, and mounted on an apparatus with scrolls and cranks to allow the reader to move freely through world history, a device which Barbeu-Dubourg called a chronographic machine.
As Streeter Bass recounts, He was too old, he lacked business acumen, Barbeu-Dubourg wrote the article ″Chronologique″ for the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. He died in 1779 in Paris and his ashes were buried in the chapel of Saint-Symphorien church in Saint-Germain-des-Prés
Margaret of Valois
Margaret of Valois was a French princess of the Valois dynasty who became queen consort of Navarre and also of France. Charles IX arranged for her to marry a distant cousin, King Henry III of Navarre, and she thus became Queen of Navarre in 1572. In 1589, after all her brothers had died leaving no sons, Margarets husband, the senior-most agnatic heir to France, succeeded to the French throne as Henry IV, the first Bourbon King of France. A queen of two kingdoms, Margaret was subjected to political manipulations, including being held prisoner by her own brother, Henry III of France. However, her life was anything but passive and she was famous for her beauty and sense of style, notorious for a licentious lifestyle, and proved a competent memoirist. She was indeed one of the most fashionable women of her time, while imprisoned, she took advantage of the time to write her memoirs, which included a succession of stories relating to the disputes of her brothers Charles IX and Henry III with her husband.
The memoirs were published posthumously in 1628, Margaret was born Marguerite de Valois on May 14,1553, at the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the seventh child and third daughter of Henry II and Catherine de Medici. Three of her brothers would become kings of France, Francis II, Charles IX and her sister, Elisabeth of Valois, would become the third wife of King Philip II of Spain. In 1565, her mother Catherine met with Philip IIs chief minister Duke of Alba at Bayonne in hopes of arranging a marriage between Margaret and Philips son Don Carlos, Alba refused any consideration of a dynastic marriage. Margaret was secretly involved with Henry of Guise, the son of the late Duke of Guise, when Catherine found this out, she had her daughter brought from her bed. Catherine and the king beat her and sent Henry of Guise from court. The marriage of the 19-year-old Margaret to Henry, who had become King of Navarre upon the death of his mother, Jeanne dAlbret, the groom, a Huguenot, had to remain outside the cathedral during the religious ceremony.
It was hoped this union would reunite family ties and create harmony between Catholics and the Protestant Huguenots, traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici, the marriage was an occasion on which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris. Margaret has been credited with saving the lives of several prominent Protestants, including her husband, during the massacre, by keeping them in her rooms, Henry of Navarre had to feign conversion to Catholicism. After more than three years of confinement at court, Henry escaped Paris in 1576, leaving his wife behind, finally granted permission to return to her husband in Navarre, for the next three and a half years Margaret and her husband lived in Pau. Both openly kept other lovers, and they quarrelled frequently, after an illness in 1582, Queen Margaret returned to the court of her brother, Henry III, in Paris. Her brother was soon scandalized by her reputation and behavior, and forced her to leave the court, after long negotiations, she was allowed to return to her husbands court in Navarre, but she received an icy reception.
Determined to overcome her difficulties, Queen Margaret masterminded a coup détat and seized power over Agen and she spent several months of fortifying the city, but the citizens of Agen revolted against her, and Queen Margaret fled to the castle of Carlat
Begun some time after 1238 and consecrated on 26 April 1248, the Sainte-Chapelle is considered among the highest achievements of the Rayonnant period of Gothic architecture. It was commissioned by King Louis IX of France to house his collection of Passion relics, along with the Conciergerie, the Sainte-Chapelle is one of the earliest surviving buildings of the Capetian royal palace on the Île de la Cité. Although damaged during the French Revolution, and restored in the 19th century, the relics arrived in Paris in August 1239, carried from Venice by two Dominican friars. For the final stage of their journey they were carried by the King himself and dressed as a penitent, the relics were stored in a large and elaborate silver chest, the Grand-Chasse, on which Louis spent a further 100,000 livres. The entire chapel, by contrast, cost 40,000 livres to build, until it was completed in 1248, the relics were housed at chapels at the Château de Vincennes and a specially built chapel at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
In 1246, fragments of the True Cross and the Holy Lance were added to Louis collection, the chapel was consecrated on 26 April 1248 and Louis relics were moved to their new home with great ceremony. As well as serving as a place of worship, the Sainte-Chapelle played an important role in the political and cultural ambitions of King Louis and his successors. Just as the Emperor could pass privately from his palace into the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, the royal chapel is a prime example of the phase of Gothic architectural style called Rayonnant, marked by its sense of weightlessness and strong vertical emphasis. It stands squarely upon a lower chapel, which served as church for all the inhabitants of the palace. The king was recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church. The internal division into upper and lower chapels is clearly marked on the outside by a string-course, despite its decoration, the exterior is relatively simple and austere, devoid of flying buttresses or major sculpture and giving little hint of the richness within.
