Jabir ibn Hayyan
Born and educated in Tus, he traveled to Kufa. He is sometimes referred to as the father of early chemistry, as early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jabir was in dispute in Islamic circles. In 988 Ibn al-Nadim compiled the Kitab al-Fihrist which mentions Jabir as a follower and as a companion to Jafar as-Sadiq. In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers claimed Jabir was one of their own members, another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are pseudographical. Their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim, joining al-Nadim in asserting a real Jabir, Ibn-Wahshiyya Rejecting a real Jabir, Abu Sulayman al-Mantiqi claims the real author is one al-Hasan ibn al-Nakad al-Mawili. The 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the attributed to Jabir doubtful. Jabir was a philosopher who lived mostly in the 8th century, he was born in Tus, Khorasan, in Persia.
Jabir in the sources has been entitled differently as al-Azdi al-Barigi or al-Kufi or al-Tusi or al-Sufi. There is a difference of opinion as to whether he was a Persian from Khorasan who went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian origin and lived in Persia and Iraq. His ethnic background is not clear, but most sources reference him as a Persian, in some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a pharmacist of the Arabian Azd tribe who emigrated from Yemen to Kufa during the Umayyad Caliphate. While Henry Corbin believes Geber seems to have been a client of the Azd tribe, Hayyan had supported the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, and was sent by them to the province of Khorasan to gather support for their cause. He was eventually caught by the Umayyads and executed and his family fled to Yemen, where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran and other subjects. Jabirs fathers profession may have contributed greatly to his interest in alchemy, after the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa.
He began his practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end, when that family fell from grace in 803, Jabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death. It has been asserted that Jabir was a student of the sixth Imam Jafar al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari, in total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan. The 112 Books dedicated to the Barmakids, viziers of Caliph Harun al-Rashid and this group includes the Arabic version of the Emerald Tablet, an ancient work that proved a recurring foundation of and source for alchemical operations. In the Middle Ages it was translated into Latin and widely diffused among European alchemists, the Seventy Books, most of which were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī, known as Al-Biruni in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath from Khwarezm. He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study in order to uncover certain findings. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to type of influence, Al-Biruni was influenced by other nations, such as the Greek. He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Arabic, Sanskrit and he spent a large part of his life in Ghazni in modern-day Afghanistan, capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty which was based in what is now central-eastern Afghanistan. In 1017 he traveled to the Indian subcontinent and authored Tarikh Al-Hind after exploring the Hindu faith practised in India and he was given the title founder of Indology. He was a writer on customs and creeds of various nations.
He made contributions to Earth sciences, and is regarded as the father of geodesy for his important contributions to that field and he was born in the outer district of Kath, the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm. The word Biruni means from the outer-district in Persian, and so became his nisba. Al-Birunis relatives took interest in the studies of science as well and he even had ties to royalty as there are links in his family to the families of prestigious elites. In order to conduct his research, Al-Biruni used different types of methods to tackle the different fields he studied, people consider Al-Biruni to be one of the greatest scientists in history and especially of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology. He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and he was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Mamunids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara, under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh, there he corresponded with Avicenna and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars.
In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan and he visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Mamunids and their court at Gorganj was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey, most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India and he was forty-four years old when he went on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni. Biruni became acquainted with all related to India
According to The Canon of Medicine for Avicenna and Uyun al-Anba for the medieval Arabic historian Ibn Abi Usaybia, Masawaiyhs father was Assyrian and his mother was Slavic. Born in 777 CE as the son of a pharmacist and physician from Gundishapur, he came to Baghdad and he wrote mostly in Syriac and Arabic. He became director of a hospital in Baghdad, and was physician to four caliphs. He composed medical treatises on a number of topics, including ophthalmology, leprosy, melancholia, the testing of physicians, and medical aphorisms. It was reported that Ibn Masawayh regularly held an assembly of some sort, Ibn Masawayh apparently attracted considerable audiences, having acquired a reputation for repartee. He was the teacher of Hunain ibn Ishaq and he translated various Greek medical works into Syriac. Apes were supplied to him by the caliph al-Mutasim for dissection and he died in Samarra in 857 CE. For his life and writings, Liber primus, seu methodus medicamenta purgantia simplicia, Caesaraugustae 1550 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf De re medica.
