Abu'l-Walid Hisham II al-Mu'ayyad bi-llah was the third Umayyad Caliph of Spain, in Al-Andalus from 976–1009, 1010–13. In 976, at the age of 11, Hisham II succeeded his father Al-Hakam II as Caliph of Cordoba. Hisham II was a minor at the time of his accession and therefore was unfit to rule. In order to benefit the Caliphate, his mother Subh was aided by first minister Jafar al-Mushafi to act as regents with al-Mansur ibn Abi Aamir as her steward. In 978 Almanzor manipulated his way into the position of royal chamberlain. In an attempt to position himself as a prospective ruler of the Caliphate and General Ghalib al-Siklabi sabotaged the brother of Al-Hakam II, set to succeed his brother and become the next Caliph of Cordoba. Too young to rule, Hisham II handed his political reins of power over to Almanzor in 981 who became the de facto leader of the Caliphate until his death in 1002. Al-Mansur ibn Abi Amir perpetuated his position as the omnipotent ruler in charge of the empire while he exiled Hisham II and kept him prisoner leaving him impotent for most of his reign as the third Caliph of Cordoba.
With his countless successful campaigns against Christian powers in the Spanish North such as Barcelona in 985, León in 988, as well as a major strike on the church of St. James in the Galician city of Santiago de Compostela in 998, Almanzor is known for bringing the Caliphate of Córdoba to its apex of power in Islamic Iberian history. In 1002, after the death of his father, Abd al-Malik became the ruler of the Caliphate and led successful campaigns against Navarre and Barcelona. In 1008 Abd ur-Rahman Sangul is said to have poisoned his brother which led to his death in October 1008. In 1009, while Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo was waging war against Alfonso V in León, Muhammad II al-Mahdi usurped the throne from Hisham II held him hostage in Cordoba. In November of the same year, just months after initiating his control as the ruler of the Caliphate, Muhammad II al-Mahdi was overthrown by a Berber army, led by Sulayman ibn al-Hakam in the battle of Alcolea. After the battle, Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar was exiled to Toledo at which point Sulayman laid siege to Cordoba freeing Hisham II from the imprisonment that took place under the rule of Muhammad II al-Mahdi.
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam was appointed to Caliph by his Berber army and maintained that position until Muhammad II al-Mahdi re-conquered the territory in May, 1010. The Slavic troops of the Caliphate under al-Wahdid restored Hisham II as Caliph. Hisham II was now under the influence of al-Wahdid, unable to gain control of the Berber troops - these still supported Sulayman, the civil war continued, it is known that Hisham "openly kept a male harem." In 1013 the Berbers took Cordoba with much destruction. What happened to Hisham after, uncertain – he was killed on 19 April 1013 by the Berbers. In any case, Sulayman al-Mustain became Caliph. Due to his disappearance, hence his possible survival, Hisham II was revived as a symbol of legitimacy by the taifa kings who appeared following the definitive collapse of the caliphate: in 1035, the ruler of the Taifa of Seville, Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad, announced that Hisham had reappeared, declared his allegiance to him. Other taifas falling under Seville's sway during the following years followed suit.
It was not until 1060 that the Sevillan ruler Abbad II al-Mu'tadid acknowledged that this supposed Hisham had died in 1044 without a successor, but the "convenient fiction" of his survival lasted until at least 1082/83, when his name still appears in the coins of the Taifa of Zaragoza. Jacob ibn Jau Kennedy, Hugh. Muslim Spain and Portugal. A political history of al-Andalus. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-49515-9. Al-Andalus: the art of Islamic Spain, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Hisham II
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. He was a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz, he was a matrilineal great-grandson of the second caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. Umar was born around 2 November 682 in Medina, his father ruled over Egypt as viceroy to the caliph. He grew up and lived there until the death of his father, after which he was summoned to Damascus by Abd al-Malik and married to his daughter Fatima, his father-in-law would die soon after, he would serve as governor of Medina under his cousin Al-Walid I. Umar I had ordered. Once, while on night time patrol to inquire into the condition of people, he heard a woman ask her daughter to mix water into the milk before the daybreak; the girl refused. When the mother retorted by saying that the caliph was not present and he would not know of it, the daughter replied that God is omniscient if the caliph was not present. Umar I was so pleased with the reply that he asked his son Asim to marry the girl, saying that he hoped that she will give birth to a man who would rule over Arabia.
