LTV A-7 Corsair II
The LTV A-7 Corsair II is an American carrier-capable subsonic light attack aircraft manufactured by Ling-Temco-Vought to replace the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk. Its airframe design is a somewhat smaller version of the supersonic Vought F-8 Crusader; the Corsair II entered service with the United States Navy during the Vietnam War. It was adopted by the United States Air Force, including the Air National Guard, to replace the Douglas A-1 Skyraider and North American F-100 Super Sabre; the aircraft was exported to Greece in the 1970s, to Portugal in the late 1980s. The USAF and USN retired the type in 1991, the ANG in 1993, the Portuguese Air Force in 1999, the Hellenic Air Force in 2014. In 1962, the United States Navy began preliminary work on the VAX, a replacement for the A-4 Skyhawk with greater range and payload. Particular emphasis was placed on accurate delivery of weapons to reduce the cost per target; the requirements were finalized in 1963. To minimize costs, all proposals had to be based on existing designs.
Vought, Douglas Aircraft and North American Aviation responded. The Vought proposal was based on their successful F-8 Crusader fighter with a similar configuration, but shorter with a rounded nose, giving it a stubbier appearance, it was selected as the winner on 11 February 1964, on 19 March the company received a contract for the initial batch of aircraft, designated A-7. In 1965, the aircraft received the popular name Corsair II. Vought produced two aircraft known as "Corsair". During the 1920s they produced the O2U Corsair biplane scout and observation aircraft, during World War II they made the successful F4U Corsair. Compared to the F-8 fighter, the A-7 had a broader fuselage; the wing had a longer span, the unique, variable incidence feature of the F-8 wing was omitted. To achieve the required range, the A-7 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-6 turbofan producing 11,345 lbf of thrust, the same innovative combat turbofan produced for the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark and early Grumman F-14 Tomcats, but without the afterburner needed for supersonic speeds.
The aircraft was fitted with an AN/APQ-116 radar followed by the AN/APQ-126, integrated into the ILAAS digital navigation system. The radar fed a digital weapons computer which made possible accurate delivery of bombs from a greater stand-off distance improving survivability compared with faster platforms such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, it was the first U. S. aircraft to have a modern head-up display, now a standard instrument which displayed information such as dive angle, altitude and aiming reticle. The integrated navigation system allowed for another innovation – the projected map display system which showed aircraft position on two different map scales; the A-7 had a smooth development. The YA-7A made its first flight on 27 September 1965, began to enter Navy squadron service late in 1966; the first Navy A-7 squadrons reached operational status on 1 February 1967, began combat operations over Vietnam in December of that year. The A-7 offered a plethora of cutting-edge avionics compared to contemporary aircraft.
This included data link capabilities that, among other features, provided "hands-off" carrier landing capability when used in conjunction with its approach power compensator or auto throttle. Other notable and advanced equipment was a projected map display located just below the radar scope; the map display was slaved to the inertial navigation system and provided a high-resolution map image of the aircraft's position superimposed over TPC/JNC charts. Moreover, when slaved to the all-axis auto pilot, the inertial navigation system could fly the aircraft "hands off" to up to nine individual waypoints. Typical inertial drift was minimal for newly manufactured models and the inertial measurement system accepted fly over, TACAN updates. Initial operational basing/homeporting for USN A-7 squadrons was at NAS Cecil Field, Florida for Atlantic Fleet units and NAS Lemoore, California for Pacific Fleet units; this was in keeping with the role of these bases in hosting the A-4 Skyhawk attack squadrons that would transition to the A-7.
From 1967 to 1971, a total of 27 US Navy squadrons took delivery of four different A-7A/B/C/E models. The Vought plant in Dallas, employed up to 35,000 workers who turned out one aircraft a day for several years to support the navy's carrier-based needs for Vietnam and SE Asia and commitments to NATO in Europe. In 1974, when USS Midway became the first Forward Deployed Naval Force aircraft carrier to be homeported in Yokosuka, two A-7A squadrons assigned to Carrier Air Wing Five were concurrently homeported at NAF Atsugi, Japan. In 1976, these squadrons transitioned to the much more advanced A-7E model. Six Naval Reserve attack squadrons would eventually transition to the A-7, operating from NAS Cecil Field, Florida. An additional active duty squadron stood up in the 1980s, Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 34 at NAS Point Mugu, operating twin-seat TA-7C and EA-7L aircraft with both a pilot and a naval flight officer in an adversary electronic warfare role. Pilots of the early A-7s lauded the aircraft for general ease of flying and excellent forward visibil
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919. It was a wholly owned subsidiary of General Electric. An innovative and progressive company, RCA was the dominant electronics and communications firm in the United States for over five decades. RCA was at the forefront of the mushrooming radio industry in the early 1920s, as a major manufacturer of radio receivers, the exclusive manufacturer of the first superheterodyne models. RCA created the first American radio network, the National Broadcasting Company; the company was a pioneer in the introduction and development of television, both black-and-white and color. During this period, RCA was identified with the leadership of David Sarnoff, he was general manager at the company's founding, became president in 1930, remained active, as chairman of the board, until the end of 1969. RCA's impregnable stature began to weaken in the mid-1970s, as it attempted to diversify and expand into a multifaceted conglomerate.