Rouillius / Rolletius, Lugduni 1550 Digital edition by the University, Ibn Masawayh in, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition, ed. by H. A. R. Bosworth et al.11 vols. vol, a Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate, From the Earliest Times Until the Year A. D.1932. Medical history from the earliest times, a history of the healing art. The Scientific Press, Ltd. pp. 141–
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, known as Isaac Israeli the Elder and Isaac Judaeus, was one of the foremost Arab Jewish physicians and philosophers of his time. He is regarded as the father of medieval Jewish Neoplatonism, little is known of Israelis background and career. Israeli was born in around 832 into a Jewish family in Egypt and he lived the first half of his life in Cairo where he gained a reputation as a skillful oculist. He corresponded with Saadya ben Joseph al-Fayyumi, one of the most influential figures in the medieval Judaism, in about 904 Israeli was nominated court physician to the last Aghlabid prince, Ziyadat Allah III. Between the years 905-907 he travelled to Kairouan where he studied medicine under Ishak ibn Amran al-Baghdadi. Later he served as a doctor to the founder of the Fatimid Dynasty of North Africa, Ubaid Allah al-Mahdi, who reigned from 910-934. The caliph enjoyed the company of his Jewish physician on account of the latters wit, in Kairouan his fame became widely extended, the works which he wrote in Arabic being considered by the Muslim physicians as more valuable than gems.
His lectures attracted a number of pupils, of whom the two most prominent were Abu Jafar ibn al-Jazzar, a Muslim, and Dunash ibn Tamim. Israeli studied natural history, mathematics and other scientific topics, biographers state that he never married or fathered children. He died at Kairouan, Tunisia, in 932 and this date is given by most Arabic authorities who give his date of birth as 832. But Abraham ben Hasdai, quoting the biographer Sanah ibn Said al-Kurtubi, Heinrich Grätz, while stating that Isaac Israeli lived more than one hundred years, gives the dates 845-940, and Steinschneider places his death in 950. In this work he cites Israeli so extensively that a few nineteenth-century scholars misidentified the commentary as Israelis, Israelis medical treatises were studied for several centuries both in the original Arabic and in Latin translation. In the eleventh century, Constantine Africanus, a professor at the prestigious Salerno school of medicine, many medieval Arabic biographical chronicles of physicians list him and his works.
Israelis philosophical works exercised an influence on Christian and Jewish thinkers. In the twelfth century, a group of scholars in Toledo transmitted many Arabic works of science, one of the translators, Gerard of Cremona, rendered Israelis Book of Definitions and Book on the Elements into Latin. Isaac Israelis philosophical influence on Muslim authors is slight at best, although there are passages which correspond directly to Israelis writings, the author does not cite him by name. His influence extended to Moses Ibn Ezra who quotes Isaac Israeli without attribution in his treatise The Book of the Garden, explaining the meaning of Metaphor, the poet and philosopher Joseph Ibn Tzaddiq of Cordoba authored a work The Microcosm containing many ideas indebted to Israeli. As Neoplatonist philosophy waned, in addition to the Galenic medical tradition of which Israeli was a part and he was the first physician to write about tracheotomy in Arabic
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham, known by the Latinization Alhazen or Alhacen, was an Arab Muslim scientist, mathematician and philosopher. Ibn al-Haytham made significant contributions to the principles of optics, mathematics and he was the first to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and is directed to ones eyes. He spent most of his close to the court of the Fatimid Caliphate in Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises. In medieval Europe, Ibn al-Haytham was honored as Ptolemaeus Secundus or simply called The Physicist and he is sometimes called al-Baṣrī after his birthplace Basra in Iraq, or al-Miṣrī. Ibn al-Haytham was born c.965 in Basra, which was part of the Buyid emirate. Alhazen arrived in Cairo under the reign of Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim, Alhazen continued to live in Cairo, in the neighborhood of the famous University of al-Azhar, until his death in 1040. Legend has it that after deciding the scheme was impractical and fearing the caliphs anger, during this time, he wrote his influential Book of Optics and continued to write further treatises on astronomy, number theory and natural philosophy.