No designer-builder is named in the archives concerned with the construction, modern scholarship rejects this attribution in favour of Jean de Chelles or Thomas de Cormont, while Robert Branner saw in the design the hand of an unidentified master mason from Amiens. As has often been argued however the influence on its overall design seems to have come from contemporary metalwork. The Parisian palatine chapel, built to house a reliquary, was itself like a precious reliquary turned inside out, although the interior is dominated by the stained glass, every inch of the remaining wall surface and the vault was richly coloured and decorated. Above the dado level, mounted on the shafts that separate the great windows, are 12 larger-than-life-sized sculpted stone figures representing the 12 Apostles. Each carries a disk marked with the crosses that were traditionally marked on the pillars of a church at its consecration. Niches on the north and south sides of the chapel are the private oratories of the king and of his mother, fifteen huge mid-13th-century windows fill the nave and apse, while a large rose window with Flamboyant tracery dominates the western wall.
Despite some damage the windows display a clear iconographical programme, the three windows of the eastern apse illustrate the New Testament, featuring scenes of The Passion with the Infancy of Christ and the Life of John the Evangelist
John II Casimir Vasa
John II Casimir was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he is known and commonly referred as Jan Kazimierz and his parents were Sigismund III Vasa and Constance of Austria. His older brother, and predecessor on the throne, was Władysław IV Vasa and his reign commenced amid the confusion and disasters caused by the great revolt of the Cossacks under Chmielnicki, who had advanced into the very heart of Poland. The power of the king had been stripped of almost all its prerogatives by the influence of the nobles. Russia and Sweden, which had long been enemies of Poland, availed themselves of its distracted condition. George II Rakoczy of Transylvania invaded the Polish territory, while diet after diet was dissolved by abuses of the liberum veto, Charles X Gustav of Sweden triumphantly marched through the country, and occupied Kraków while John Casimir fled to Silesia.
During these long disturbances John Casimir, though feeble and of a disposition, frequently proved his patriotism. In the following year he retired to France, where he was treated by Louis XIV. His wife had died without issue before his abdication, related to the Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, he was the third and last monarch on the Polish throne from the House of Vasa. He was the last ruler of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth bearing a connection to the Jagiellon dynasty. John Casimir was born in Kraków on 22 March 1609 and his father, Sigismund III, the grandson of Gustav I of Sweden, had in 1592 succeeded his own father to the Swedish throne, only to be deposed in 1599 by his uncle, Charles IX of Sweden. This led to a long-standing feud wherein the Polish kings of the House of Vasa claimed the Swedish throne and his mother, Queen Constance, was the daughter of Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria and the younger sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. John Casimir for most of his life remained in the shadow of his older half-brother and he had few friends among the Polish nobility.
He did, display talent as a military commander, between 1632 and 1635, Władysław IV sought to enhance his brothers influence by negotiating a marriage for John Casimir to Christina of Sweden, to an Italian princess, but to no avail. In 1637 John Casimir undertook a mission to Vienna, which he abandoned to join the army of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1636 he returned to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and fell in love with Baroness Guldentern, in return, Władysław attempted to make him the sovereign of the Duchy of Courland, but this was vetoed by the Commonwealth parliament. He was freed by a mission of the appointed Voivode of Smolensk. In 1641 John Casimir decided to become a Jesuit, in 1642 he again left the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, accompanying his sister to Germany
Lord James Douglas
Lord James Douglas was a Scottish nobleman and soldier. He was born at Douglas Castle, South Lanarkshire, the son of William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas, and his wife Margaret Hamilton, a daughter of Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley. Douglas was sent at an age to the court of Louis XIII, where he was served the King as a Page. At the age of twenty, he was appointed colonel of the Scots Regiment, in 1635, the regiment was bound to King Louis, in all service except against the King of Great Britain. Originally it was commanded by Sir John Hepburn, who was killed at the siege of Saverne in 1636, it was taken over by his nephew. Douglas was appointed the new Colonel, and the name of the corps was altered to the Régiment de Douglas, the regiment fought with distinction, under Douglas, occasionally under the ultimate command of Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne. Douglas was injured in August 1645, and received a letter of sympathy from Cardinal Mazarin and he was killed in a skirmish on the road between Arras and Douai on 21 October 1645, in an attempt to take the latter city from the Habsburgs.
According to Fraser, Louis XIV had indicated his wish to raise Douglas to the rank of Field Marshal, on the day that he died. Douglas body was returned to Paris and buried at the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, beside members of his family, including William Douglas, 10th Earl of Angus. A fine memorial was erected to his memory in the Chapelle de Sainte-Thérèse, Douglas was succeeded as colonel by his elder brother, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus. The Régiment de Douglas returned to British service in 1662, and by 1812 it took its more famous name and the Thirty Years War Regiments. org Timelines and Colonels of the Royal Scots Balfour Paul, Sir James. Edinburgh 1907 Fraser, Sir William Fraser, a History of the House of Douglas. London 1902 Steve Murdoch and Alexia Grosjean, Alexander Leslie and the Scottish Generals of the Thirty Years War, 1618–1648 Douglas, James
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine,30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city, examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864, a number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, on the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple.
Small statues of the dea Sequana Seine goddess and other ex voti found at the place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea, commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine,560 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges, the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine Maritime,105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Multiple locks at Bougival / Chatou and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne, from the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine.
From there on, the river is only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes and this canal has been abandoned for many years. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres. Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second