The company suffered enormous financial losses in the mainframe computer industry and other failed projects such as the CED videodisc. In 1986, RCA was reacquired by General Electric, which over the next few years liquidated most of the corporation's assets. Today, RCA exists as a brand name only. RCA originated as a reorganization of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America. In 1897, the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company, was founded in London to promote the radio inventions of Guglielmo Marconi; as part of worldwide expansion, in 1899 American Marconi was organized as a subsidiary company, holding the rights to use the Marconi patents in the United States and Cuba. In 1912 it took over the assets of the bankrupt United Wireless Telegraph Company, from that point forward it had been the dominant radio communications company in the United States. With the entry of the United States into World War One in April 1917, the government took over most civilian radio stations, to use them for the war effort.
Although the overall U. S. government plan was to restore civilian ownership of the seized radio stations once the war ended, many Navy officials hoped to retain a monopoly on radio communication after the war. Defying instructions to the contrary, the Navy began purchasing large numbers of stations outright. With the conclusion of the conflict, Congress turned down the Navy's efforts to have peacetime control of the radio industry, instructed the Navy to make plans to return the commercial stations it controlled, including the ones it had improperly purchased, to the original owners. Due to national security considerations, the Navy was concerned about returning the high-powered international stations to American Marconi, since a majority of its stock was in foreign hands, the British largely controlled the international undersea cables; this concern was increased by the announcement in late 1918 of the formation of the Pan-American Wireless Telegraph and Telephone Company, a joint venture between American Marconi and the Federal Telegraph Company, with plans to set up service between the United States and South America.
The Navy had installed a high-powered Alexanderson alternator, built by General Electric, at the American Marconi transmitter site in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It proved to be superior for transatlantic transmissions to the spark transmitters, traditionally used by the Marconi companies. Marconi officials were so impressed by the capabilities of the Alexanderson alternators that they began making preparations to adopt them as their standard transmitters for international communication. A tentative plan made with General Electric proposed that over a two-year period the Marconi companies would purchase most of GE's alternator production. However, this proposal was met with disapproval, on national security grounds, by the U. S. Navy, concerned that this would guarantee British domination of international radio communication; the Navy, claiming it was acting with the support of President Wilson, looked for an alternative that would result in an "all-American" company taking over the American Marconi assets.
In April 1919 two naval officers, Admiral H. G. Bullard and Commander S. C. Hooper, met with GE's president, Owen D. Young, asking that he suspend the pending alternator sales to the Marconi companies; this move would leave General Electric without a buyer for its transmitters, so the officers proposed that GE purchase American Marconi, use the assets to form its own radio communications subsidiary. Young consented to this proposal, effective November 20, 1919, transformed American Marconi into the Radio Corporation of America; the new company was promoted as being a patriotic gesture. RCA's incorporation papers required that its officers needed to be U. S. citizens, with a majority of its stock held by Americans. RCA retained most of the American Marconi staff, although Owen Young became the new company's head as the chairman of the board. Former American Marconi vice president and general manager E. J. Nally become RCA's first president. Nally's term ended on December 31, 1922, he was succeeded the next day by Major General James G. Harbord.
McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II
The McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II is a single-engine ground-attack aircraft that constitutes the second generation of the Harrier Jump Jet family. Capable of vertical or short takeoff and landing, the aircraft was designed in the late 1970s as an Anglo-American development of the British Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first operational V/STOL aircraft; the aircraft is employed on light attack or multi-role missions, ranging from close air support of ground troops to armed reconnaissance. The AV-8B is used by the United States Marine Corps, the Spanish Navy, the Italian Navy. A variant of the AV-8B, the British Aerospace Harrier II, was developed for the British military, while another, the TAV-8B, is a dedicated two-seat trainer; the project that led to the AV-8B's creation started in the early 1970s as a cooperative effort between the United States and United Kingdom, aimed at addressing the operational inadequacies of the first-generation Harrier. Early efforts centered on a larger, more powerful Pegasus engine to improve the capabilities of the Harrier.