Among his students were Sorkhab, a Persian from Semnan who was his student for three years, and Abu al-Wafa Mubashir ibn Fatek, an Egyptian prince who learned mathematics from Alhazen. Alhazen made significant contributions to optics, number theory, astronomy, Alhazens work on optics is credited with contributing a new emphasis on experiment. In al-Andalus, it was used by the prince of the Banu Hud dynasty of Zaragossa and author of an important mathematical text. A Latin translation of the Kitab al-Manazir was made probably in the twelfth or early thirteenth century. His research in catoptrics centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration and he made the observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant, and investigated the magnifying power of a lens. His work on catoptrics contains the known as Alhazens problem. Alhazen wrote as many as 200 books, although only 55 have survived, some of his treatises on optics survived only through Latin translation.
During the Middle Ages his books on cosmology were translated into Latin, the crater Alhazen on the Moon is named in his honour, as was the asteroid 59239 Alhazen. In honour of Alhazen, the Aga Khan University named its Ophthalmology endowed chair as The Ibn-e-Haitham Associate Professor, Alhazen, by the name Ibn al-Haytham, is featured on the obverse of the Iraqi 10, 000-dinar banknote issued in 2003, and on 10-dinar notes from 1982. The 2015 International Year of Light celebrated the 1000th anniversary of the works on optics by Ibn Al-Haytham, Alhazens most famous work is his seven-volume treatise on optics Kitab al-Manazir, written from 1011 to 1021. Optics was translated into Latin by a scholar at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th century
Avicenna or Ibn Sīnā was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, in 1973, Avicennas Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicennas corpus includes writings on astronomy, alchemy and geology, Islamic theology, mathematics and poetry. Avicenna is a Latin corruption of the Arabic patronym Ibn Sīnā, meaning Son of Sina, Avicenna was not the son, but the great-great-grandson of a man named Sina. His full name was Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Sīnā, Ibn Sina created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of Greco-Roman and Indian texts were studied extensively. Under the Samanids, Bukhara rivaled Baghdad as a capital of the Islamic world. The study of the Quran and the Hadith thrived in such a scholarly atmosphere, philosophy and theology were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents.
Al-Razi and Al-Farabi had provided methodology and knowledge in medicine and philosophy, Avicenna had access to the great libraries of Balkh, Gorgan, Rey and Hamadan. Various texts show that he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time, aruzi Samarqandi describes how before Avicenna left Khwarezm he had met Al-Biruni, Abu Nasr Iraqi, Abu Sahl Masihi and Abu al-Khayr Khammar. Avicenna was born c. 980 in Afshana, a village near Bukhara, the capital of the Samanids, a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan. His mother, named Setareh, was from Bukhara, his father, was a respected Ismaili scholar from Balkh and his father worked in the government of Samanid in the village Kharmasain, a Sunni regional power. After five years, his brother, was born. Avicenna first began to learn the Quran and literature in such a way that when he was ten years old he had learned all of them. According to his autobiography, Avicenna had memorised the entire Quran by the age of 10 and he learned Indian arithmetic from an Indian greengrocer, ءMahmoud Massahi and he began to learn more from a wandering scholar who gained a livelihood by curing the sick and teaching the young.
He studied Fiqh under the Sunni Hanafi scholar Ismail al-Zahid, Avicenna was taught some extent of philosophy books such as Introduction s Porphyry, Euclids Elements, Ptolemys Almagest by an unpopular philosopher, Abu Abdullah Nateli, who claimed philosophizing. As a teenager, he was troubled by the Metaphysics of Aristotle. For the next year and a half, he studied philosophy, in such moments of baffled inquiry, he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions, go to the mosque, and continue in prayer till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night, he would continue his studies, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution
Assyrian people, or Syriacs, are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East. Some of them self-identify as Chaldeans, or as Arameans and they speak modern Aramaic, whose subdivisions include Northeastern and Western Neo-Aramaic, as well as another language, dependent on the country of residence. The Assyrians are typically Syriac-speaking Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, the areas that form the Assyrian homeland are parts of present-day northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and northeastern Syria. The majority have migrated to regions of the world, including North America, the Levant, Europe, Russia. Assyrians are predominantly Christian, mostly adhering to the East and West Syrian liturgical rites of Christianity, whereas the churches of the West Syrian rite, the Syriac Orthodox Church and Syriac Catholic Church, mostly speak the Central and Western branches. According to a 2013 report by a Chaldean Syriac Assyrian Popular Council official, in prehistoric times, the region that was to become known as Assyria was home to Neanderthals such as the remains of those which have been found at the Shanidar Cave.