Umar II was the son of Asim's daughter from this marriage. Unlike most rulers of that era, Umar formed a council, his time in Medina was so notable that official grievances ceased. In addition, many people emigrated to Medina from Iraq seeking refuge from their harsh governor, Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef; that angered Al-Hajjaj, he pressed al-Walid to remove Umar. Much to the dismay of the people of Medina, al-Walid bowed to Hajjaj's pressure and dismissed Umar from his post. By this time, Umar had developed an impeccable reputation across the Islamic empire. Umar continued to live in Medina through the remainder of al-Walid's reign and that of Walid's brother Suleiman; as Suleiman fell ill and was unlikely to recover, he was anxious to leave the throne to one of his sons who were still minors, but was unable to do so because of their youth. His advisor Raja ibn Haywah promptly proposed Umar as the successor to the throne. Suleiman accepted this suggestion and Umar reluctantly accepted the position after trying unsuccessfully to dissuade Suleiman.
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz was a scholar himself and surrounded himself with great scholars like Muhammed bin Kaab and Maimun bin Mehran. He encouraged education. Through his personal example, he inculcated piety, business ethics and moral rectitude in the general population, his reforms included strict abolition of drinking, forbidding public nudity, elimination of mixed bathrooms for men and women and fair dispensation of Zakat. He undertook extensive public works in Persia and North Africa, including the construction of canals, rest houses for travellers and medical dispensaries, he continued the welfare programs of the last few Umayyad caliphs, expanding them and including special programs for orphans and the destitute. He would abolish the jizya tax for converts to Islam, who were former dhimmis, who used to be taxed after they had converted under other Umayyad rulers. Umar II is credited with having ordered the first official collection of hadith, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at Umar II’s behest.
He made other reforms: State officials were excluded from entering into any business. Unpaid labour was made illegal. Pasture lands and game reserves, which were reserved for the family of the dignitaries, were evenly distributed among the poor for the purpose of cultivation, he urged to all of the officials to listen the complaints of the people and during any occasion, he used to announce that if any subject had seen any officer mistreating others, he should report him to the leader and will be given a reward ranging from 100 to 300 dirhams. Under previous Umayyad rulers, Arab Muslims had certain financial privileges over non-Arab Muslims. Non-Arab converts to Islam were still expected to pay the jizya poll tax that they paid before becoming Muslims. Umar put into practice a new system that exempted all Muslims, regardless of their heritage, from the jizya tax, he added some safeguards to the system to make sure that mass conversion to Islam would not cause the collapse of the finances of the Umayyad government.
Under the new tax policy, converted mawali would not pay the jizya, but upon conversion, their land would become the property of the villages and remain liable to the full rate of the kharaj, or land tax. This compensated for the loss of income due to the diminished jizya tax base. Though Umar did not place as much an emphasis on expanding the Empire's borders as his predecessors had, he was not passive. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari states that he sent Ibn Hatim ibn al-Nu'man to repel Turks invading Azerbaijan, he faced a Kharijite uprising and preferred negotiations to armed conflict holding talks with two Kharijite envoys shortly before his death. He recalled the troops besieging Constantinople led by his cousin Maslama; the Second Arab siege of Constantinople had failed to take the city and was sustaining heavy losses at the hands of allied Byzantine and Bulgarian forces. Its defeat was a serious blow to Umayyad prestige. One of Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor.