Due to budgetary constraints, the UK abandoned the project in 1975. Following the withdrawal of the UK, McDonnell Douglas extensively redesigned the earlier AV-8A Harrier to create the AV-8B. While retaining the general layout of its predecessor, the aircraft incorporates a new wing, an elevated cockpit, a redesigned fuselage, one extra hardpoint per wing, other structural and aerodynamic refinements; the aircraft is powered by an upgraded version of the Pegasus, which gives the aircraft its V/STOL ability. The AV-8B made its maiden flight in November 1981 and entered service with the USMC in January 1985. Upgrades added a night-attack capability and radar, resulting in the AV-8B and AV-8B Harrier II Plus, respectively. An enlarged version named Harrier III was studied, but not pursued; the UK, through British Aerospace, re-joined the improved Harrier project as a partner in 1981, giving it a significant work-share in the project. After corporate mergers in the 1990s, Boeing and BAE Systems have jointly supported the program.
340 aircraft were produced in a 22-year production program that ended in 2003. Operated from small aircraft carriers, large amphibious assault ships and simple forward operating bases, AV-8Bs have participated in numerous military and humanitarian operations, proving themselves versatile assets. U. S. Army General Norman Schwarzkopf named the USMC Harrier II as one of several important weapons in the Gulf War; the aircraft took part in combat during the Iraq War beginning in 2003. The Harrier II has served in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan since 2001, was used in Operation Odyssey Dawn in Libya in 2011. Italian and Spanish Harrier IIs have taken part in overseas conflicts in conjunction with NATO coalitions. During its service history, the AV-8B has had a high accident rate, related to the percentage of time spent in critical take-off and landing phases. USMC and Italian Navy AV-8Bs are to be replaced by the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II, with the former expected to operate its Harriers until 2025.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the first-generation Harriers entered service with the Royal Air Force and United States Marine Corps, but were handicapped in range and payload. In short takeoff and landing configuration, the AV-8A carried less than half the 4,000 lb payload of the smaller A-4 Skyhawk, over a more limited radius. To address this issue, Hawker Siddeley and McDonnell Douglas began joint development of a more capable version of the Harrier in 1973. Early efforts concentrated on an improved Pegasus engine, designated the Pegasus 15, being tested by Bristol Siddeley. Although more powerful, the engine's diameter was too large by 2.75 in to fit into the Harrier easily. In December 1973, a joint American and British team completed a project document defining an Advanced Harrier powered by the Pegasus 15 engine; the Advanced Harrier was intended to replace the original RAF and USMC Harriers, as well as the USMC's A-4. The aim of the Advanced Harrier was to double the AV-8's payload and range, was therefore unofficially named AV-16.
The British government pulled out of the project in March 1975 owing to decreased defense funding, rising costs, the RAF's insufficient 60-aircraft requirement. With development costs estimated to be around £180–200 million, the United States was unwilling to fund development by itself, ended the project that year. Despite the project's termination, the two companies continued to take different paths toward an enhanced Harrier. Hawker Siddeley focused on a new larger wing that could be retrofitted to existing operational aircraft, while McDonnell Douglas independently pursued a less ambitious, though still expensive, project catering to the needs of the US military. Using knowledge gleaned from the AV-16 effort, though dropping some items—such as the larger Pegasus engine—McDonnell Douglas kept the basic structure and engine for an aircraft tailored for the USMC; as the USMC wanted a improved Harrier without the development of a new engine, the plan for Harrier II development was authorized by the United States Department of Defense in 1976.
The United States Navy, which had traditionally procured military aircraft for the USMC, insisted that the new design be verified with flight testing. McDonnell Douglas modified two AV-8As with new wings, revised intakes, redesigned exhaust nozzles, other aerodynamic changes. Designated YAV-8B, the first converted aircraft flew on 9 November 1978
Bell AH-1Z Viper
The Bell AH-1Z Viper is an American twin-engine attack helicopter, based on the AH-1W SuperCobra, developed for the United States Marine Corps as part of the H-1 upgrade program. The AH-1Z features a four-blade, composite main rotor system, uprated transmission, a new target sighting system; the AH-1Z, one of the latest members of the prolific Huey family, is called "Zulu Cobra", based on the military phonetic alphabet pronunciation of its variant letter. Aspects of the AH-1Z date back to the Bell 249 in 1979, an AH-1S equipped with the four-blade main rotor system from the Bell 412; this helicopter demonstrated Bell's Cobra II design at the Farnborough Airshow in 1980. The Cobra II was to be equipped with a new targeting system and improved engines. Came the Cobra 2000 proposal which included General Electric T700 engines and a four-blade rotor; this design drew interest from the US Marine Corps. In 1993, Bell proposed an AH-1W-based version for the UK's new attack helicopter program; the derivative design, named CobraVenom, featured a modern digital cockpit and could carry TOWs, Hellfire or Brimstone missiles.