The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria belonged to the Jarmo culture c.7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, the history of Assyria begins with the formation of the city of Assur perhaps as early as the 25th century BC. The Assyrian king list records kings dating from the 25th century BC onwards, the earliest being Tudiya, who was a contemporary of Ibrium of Ebla. However, many of early kings would have been local rulers. In the traditions of the Assyrian Church of the East, they are descended from Abrahams grandson, there is no historical basis for the biblical assertion whatsoever, there is no mention in Assyrian records. The Assyrian people, after the fall of their empire, fell under foreign domination ever since, the Persian Empire was founded, which consumed the entire Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean Empire in 539 BC. Assyrians became front line soldiers for the Persian Empire under Xerxes I, the Assyrian army accounted for three legions of the Roman army, defending the Parthian border. In the 1st century, it was the Assyrian army that enabled Vespasians coup, from the 2nd century, the Roman Senate included several notable Assyrians, including Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus and Avidius Cassius.
From the 1st century BC, Assyria was the theatre of the protracted Roman–Persian Wars and it would become a Roman province from 116 to 363 AD. Despite the influx of foreign elements, the presence of Assyrians is confirmed by the worship of the god Ashur, the Greeks and Romans had a rather low-level of integration with the local population in Mesopotamia, which allowed their cultures to survive. The Assyrians were Christianized in the first to third centuries in Roman Syria, the population of the Sasanian province of Asōristān was a mixed one, composed of Assyrians, Arameans in the far south and the western deserts, and Persians. The Greek element in the cities, still strong during the Parthian Empire, the majority of the population were Eastern Aramaic speakers. Along with the Arameans, Armenians and Nabataeans, the Council of Seleucia of ca.325 dealt with jurisdictional conflicts among the leading bishops
Qusta ibn Luqa
Qusta ibn Luqa was a Syrian Melkite physician and translator. Travelling to parts of the Byzantine Empire, he brought back Greek texts, Qusta ibn Luqa al-Baalbakki, i. e. from Baalbek or Heliopolis, Lebanon, a Melkite Christian, was born in 820 and flourished in Baghdad. He was a philosopher, physician and astronomer and he died in Armenia in A. D.912. He wrote commentaries on Euclid and a treatise on the Armillary sphere and he was a prominent figure in the Graeco-Arabic translation movement that reached its peak in the 9th century. At the request of wealthy and influential commissioners, Qusta translated Greek works on astronomy, mechanics and he produced works of his own, more than sixty treatises are attributed to him. He wrote mainly on subjects, but on mathematics. Only a small part of his production has so far been edited and his original works, many listed in the Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadim, dealt with contemporary science, medicine and philosophy. This translation was made by Joannes Hispalensis and he wrote a treatise on Nabidh.
His Medical Regime for the Pilgrims to Mecca, The Risālā Fī Tadbīr Safar Al-ḥa is available in translation, of him Ibn al-Nadim says, He is an excellent translator, he knew well Greek and Arabic, he translated texts and corrected many translations. Qusta was with Hunayn Ibn Ishaq the author who best served Greek culture in the Arab civilization. He was involved, with his fellow-Christian Hunayn ibn Ishaq, in an exchange with the Muslim astronomer, Abu Isa Yahya ibn al-Munajjim. Both refused, and provided their reasons for rejecting al-Munajjims Islamic faith, risalah fī Auja Al Niqris by Qusta Ibn Luqa. Edited with translation and commentary by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, rislah fī al Nabidh (Arabic translation of Qusta ibn Luqa by Rufus. Edited with translation and commentary by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Aligarh,2007. Rîsâlah-i Nabîdh of Qustâ bin Lûqâ by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Supplement to Studies in the History of Medicine and Science, Jamia Hamdard, Vol. IX, pp. 185–201.
Kitāb fī al‐ʿamal bi‐ʾl–kura al‐nujūmiyya, which contains 65 chapters and was disseminated through at least two Arabic recensions as well as Latin, Hebrew and Italian translations. The Latin translation is edited by R. Lorch - J. Martínez, Qusta ben Lucae De sphera uolubili, in Suhayl and it is identical to Kitāb fī al‐ʿamal bi‐ʾl-kura al‐nujūmiyya mentioned above. Translation and Commentary by Jan P. Hogendijk in Suhayl, vol.8 He was named by the poet William Butler Yeats as a source for the ideas in the philosophical treatise
Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000 making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century, within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key institutions, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the Centre of Learning. Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with a population of 1,200,000 people. The city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, in contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011.