Yazid was experienced militarily and had t
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p
Yazid ibn al-Walid ibn'Abd al-Malik or Yazid III was an Umayyad caliph. He reigned for six months, from April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744, died in that office. Yazid was the son of a Persian princess, given as a concubine to Caliph al-Walid I, his mother was a daughter of Peroz. Al-Tabari quotes a couplet of Yazid's on his own ancestry: I am the son of Chosroes, my ancestor was Marwan, Caesar was my grandsire and my grandsire was Khagan. Tabari further records descriptions of Yazid as being handsome. During the reign of his cousin al-Walid II, Yazid spoke out against Walid's "immorality" which included discrimination on behalf of the Banu Qays Arabs against Yemenis and non-Arab Muslims, Yazid received further support from the Qadariya and Murji'iya. Yazid slipped into Damascus and deposed Walid in a coup, following this up with a disbursement of funds from the treasury. According to Yazid's own account, Yazid sent Abd al-Aziz ibn al-Hajjaj to meet Walid at al-Bakhra'.'Abd al-Aziz offered to set up a tribal assembly to decide the future of the realm.
Walid attacked, by which action he lost his life. Yazid had Walid's head hoisted "on a lance and paraded around Damascus". On accession, Yazid explained that he had rebelled on behalf of the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet, that this entailed ensuring that the strong not prey upon the weak, he promised "to engage in no building works, squander no money on wives or children, transfer no money from one province to another" without reason, "keep no troops on the field too long", not to overtax the ahl al-dhimma. He promised abdication if he failed to meet these goals, held in principle to al-amr shura – to an elected caliphate. Tabari records Yazid's nickname "the Diminisher", given because he reduced military annuities by 10%, whereas his predecessor had promised a raise. According to Islamic popular tradition, recorded in an apocalyptic style, Yazid would go himself into the marketplace; the city of Homs refused allegiance to Yazid, there were several other dissident movements against him.
Another cousin, Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan, governor of Armenia, had supported Walid and on Walid's death entered Iraq to avenge him. Marwan rallied around Yazid. Yazid appointed Mansur ibn Jumhur to replace Yusuf ibn'Umar as governor of Iraq. On May 15, Yazid wrote a letter, preserved in al-Baladhuri, it supports the Umayyad dynasty up to but not including "the enemy of Allah" al-Walid II, at which point it lays out Yazid's version of the event at al-Bakhra'. At the end, Tabari's rendition has Yazid exhorting the Iraqis to follow Mansur ibn Jumhur. Yusuf ibn'Umar was subsequently imprisoned and killed by the son of Khalid ibn'Abdallah al-Qasri. Mansur attempted to dismiss the Khurasani governor Nasr ibn Sayyar. Facing opposition from Juday al-Kirmani, Nasr invited al-Harith ibn Surayj to return from his thirteen-year stay in Turgesh territory. Al-Harith arrived wearing a fine suit of armour the Khaqan had given him and gained the support of many people in Khurasan. Yazid named his brother Ibrahim as his successor.
Yazid fell ill of a brain tumour and died on October 3 or 4, 744. Ibrahim duly succeeded him. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari History, v. 26 "The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate," transl. Carole Hillenbrand, SUNY, Albany, 1989 Sir John Glubb, The Empire of the Arabs and Stoughton, London, 1963
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate. He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683, his appointment was the first hereditary succession in Islamic history and his caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna. In 676, Muawiya made him his heir apparent. A few prominent Muslims from Hejaz, including Husayn, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar, refused to accept his nomination. Following his accession after Muawiya's death in 680, Yazid demanded allegiance from these three, but only ibn Umar recognized him, while the other two refused and escaped to sanctuary of Mecca; when Husayn was on his way to Kufa to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by forces of Yazid in the Battle of Karbala. Killing of Husayn led to widespread resentment in Hejaz, where Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr centered his opposition to rule of Yazid, was supported by many people in Mecca and Medina.
After failed attempts to regain confidence of ibn al-Zubayr and people of Hejaz through diplomacy, Yazid sent an army to end the rebellion. The army defeated Medinese in the Battle of al-Harrah in August 683 and the city was given to three days of pillage. On siege was laid to Mecca, which lasted for several weeks, during which the Kaaba was damaged by fire; the siege ended with death of Yazid in November 683 and the empire fell to civil war. Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession, death of Husayn and attack on the city of Medina by his forces. Modern historians present a mild view him, consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father. Yazid was born in 646 CE to Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan and Maisun bint Bahdal, the daughter of powerful Kalbite leader Bahdal ibn Unayf, grew up with his maternal tribe, the Kalbites, he led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and in 670 participated in an attack on Constantinople.