The CobraVenom design was altered in 1995 by changing to a four-blade rotor system. The design lost to the AH-64D that year however. In 1996, the USMC launched the H-1 upgrade program by signing a contract with Bell Helicopter for upgrading 180 AH-1Ws into AH-1Zs and upgrading 100 UH-1Ns into UH-1Ys; the H-1 program created modernized attack and utility helicopters with considerable design commonality to reduce operating costs. The AH-1Z and UH-1Y share a common tailboom, rotor system, avionics architecture, software and displays for over 84% identical components. Bell participated in a joint Bell-Government integrated test team during the engineering manufacturing development phase of the H-1 program; the AH-1Z program progressed from 1996 to 2003 as a research and development operation. The existing two-blade semi-rigid, teetering rotor system is being replaced with a four-blade, bearingless rotor system; the four-blade configuration provides improvements in flight characteristics including increased flight envelope, maximum speed, vertical rate of climb and reduced rotor vibration level.
The AH-1Z first flew on 8 December 2000. Bell delivered three prototype aircraft to the United States Navy's Naval Air Systems Command at Naval Air Station Patuxent River in July 2002, for the flight test phase of the program. Low-rate initial production began in October 2003, with deliveries to run through 2018. In late 2006 NAVAIR awarded a contract to Meggitt Defense Systems to develop a new linkless 20 mm ammunition handling system to improve on the gun feed reliability of the existing linked feed system; these systems are now being retrofitted into the AH-1W and AH-1Z fleets with good results during combat in Afghanistan. In February 2008, the U. S. Navy adjusted the contract so the last 40 AH-1Zs are built as new airframes instead of the planned rebuild of AH-1Ws. In September 2008, the Navy requested an additional 46 airframes for the Marine Corps, bringing the total number ordered to 226. In 2010, the Marine Corps planned to order 189 AH-1Zs with 58 of them being new airframes, with deliveries to continue until 2022.
On 10 December 2010, the Department of the Navy approved the AH-1Z for full-rate production. The AH-1Z incorporates new rotor technology with upgraded military avionics, weapons systems, electro-optical sensors in an integrated weapons platform, it has improved survivability and can find targets at longer ranges and attack them with precision weapons. The AH-1Z's new bearingless, hingeless rotor system has 75% fewer parts than that of four-bladed articulated systems; the blades are made of composites, which have an increased ballistic survivability, there is a semiautomatic folding system for storage aboard amphibious assault ships. Its two redesigned wing stubs are longer, with each adding a wingtip station for a missile such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder; each wing has two other stations for 2.75-inch Hydra 70 rocket pods, or AGM-114 Hellfire quad missile launchers. The AN/APG-78 Longbow fire control radar can be mounted on a wingtip station; the Z-model's integrated avionics system has been developed by Northrop Grumman.
The system includes an automatic flight control system. Each crew station has two 8×6-inch multifunction liquid crystal displays and one 4.2×4.2-inch dual function LCD. The communications suite combines a US Navy RT-1824 integrated radio, UHF/VHF, COMSEC and modem in a single unit; the navigation suite includes an embedded GPS inertial navigation system, a digital map system and Meggitt's low-airspeed air data subsystem, which allows weapons delivery when hovering. The crew are equipped with the Thales "Top Owl" helmet-mounted display system; the Top Owl has a binocular display with a 40 ° field of view. Its visor projection provides forward looking infrared or video imagery; the AH-1Z has survivability equipment including the Hover Infrared Suppression System to cover engine exhausts, countermeasure dispensers, radar warning, incoming/on-way missile warning, on-fuselage laser spot warning systems. The Lockheed Martin Target Sight System incorporates a third-generation FLIR sensor; the TSS provides target sighting in night, or adverse weather conditions.