In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks. As of 2012, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, the site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name is of Indo-European origin and a Middle Persian compound of Bagh god and dād given by, translating to Bestowed by God or Gods gift. In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog god, a similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning gift of Mithra. There are a number of locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan. The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins, when the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace.
This was the name on coins and other official usage. By the 11th century, Baghdad became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis, after the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital whence they could rule. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762, the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city, mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying, This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward. The citys growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors, it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, the abundance of water in a dry climate
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī, popularly known as Al-Zahrawi, Latinised as Abulcasis, was an Arab Muslim physician and surgeon who lived in Al-Andalus. He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World and his greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. He was the first physician to describe an Abdominal pregnancy a sub type of ectopic pregnancy, Al-Zahrawi was born in the city El-Zahra,8 kilometers northwest of Córdoba, Andalusia. The nisba, Al-Ansari, suggests origin from the Medinian tribe of Al-Ansar and he lived most of his life in Córdoba. It is where he studied and practiced medicine and surgery until shortly before his death in about 1013, few details remain regarding his life, aside from his published work, due to the destruction of El-Zahra during Castillian-Andalusian conflicts. His name first appears in the writings of Abu Muhammad bin Hazm, but we have the first detailed biography of al-Zahrawī from al-Ḥumaydīs Jadhwat al-Muqtabis, completed six decades after al-Zahrawis death.
He was a contemporary of Andalusian chemists such as Ibn al-Wafid, Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti, Al-Zahrawi was a court physician to the Andalusian caliph Al-Hakam II. He devoted his life and genius to the advancement of medicine as a whole. His best work was the Kitab al-Tasrif, discussed below, Al-Zahrawi specialized in curing disease by cauterization. He invented several devices used during surgery, for such as inspection of the interior of the urethra and removing foreign bodies from the throat, inspection of the ear. He is credited to be the first to describe ectopic pregnancy in 963, Al-Zahrawi was the first to illustrate the various cannulae and the first to treat a wart with an iron tube and caustic metal as a boring instrument. He was the first to draw hooks with a tip for use in surgery. In it he wrote of the importance of a positive doctor-patient relationship and wrote affectionately of his students. He emphasized the importance of treating patients irrespective of their social status and he encouraged the close observation of individual cases in order to make the most accurate diagnosis and the best possible treatment.
Al-Tasrif was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, for perhaps five centuries during the European Middle Ages, it was the primary source for European medical knowledge, and served as a reference for doctors and surgeons. Not always properly credited, Al-Zahrawis al-Tasrif described both what would become known as Kochers method for treating a dislocated shoulder and Walcher position in obstetrics. Al-Zahrawi was therefore the first to describe the migraine surgery procedure that is enjoying a revival in the 21st century, Al-Zahrawi described the use of forceps in vaginal deliveries. He introduced over 200 surgical instruments, many of these instruments were never used before by any previous surgeons
Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori were Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries, spanning 6 generations and 250 years. The Middle Persian-Syriac name which can be found as early as at the beginning of the 5th century refers to the ancestor of this Syro-Persian Nestorian family. Some of the members of the served as the personal physicians of Caliphs. Jurjis son of Bukht-Yishu was awarded 10,000 dinars by al-Mansur after attending to his malady in 765CE and it is even said that one of the members of this family was received as physician to Imam Sajjad during his illness in the events of Karbala. Like most physicians in the early Abbasid courts, they came from the Academy of Gondishapur in Persia and they were well versed in the Greek and Hindi sciences, including those of Plato, Aristotle and Galen, which they aided in translating while working in Gondishapur. In the course of their integration into the society after the Islamic invasion of Persia. Consisting of a first, Middle Persian term meaning redeemed and a Syriac component for Jesus, however, in his book Kitāb Uyūn al-anbā fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbā, the Arab, 12th century historian Ibn Abi Usaibia renders the meaning as Servant of Jesus in Syriac language.