He performed Hajj on several occasions. By the end of the first Islamic civil war, Muawiya became sole ruler of the empire as a result of a peace treaty with Hasan ibn Ali, who had controlled most of the empire following the murder of his father Ali a few months earlier; the terms of the treaty stipulated. However, in 676, a few years before his death, Muawiya nominated Yazid. Muawiya and the Shura decided for Yazid in Damascus, where the former had summoned influential people from all provinces to the capital and convinced them one way or the other. Muawiya ordered Marwan ibn Hakam the governor of Medina, to inform the people of Medina, of Muawiya's decision. Marwan faced resistance on this announcement from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. Muawiya himself went to Medina and began pressing against the four dissenters, who fled to Mecca. Muawiya threatened some of them with life, but got only refusal. Nonetheless he was successful in convincing the people of Mecca that these four men had pledged their allegiance, received allegiance for Yazid.
On his way back to Damascus, he secured allegiance from people of Medina as well. The opponents went into silence thereafter. German orientalist Julius Wellhausen doubts the story, while Bernard Lewis writes that the homage was arranged with mix of diplomacy and bribes and, to lesser extent, by force. Before dying, Muawiya left Yazid a will, he advised him to beware of Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, predicted that the people of Iraq will entice Husayn into rebellion and abandon him. Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood, since he was grandson of Muhammad. Ibn al-Zubair, on the other hand, was to be treated harshly. Muawiya advised him to treat people of Hejaz well. Upon succession, Yazid asked the governors of all provinces to take an oath of allegiance to him; the necessary oath was secured from all parts of the country. He wrote to the governor of Medina Walid ibn Utbah ibn Abu Sufyan, informing him about the death of Muawiya, he attached a small note with the letter, asking him to secure allegiance from Husayn ibn Ali, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Umar.
The note read: Seize Husayn, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr to give the oath of allegiance. Act so fiercely. Peace be with you. Walid sought advice of Marwan ibn Hakam on the matter. Marwan suggested that ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn should be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous, while ibn Umar should be left alone as he posed no threat; when summoned by Walid, Husayn answered the summon. When Husayn met Walid and Marwan in a semi-private meeting at night, he was informed of Muawiya's death and Yazid's accession to the caliphate; when asked for his pledge of allegiance to Yazid, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient, such a thing should be given in public. Walid agreed to this, but Marwan interrupted demanding that Walid imprison Husayn and not let him leave until he gives the pledge of allegiance to Yazid. At this interruption, Marwan was scolded by Husayn who exited unharmed. Husayn had his own group of armed supporters waiting nearby just in case a forcible attempt was made to apprehend him.
Following Husayn's exit, Marwan admonished Walid, who in turn rebutted Marwan, justifying his refusal to harm Husayn by s
Abd al-Rahman I
Abd al-Rahman I, more Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. Abd al-Rahman was a member of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus, his establishment of a government in Iberia represented a break with the Abbasids, who had overthrown the Umayyads in 750, he was known by the surnames al-Dakhil, Saqr Quraish and the "Falcon of Andalus". Variations of the spelling of his name include Abd ar-Rahman I, Abdul Rahman I, Abdar Rahman I, Abderraman I. Born near Damascus in Syria, Abd al-Rahman was the son of the Umayyad prince Mu'awiya ibn Hisham and his concubine Ra'ha, a Berber woman from Nefzaoua, thus the grandson of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, caliph from 724 to 743, he was twenty when his family, the ruling Umayyads, were overthrown by the Abbasid Revolution in 748–750. Abd al-Rahman and a small part of his family fled Damascus, where the center of Umayyad power had been; the family fled from Damascus to the River Euphrates.
All along the way the path was filled with danger, as the Abbasids had dispatched horsemen across the region to try to find the Umayyad prince and kill him. The Abbasids were merciless with all Umayyads. Abbasid agents closed in on his family while they were hiding in a small village, he fled with Yahya. Accounts vary, but Bedr escaped with Abd ar-Rahman; some histories indicate that Bedr met up with Abd al-Rahman at a date. Abd al-Rahman and Bedr quit the village, narrowly escaping the Abbasid assassins. On the way south, Abbasid horsemen again caught up with the trio. Abd al-Rahman and his companions threw themselves into the River Euphrates; the horsemen urged them to return. The 17th-century historian Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari poignantly described Abd al-Rahman's reaction as he implored Yahya to keep going: "O brother! Come to me, come to me!" Yahya returned to the near shore, was dispatched by the horsemen. They left his body to rot. Al-Maqqari quotes earlier historians reporting that Abd al-Rahman was so overcome with fear that from the far shore he ran until exhaustion overcame him.
Only he and Bedr were left to face the unknown. After escaping with their lives, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr continued south through Palestine, the Sinai, into Egypt. Abd al-Rahman had to keep a low profile, it may be assumed that he intended to go at least as far as northwestern Africa, the land of his mother, conquered by his Umayyad predecessors. The journey across Egypt would prove perilous. At the time, Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri was the semi-autonomous governor of Ifriqiya and a former Umayyad client; the ambitious Ibn Habib, a member of the illustrious Fihrid family, had long sought to carve out Ifriqiya as a private dominion for himself. At first, he sought an understanding with the Abbasids, but when they refused his terms and demanded his submission, Ibn Habib broke with the Abbasids and invited the remnants of the Umayyad dynasty to take refuge in his dominions. Abd al-Rahman was only one of several surviving Umayyad family members to make their way to Ifriqiya at this time, but Ibn Habib soon changed his mind.
He feared the presence of prominent Umayyad exiles in Ifriqiya, a family more illustrious than his own, might become a focal point for intrigue among local nobles against his own usurped powers. Around 755, believing he had discovered plots involving some of the more prominent Umayyad exiles in Kairouan, Ibn Habib turned against them. At the time, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr were keeping a low profile, staying in Kabylie, at the camp of a Nafza Berber chieftain friendly to their plight. Ibn Habib dispatched spies to look for the Umayyad prince; when Ibn Habib's soldiers entered the camp, the Berber chieftain's wife Tekfah hid Abd al-Rahman under her personal belongings to help him go unnoticed. Once they were gone, Abd a-Rahman and Bedr set off westwards. In 755, Abd al-Rahman and Bedr reached modern-day Morocco near Ceuta, their next step would be to cross the sea to al-Andalus, where Abd al-Rahman could not have been sure whether or not he would be welcomed. Following the Berber Revolt of the 740s, the province was in a state of confusion, with the Muslim community torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs and racial tensions between the Arabs and Berbers.
At that moment, the nominal ruler of al-Andalus, emir Yusuf ibn'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri—another member of the Fihrid family and a favorite of the old Arab settlers of south Arabian or "Yemeni" tribal stock—was locked in a contest with his vizier al-Sumayl ibn Hatim al-Kilabi, the head of the "Syrians"—the shamiyum, drawn from the junds or military regiments of Syria of north Arabian Qaysid tribes—who had arrived in 742. Among the Syrian junds were contingents of old Umayyad clients, numbering 500, Abd al-Rahman believed he might tug on old loyalties and get them to receive him. Bedr was dispatched across the straits to make contact. Bedr managed to line up three Syrian commanders—Ubayd Allah ibn Uthman and Abd Allah ibn Khalid, both of Damascus, Yusuf ibn Bukht of Qinnasrin; the trio approached the Syrian arch-commander al-Sumayl to get his consent, but al-Sumayl refused, fearing Abd al-Rahm
Córdoba spelled Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, taken over by the Visigoths, followed by the Umayyad Caliphate in the eighth century, it became the capital of a Muslim emirate, the Caliphate of Córdoba, which encompassed most of the Iberian Peninsula. During this period, it became a centre of education and learning, by the 10th century had grown to be the largest city in Europe, it was recaptured by Christian forces during the so-called Reconquista. Today, Córdoba is still home to many notable pieces of Moorish architecture such as the Mezquita, named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984, is in use as a Cathedral; the UNESCO status has since been expanded to encompass the whole historic centre of Córdoba. Much of this architecture, such as the Alcázar and the Roman bridge has been reworked or reconstructed by the city's successive inhabitants. Córdoba has the highest summer temperatures in Spain and Europe, with average high temperatures around 37 °C in July and August.
The first traces of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 42,000 to 35,000 BC. Pre-urban settlements around the mouth of the Guadalquivir river are known to have existed from the 8th century BC; the population learned copper and silver metallurgy. The first historical mention of a settlement dates to the Carthaginian expansion across the Guadalquivir, when general Hamilcar Barca renamed it Kartuba, from Kart-Juba, meaning "the City of Juba", a Numidian commander who had died in a battle nearby. Córdoba was named as Corduba. In 169 Roman consul M. Claudius Marcellus, grandson of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, who had governed both Further and Hither Spain, founded a Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement. Between 143 and 141 BC. A Roman forum is known to have existed in the city in 113 BC; the famous Cordoba Treasure, with mixed local and Roman artistic traditions, was buried in the city at this time. It became a colonia with the title Patricia, between 46 and 45 BC.
It was sacked by Caesar in 45 due to its Pompeian allegiance, settled with veterans by Augustus. It had a colonial and provincial forum and many temples, it was the chief center of Roman intellectual life in Hispania Ulterior. Its republican poets were succeeded by Lucan. At the time of Julius Caesar, Córdoba was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica; the great Roman philosopher Seneca the Younger, his father, the orator Seneca the Elder, his nephew, the poet Lucan came from Roman Cordoba. In the late Roman period, its bishop Hosius was the dominant figure of the western Church throughout the earlier 4th cent, it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae of the Byzantine Empire and under the Visigoths, who conquered it in the late 6th century. Córdoba was captured in 711 by the Umayyad army. Unlike other Iberian towns, no capitulation was signed and the position was taken by storm. Córdoba was in turn governed by direct Umayyad rule; the new Umayyad commanders established themselves within the city and in 716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of Damascus.
Different areas were allocated for services in the Saint Vincent Church shared by Christians and Muslims, until construction of the Córdoba Mosque started on the same spot under Abd-ar-Rahman I. Abd al-Rahman allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches and purchased the Christian half of the church of St Vincent. In May 766 Córdoba was chosen as the capital of the independent Umayyad emirate caliphate, of al-Andalus. By 800 the megacity of Cordoba supported over 200,000 residents, 0.1 per cent of the global population. During the apogee of the caliphate, Córdoba had a population of about 400,000 inhabitants, with estimates ranging from 100,000 to an unlikely 1,000,000. In the 10th and 11th centuries Córdoba was one of the most advanced cities in the world, a great cultural, political and economic centre; the Great Mosque of Córdoba dates back to this time. After a change of rulers the situation changed quickly; the vizier al-Mansur–the unofficial ruler of al-Andalus from 976 to 1002—burned most of the books on philosophy to please the Moorish clergy.
Córdoba had a prosperous economy, with manufactured goods including leather, metal work, glazed tiles and textiles, agricultural produce including a range of fruits, vegetables and spices, materials such as cotton and silk. It was famous as a centre of learning, home to over 80 libraries and institutions of learning, with knowledge of medicine, astronomy, botany far exceeding the rest of Europe at the time. In 1002 Al-Mansur was returning to Córdoba from an expedition in the area of Rioja, his death was the beginning of the end of Córdoba. Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, al-Mansur's older son, succeeded to his father’s authority, but he died in 1008 assassinated. Sanchuelo, Abd al-Malik’s younger brother succeeded him. While Sanchuelo was away fighting Alfonso V of Leon, a revolution made Mohammed II al-Mahdi the Caliph. Sanchuelo sued for pardon but he was killed when he returned to Cardova; the slaves revolted against Mahdi, killed him in 1009, replaced him with Hisham II in 1010. Hisham II was forced out of office.
In 1012 the Berbers "sacked Cardova." In 1016 th