The system has various view modes and can track with FLIR or by TV. The same system is used on the KC-130J Harvest HAWK; the AH-1Z completed sea-trial flight testing in May 2005. On 15 October 2005, the USMC, through the Naval Air Systems Com
McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas to gain and maintain air supremacy in all aspects of aerial combat. Following reviews of proposals, the United States Air Force selected McDonnell Douglas's design in 1967 to meet the service's need for a dedicated air-superiority fighter; the Eagle first flew in July 1972, entered service in 1976. It is among the most successful modern fighters, with over 100 victories and no losses in aerial combat, with the majority of the kills by the Israeli Air Force; the Eagle has been exported to Israel and Saudi Arabia. The F-15 was envisioned as a pure air-superiority aircraft, its design included a secondary ground-attack capability, unused. The aircraft design proved flexible enough that an all-weather strike derivative, the F-15E Strike Eagle, an improved and enhanced version, developed, entered service in 1989 and has been exported to several nations; as of 2017, the aircraft is being produced in different variants with production set to end in 2022.
The F-15 can trace its origins to the early Vietnam War, when the U. S. Air Force and the U. S. Navy fought each other over future tactical aircraft. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara was pressing for both services to use as many common aircraft as possible if performance compromises were involved; as part of this policy, the USAF and Navy had embarked on the TFX program, aiming to deliver a medium-range interdiction aircraft for the Air Force that would serve as a long-range interceptor aircraft for the Navy. In January 1965, Secretary McNamara asked the Air Force to consider a new low-cost tactical fighter design for short-range roles and close air support to replace several types like the F-100 Super Sabre and various light bombers in service. Several existing designs could fill this role; the A-4 and A-7 were more capable in the attack role, while the F-5 less so, but could defend itself. If the Air Force chose a pure attack design, maintaining air superiority would be a priority for a new airframe.
The next month, a report on light tactical aircraft suggested the Air Force purchase the F-5 or A-7, consider a new higher-performance aircraft to ensure its air superiority. This point was reinforced after the loss of two Republic F-105 Thunderchief aircraft to obsolete MiG-15s or MiG-17s on 4 April 1965. In April 1965, Harold Brown, at that time director of the Department of Defense Research and Engineering, stated the favored position was to consider the F-5 and begin studies of an "F-X"; these early studies envisioned a production run of 800 to 1,000 aircraft and stressed maneuverability over speed. On 1 August, Gabriel Disosway took command of Tactical Air Command and reiterated calls for the F-X, but lowered the required performance from Mach 3.0 to 2.5 to lower costs. An official requirements document for an air superiority fighter was finalized in October 1965, sent out as a request for proposals to 13 companies on 8 December. Meanwhile, the Air Force chose the A-7 over the F-5 for the support role on 5 November 1965, giving further impetus for an air superiority design as the A-7 lacked any credible air-to-air capability.
Eight companies responded with proposals. Following a downselect, four companies were asked to provide further developments. In total, they developed some 500 design concepts. Typical designs featured variable-sweep wings, weight over 60,000 pounds, included a top speed of Mach 2.7 and a thrust-to-weight ratio of 0.75. When the proposals were studied in July 1966, the aircraft were the size and weight of the TFX F-111, like that aircraft, were designs that could not be considered an air-superiority fighter. Through this period, studies of combat over Vietnam were producing worrying results. Theory optimized aircraft for this role; the result was loaded aircraft with large radar and excellent speed, but limited maneuverability and lacking a gun. The canonical example was the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, used by the USAF, USN, U. S. Marine Corps to provide air superiority over Vietnam, the only fighter with enough power and maneuverability to be given the primary task of dealing with the threat of Soviet fighters while flying with visual engagement rules.
In practice, due to policy and practical reasons, aircraft were closing to visual range and maneuvering, placing the larger US aircraft at a disadvantage to the much less expensive day fighters such as the MiG-21. Missiles proved to be much less reliable than predicted at close range. Although improved training and the introduction of the M61 Vulcan cannon did much to address the disparity, these early outcomes led to considerable re-evaluation of the 1963 Project Forecast doctrine; this led to John Boyd's energy–maneuverability theory, which stressed that extra power and maneuverability were key aspects of a successful fighter design and these were more important than outright speed. Through tireless championing of the concepts and good timing with the "failure" of the initial F-X project, the "fighter mafia" pressed for a lightweight day fighter that could be built and operated in large numbers to ensure air superiority. In early 1967, they proposed that the ideal design had a thrust-to-weight ratio near 1:1, a maximum speed further reduced to Mach 2.3, a weight of 40,000 pounds, a wing loading of 80 lb/ft².
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United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Rockwell B-1 Lancer
The Rockwell B-1 Lancer is a supersonic variable-sweep wing, heavy bomber used by the United States Air Force. It is called the "Bone", it is one of three strategic bombers in the U. S. Air Force fleet as of 2018, the other two being the B-2 Spirit and the B-52 Stratofortress; the B-1 was first envisioned in the 1960s as a platform that would combine the Mach 2 speed of the B-58 Hustler with the range and payload of the B-52, would replace both bombers. After a long series of studies, Rockwell International won the design contest for what emerged as the B-1A; this version had a top speed of Mach 2.2 at high altitude and the capability of flying for long distances at Mach 0.85 at low altitudes. The combination of the high cost of the aircraft, the introduction of the AGM-86 cruise missile that flew the same basic profile, early work on the stealth bomber all affected the need for the B-1; this led to the program being canceled in 1977. The program was restarted in 1981 as an interim measure until the stealth bomber entered service.
This led to a redesign as the B-1B, which had lower top speed at high altitude of Mach 1.25, but improved low-altitude performance of Mach 0.96. The electronics were extensively improved during the redesign, the airframe was improved to allow takeoff with the maximum possible fuel and weapons load; the B-1B began deliveries in 1986 and formally entered service with Strategic Air Command as a nuclear bomber in 1986. By 1988, all 100 aircraft had been delivered. In the early 1990s, following the Gulf War and concurrent with the disestablishment of SAC and its reassignment to the newly formed Air Combat Command, the B-1B was converted to conventional bombing use, it first served in combat during Operation Desert Fox in 1998 and again during the NATO action in Kosovo the following year. The B-1B has supported U. S. and NATO military forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Air Force had 66 B-1Bs in service as of September 2012; the B-1B is expected to continue to serve into the 2030s, with the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider to begin replacing the B-1B after 2025.
The B-1s in inventory will be retired by 2036. In 1955, the USAF issued requirements for a new bomber combining the payload and range of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress with the Mach 2 maximum speed of the Convair B-58 Hustler. In December 1957, the USAF selected North American Aviation's B-70 Valkyrie for this role; the Valkyrie was a six-engine bomber. Soviet interceptor aircraft, the only effective anti-bomber weapon in the 1950s, were unable to intercept the high-flying Lockheed U-2. By the late 1950s, antiaircraft surface-to-air missiles could threaten high-altitude aircraft, as demonstrated by the 1960 downing of Gary Powers' U-2; the USAF Strategic Air Command was aware of these developments and had begun moving its bombers to low-level penetration before the U-2 downing. This tactic reduces radar detection distances through the use of terrain masking. Additionally, radars of the era were subject to "clutter" from stray returns from the ground and other objects, which meant a minimum angle existed above the horizon where they could detect a target.
Bombers flying at low altitudes could remain under these angles by keeping their distance from the radar sites. This combination of effects made SAMs of the era ineffective against low-flying aircraft; the same effects meant that low-flying aircraft were difficult to detect by higher-flying interceptors, since their radar systems could not pick out opposing aircraft against the clutter from ground reflections. The switch from high-altitude to low-altitude flight profiles affected the B-70, whose design was tuned to provide the desired high-altitude performance. Planners outlined a series of low-level profiles for the B-70, but higher aerodynamic drag at low level limited the B-70 to subsonic speed while decreasing its range; the result would be an aircraft with somewhat higher subsonic speed than the less range. Unsuited for the new low-altitude role, because of a growing shift to the intercontinental ballistic missile force, the B-70 bomber program was cancelled in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy, the two XB-70 prototypes were used in a supersonic research program.
Although never intended for the low-level role, the B-52's flexibility allowed it to outlast its intended successor as the nature of the air war environment changed. The B-52's huge fuel load allowed it to operate at lower altitudes for longer times, the large airframe allowed the addition of improved radar jamming and deception suites to deal with radars. During the Vietnam War, the concept that all future wars would be nuclear was turned on its head, the "big belly" modifications increased the B-52's total bomb load to 60,000 pounds, turning it into a powerful tactical aircraft which could be used against ground troops along with strategic targets from high altitudes; the much smaller bomb bay of the B-70 would have made it much less useful in this role. Although effective, the B-52 was not ideal for the low-level role; this led to a number of aircraft designs known as penetrators, which were tuned for long-range low-altitude flight. The first of these designs to see operation was the superso