L'Équipe is a French nationwide daily newspaper devoted to sport, owned by Éditions Philippe Amaury. The paper is noted for coverage of association football, rugby and cycling, its predecessor was L'Auto, a general sports paper whose name reflected not any narrow interest but the excitement of the time in car racing. L'Auto originated the Tour de France cycling stage race in 1903 as a circulation booster; the race leader's yellow jersey was instituted in 1919 to reflect the distinctive yellow newsprint on which L'Auto was published. The competition that would become the UEFA Champions League was the brainchild of a l'Équipe journalist, Gabriel Hanot. L'Auto and therefore L'Équipe owed its life to a 19th-century French scandal involving soldier Alfred Dreyfus - the Dreyfus affair. With overtones of antisemitism and post-war paranoia, Dreyfus was accused of selling secrets to France's old enemy, the Germans; as different sides of society insisted he was guilty or innocent – he was cleared but only after rigged trials had banished him to an island prison camp – the split came close to civil war and still have their echoes in modern French society.
France's largest sports paper, Le Vélo, mixed sports coverage with political comment. Its editor, Pierre Giffard, believed Dreyfus innocent and said so, leading to acrid disagreement with his main advertisers. Among them were the automobile-maker the Comte de Dion and the industrialists Adolphe Clément and Édouard Michelin. Frustrated at Giffard's politics, they planned a rival paper; the editor was a prominent racing cyclist, Henri Desgrange, who had published a book of cycling tactics and training and was working as a publicity writer for Clément. Desgrange was a strong character but lacked confidence, so much doubting the Tour de France founded in his name that he stayed away from the pioneering race in 1903 until it looked like being a success. Three years after the foundation of L'Auto-Vélo in 1900, a court in Paris decided that the title was too close to its main competitor, Giffard's Le Vélo, thus reference to'Vélo' was dropped and the new paper became L'Auto. It was printed on yellow paper.
Circulation was sluggish and only a crisis meeting called "to nail Giffard's beak shut", as Desgrange phrased it, came to its rescue. On the first floor of the paper's offices in the rue du Faubourg-Montmartre in Paris, a 26-year-old cycling and rugby writer called Géo Lefèvre suggested a race round France, bigger than any other paper could rival and akin to six-day races on the track; the Tour de France proved a success for the newspaper. The record circulation claimed by Desgrange was 854,000, achieved during the 1933 Tour. Desgrange died in ownership passed to a consortium of Germans; the paper began printing comments favourable to the occupying Nazis and so its doors were nailed shut with the return of peace, like all other papers that had printed under the Germans. In 1940 Jacques Goddet succeeded Desgrange as editor and nominal organiser of the Tour de France. Jacques Goddet was the son of Victor Goddet. Goddet defended his paper's role in a court case brought by the French government but was never wholly cleared in the public mind of being close to the Germans or to the Head of the French State, Philippe Pétain.
Goddet could point, however, to clandestine printing of Resistance newspapers and pamphlets in the L'Auto print room and so was allowed to publish a successor paper called L'Équipe. It occupied premises across the road from where L'Auto had been, in a building, in owned by L'Auto, although the original paper's assets had been sequestrated by the state. One condition of publication imposed by the state was that L'Équipe was to use white paper rather than yellow, too attached to L'Auto; the new paper published three times a week from 28 February 1946. Since 1948 it has been published daily; the paper benefited from the demise of its competitors, L'Élan, Le Sport. Its coverage of car racing hints at the paper's ancestry by printing the words L'Auto at the head of the page in the gothic print used in the main title of the prewar paper. L'Équipe is published in broadsheet format. In 1968 L'Équipe was bought by founder of the Amaury publishing empire. Among L'Équipe's most respected writers have been Antoine Blondin and Gabriel Hanot.
The death of Émilien Amaury in 1977 led to a six-year legal battle over inheritance between his son and daughter. This was settled amicably with Philippe Amaury owning the dailies while his sister owned magazines such as Marie-France and Point de Vue. Philippe founded Éditions Philippe Amaury, which included L'Équipe, Le Parisien and Aujourd'hui. At Philippe's death in 2006, the group passed to his widow, Marie-Odile, their children. In 1980 L'Équipe began publishing a magazine with its Saturday edition. On 31 August 1998, L'Équipe TV was formed. In 2005 a Sports et Style supplement was added to the Saturday edition. In 2006 L'Équipe Féminine was first published. In 2006 L'Équipe bought Le Journal du Golf. In early 2007 L'Équipe supplemented its main website with L'équipe junior, dedicated to youth; the biggest-selling issue was 13 July 1998, the day after the France national football team won the World Cup. It sold 1,645,907 copies; the second best was on 3 July 2000 after France won the Eur
Union Sportive Créteil-Lusitanos is a French football club based in Créteil, a southeastern suburb of Paris. The club was founded in 1936 and play in the Championnat National 2, the fourth division of French football; the football club forms part of an omnisports club, known for its handball team. US Créteil was founded in 1936 as an omnisports club and have a rich history, despite achieving minimal honours; the club has won the Division d'Honneur on two occasions in 1962 and 1986. In 1987, Créteil were crowned champions of the now-defunct Division 4 and, a year captured the Division 3 title; the club's best finish in the prestigious Coupe de France was during the 1985–86 edition of the competition when the team reached the quarter-finals. For eight consecutive seasons, Créteil played in the second division of French football, it returned to Ligue 2 in the 2013-2014 season. In 2018, the club was relegated to the Championnat National 2; the team is affectionately known as Les Béliers or Les Cristoliens, the name given to the inhabitants of Créteil.
Association football ventured to the city of Créteil late compared to other communes located in and around Paris. The first club to enter the fray was Club Sportif de Créteil. However, the club was considered unstable from the start and was declared unofficial as the city was attempting to replicate the passion and heart clubs such as Red Star 93, CA Paris-Charenton, Racing Club de France displayed in nearby communes; the declaration soon came to fruition following the foundation of Union Sportive Créteil in 1936 by a man known as M. Hemon. Créteil spent 30 years hovering in the lower divisions. During this time, the football club played its home matches at the Stade Desmont, which seated only 800 spectators. Under the leadership of B. Hainque, Créteil reached the Championnat de France amateur in 1962; the team proceeded to falter back into the Promotion d'Honneur before reaching the Division d'Honneur in the new decade. Créteil were a lucky beneficiary in 1978 when the French Football Federation announced the creation of the Division 4.
The club was promoted to the new league despite its 7th-place finish in the Division d'Honneur the previous season. The team's shaky form showed. By the end of the season, Créteil were back in the Division d'Honneur. In 1983, the club moved into its new stadium, the Stade Dominique Duvauchelle, after having spent 50 years at the Stade Desmont. Two years under the guidance of the city's deputy mayor Laurent Cathala, Union Sportive Créteil merged with the Créteil omnisports club in order to give the city a better sporting identity; the club's main sports became football, swimming and cycling. US Créteil spent the 2000s between the third division and Ligue 2 before being relegated back to Championnat de France National. In the 2012/2013 season, the club was promoted back to Ligue 2 and they reached the round of 16 in the 2012 Coupe de France competition before being eliminated by Girondins de Bordeaux. In 2016, the club was relegated from Ligue 2 back to the Championnat National. In 2018, US Créteil were relegated to the Championnat National 2 after finishing bottom of the table.
The club has a small but loyal and fanatical fan-base from Val-de-Marne, the southern and eastern suburbs of Paris. The club has two ultras groups; the fans are known as inhabitants of Créteil. Despite playing in a modern facility, the club's level attendance is low, averaging only around 500 spectators during the Championnat National years, although after promotion that number has risen to around 2500 per game in Ligue 2; the club has rivalries with Red Star F. C. and Paris FC, with whom they contest the Parisian derbies. Average attendances: 2016–17: 508 2015–16: 2 188 2014–15: 2 389 2013–14: 2 603 2012–13: 945 2011–12: 424 2010–11: 515 2009–10: 695 2008–09: 373 2007–08: 403 Créteil play its home matches at the 12,000-seat Stade Dominique Duvauchelle, named after Dominique Duvauchelle, a local sports journalist from the city of Créteil; as of 5 October 2018Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 9 April 2019Note: Flags indicate national team.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For a complete list of former US Créteil-Lusitanos players with a Wikipedia article, see here; as of 27 June 2014. US Créteil-Lusitanos has had numerous managers and caretaker managers since the club's foundation in 1936; the list below begins with the club's managers since 1986. Managers in italics were hired as caretakers Championnat National Champions: 2013 Division 4 Champions: 1987 Division d'Honneur Champions: 1962, 1986 Coupe de Paris - Ile de France Champions 1998 Official site Unofficial website ran by supporters
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Al-Ittihad Kalba SC
Ittihad Kalba Sports & Cultural Club is a football club in Kalba, United Arab Emirates. As of UAE Pro-League: UAE Division One: Champion: 1979–80, 1988-89, 1995-96, 1998-99, 2009-10, 2011-12, 2013-14
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1
The Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1. It is the country's primary football competition and serves as the top division of the Algerian football league system. Ligue 1 is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue Professionnelle 2; the league is contested by 16 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Ligue 2. In 2009 it was known as Championnat d'Algérie D1 Nedjma and from 2010 to 2014, it was known as Ligue Professionnelle 1 Nedjma as it is sponsored by Kuwaiti telecommunications company Nedjma. From 2014, the league is known as Ligue Professionnelle 1 Mobilis as it is sponsored by Algerian telecommunications company Mobilis; the league was created in 1962. Until 1950, only regional leagues were contested. Some'national' playoffs were played in the first decade of the 20th century, first in 1904. Between 1920 and 1956 the winners played off for the North African Championship, together with league winners from Morocco and Tunisia.
Between 1957 and 1962 a North African Championship without participation from Morocco and Tunisia was organised as "Algerian championship". On August 21, 2010, the FAF announced that the name of the league would change to Ligue Professionnelle 1 to reflect the professionalization of the league; the history of football in Algeria is linked to the French football. When football appeared in France in the year 1872, it appeared in its turn around 1894 in North Africa, a region of the world subject to French authority; as a result, football was progressively developed in the French Algeria for more than half a century with the creation of a large number of clubs but organizations that governed its practice in departmental and inter-regional competitions. It came to an end in the year 1962, when Algeria became the last territory in North Africa to abandon French rule and thus saw the end of colonial French football; the championship is once again modified during the season 1963-1964. After a complex competition season regional tournaments organized on a system comprising several groups, with some cases a regional final and a final tournament designating the first champion of Algeria.
Most teams that participated in the competition last season are grouped into three regional divisions. The championship took the name of ephemeral DH, the "Honor Division". Unlike the previous season, instead of many individual groups composed three regions or regional football leagues, only one group per region was implemented. Following these regional championships, for the Western region or West Division Honneur, the ASM Oran was crowned regional champion after a final victory two goals to one against his rival of Oran on MC Oran and qualified for the national tournament with striker Abdelkader Reguig surnamed Pons. For the Central Region or Division Honneur Center, the NA Hussein Dey cap on the pole on the final day its direct rival, the CR Belcourt thanks to their goalkeeper Amirat, Senior contributor to the qualification of its team in the national tournament, annihilating attempts playmaker chabibiste Hacène Lalmas; as for the East region or Eastern Division Honneur is the USM Annaba former USM Bone winner of the group I qualified for the second consecutive year the final tournament with his player coach Mohamed Boufermès.
She beats the departmental final MSP Batna winner of Group II. This time the three were regional champions met in Constantine to determine who will win the second title; as the edition takes place in this city, it was decided that the fourth team to accompany the three champions, the dolphin would be the Honorary Division of the League of Constantine, the MSP Batna. After the competition, the USM Annaba winner in the semifinals of the ASM Oran), will be needed in the final against NA Hussein Dey, a score of one goal to nil; this is to date the first and only league title usmistes of Annaba. After two competitive seasons in the form of regional tournaments with a final national tournament, the Algerian Football Federation reorganized once again the championship; this time she opted during the season 1964-1965 to create a national championship to direct confrontation between the sixteen best teams of the three regional leagues of Algerian football. For this, she referred the results of last season including the first five of each of the regional leagues and more regional champion of the season.
So we had for the Western region or League Oranie the first five teams to the center of Algiers region or League again the first five teams (the CR Belouizdad the NA Hussein Dey, the USM Blida the MC Algiers and USM Alger and the Eastern region or Constantine League champion last season the USM Annaba and the following five of the ranking of this region. Different formulas of the first division; the CR Belcourt is a new club at this time, from the district of Belcourt to Algiers which will be renamed Belouizdad. This club was born from the merger of two former clubs from the same district, WRB and the CAB; these two former clubs were known for playing football competitions in the French colonial era, for both affiliated to the FFFA and LAFA (League Algiers Foo