There are no remaining records of the first two members of the family. And the remaining records of the start from Jurjis. He was called to Baghdad in 765 CE to treat the stomach complaint of the Caliph al-Mansur, after successfully curing the caliph, he was asked to remain in attendance in Baghdad, which he did until he fell ill in 769 CE. Before allowing him to return to Gondeshapur, the caliph invited him to convert to Islam but he declined, amused by his obstinacy, the caliph sent an attendant with Jurjis to ensure he reached his destination. In exchange for the attendant and a 10,000 dinar wage, Jurjis promised to send his pupil Isa ibn Sahl to the caliph, since his son, Bukhtishu II, Bukhtishu II was the son of Jurjis ibn Bukhtishu and the father of Jibril ibn Bukhtishu. He was left in charge of the hospital at Gondeshapur when his father was summoned to treat the stomach complaints of Caliph al-Mansur, Jurjis never intended for Bukhtishu II to go to Baghdad and tend to the caliphs and had offered to send one of his pupils in his stead.
Nevertheless, Bukhtishu II was in turn called to the city to treat the Caliph al-Hadi and he was unable to establish himself in Baghdad until 787 CE, when Caliph Harun al-Rashid was suffering violently painful headaches. He successfully treated Harun al-Rashid and in gratitude the caliph made him physician-in-chief, bukhtishu’, Jibril ibn Bakhtishu, Jibra’il ibn Bukhtyishu, Djabra’il b. Bakhtishu Jibril ibn Bukhtishu was the son of Bukhtishu II, who served the caliphs in Baghdad from 787 CE until his death in 801 CE, in 791 CE, Bukhtishu II recommended Jibril as a physician to Jafar the Barmakid, the vizier of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Despite the recommendation, Jibril did not succeed his father until 805 CE, after he successfully treated one of Harun al-Rashid’s slaves, during Jibril’s time in Baghdad, he advised Harun al-Rashid in the building of its first hospital. The hospital and connected observatory was modeled after the one in Gondeshapur where Jibril had studied medicine, being a part of such court interactions, Jibril would occasionally approach the caliph with a level of frankness not allowed most attendants
Medicine in the medieval Islamic world
Islamic medicine preserved and developed the medical knowledge of classical antiquity. During the post-classical era, Islamic medicine was the most advanced in the world, integrating concepts of the ancient Greek, many aspects of their writings are still worth reading even today, and their memory is held in high respect by the physicians of today. Medicine was a part of medieval Islamic culture. The works of ancient Greek and Roman physicians Hippocrates, ophthalmology has been described as the most successful branch of medicine researched at the time, with the works of Ibn Al-Haitham remaining an authority in the field until early modern times. Early on, the study and practice of medicine was understood as an act of piety, founded on the principles of Imaan and Tawakkul. Muhammads opinions on issues, and habits with regard to leading a healthy life, were collected early on. Anas writes about two physicians who had treated him by cauterization and mentions that the wanted to avoid this treatment and had asked for alternative treatments.
Later on, there are reports of the caliph ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān fixing his teeth with a made of gold. He mentions that the habit of cleaning ones teeth with a wooden toothpick dates back to pre-islamic times. The Prophetic medicine was mentioned by the classical authors of Islamic medicine. In his Kitab as-Ṣaidana from the 10. /11, century, Al-Biruni refers to collected poems and other works dealing with, and commenting on, the materia medica of the old Arabs. The most famous physician was Al-Ḥariṯ ben-Kalada aṯ-Ṯaqafī, who lived at the time as the prophet. He is supposed to have been in touch with the Academy of Gondishapur and he reportedly had a conversation once with Khosrow I Anushirvan about medical topics. The translation of the capital of the emerging Islamic world to Damascus may have facilitated this contact, the names of two Christian physicians are known, Ibn Aṯāl worked at the court of Muawiyah I, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty. The caliph abused his knowledge in order to get rid of some of his enemies by way of poisoning, Abu l-Ḥakam, who was responsible for the preparation of drugs, was employed by Muawiah.
His son and great-grandson were serving the Umayyad and these sources testify to the fact that the physicians of the emerging islamic society were familiar with the classical medical traditions already at the times of the Umayyads. The medical knowledge likely arrived from Alexandria, and was transferred by Syrian scholars, or translators. Very few sources provide information about how the expanding Islamic society received any medical knowledge, a physician called Abdalmalik ben Abgar al-Kinānī from Kufa in Iraq is supposed to have worked at the medical school of Alexandria before he joined ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīzs court