Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel were sons of Adam and Eve. Cain, the firstborn, tilled the soil, and his brother Abel was a shepherd, the brothers made sacrifices to God, each of his own produce, but God favored Abels sacrifice instead of that of Cain. God punished Cain to a life of wandering, but set a mark on him so that no man would kill him, Cain wandered in the land of Nod, where he built a city and fathered the line of Cain. The story of Cains murder of Abel and its consequences is told in Genesis 4, 1-18, And the human knew Eve his woman and she conceived and bore Cain, and she said, I have got me a man with the Lord. And she bore as well his brother Abel, and Abel became a herder of sheep while Cain was a tiller of the soil, and it happened in the course of time that Cain brought from the fruit of the soil an offering to the Lord. And Abel too had brought from the choice firstlings of his flock, and Cain was very incensed, and his face fell. And the Lord said to Cain, Why are you incensed, for whether you offer well, or whether you do not, at the tent flap sin crouches and for you is its longing, but you will rule over it.
And Cain said to Abel his brother, Let us go out to the field, and the Lord said to Cain, Where is Abel your brother. And he said, I do not know, am I my brothers keeper, the story continues with Gods punishment of Cain, the soil which received his brothers blood will reject him, and he will be a wanderer on the earth. And the Lord set a mark upon Cain so that whoever found him would not slay him, and Cain went out from the Lords presence and dwelled in the land of Nod east of Eden. And Cain knew his wife and she conceived and bore Enoch, he became the builder of a city and he called the name of the city like his sons name, Enoch. Some scholars believe that Cain and Abel are symbolic rather than real, the following family tree of the line of Cain is compiled from a variety of biblical and extra-biblical texts. The story appears in the Quran, in Surah 5, verses 27 to 31, tell them the truth about the story of Adams two sons, each of them offered a sacrifice, and it was accepted from one and not the other.
One said, I will kill you, but the other said, if you raise your hand to kill me, I will not raise mine to kill you. I fear God, the Lord of all worlds, and I would rather you were burdened with my sins as well as yours and became an inhabitant of the Fire, but his soul prompted him to kill his brother, he killed him and became one of the losers. God sent a raven to scratch up the ground and show him how to cover his brothers corpse and he said, could I not have been like this raven and covered up my brothers body. The story of Cain and Abel has always used as a deterrent from murder in Islamic tradition. Muslim scholars were divided on the motives behind Cains murder of Abel, some scholars believed that Cains motives were plain jealousy and lust
The Schlei is a narrow inlet of the Baltic Sea in Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. It stretches for approximately 20 miles from the Baltic near Kappeln, along the Schlei are many small bays and swamps. It separates the Angeln peninsula to the north from the Schwansen peninsula to the south, the important Viking settlement of Hedeby was located at the head of the firth, but was abandoned in favor of the city of Schleswig. A museum has built on the site, telling the story of the abandoned town
Christopher I of Denmark
Christopher I was King of Denmark between 1252 and 1259. He was the son of Valdemar II of Denmark by his wife and he succeeded his brothers Eric IV Plovpenning and Abel of Denmark on the throne. Christopher was elected King upon the death of his older brother Abel in the summer of 1252 and he was crowned at Lund Cathedral on Christmas Day 1252. Christopher began organizing the effort to have his brother Erik IV Plovpenning canonized, if recognized by the pope, the murder would exclude Abels sons from the succession and guarantee Christophers own sons Denmarks crown. This meant that Christopher as a younger son tried to keep the sons of his brothers from ruling Denmark. The king spent most of his reign fighting his many opponents, by allowing Abels son, Valdemar Abelsøn, to be Duke of Schleswig he prevented an all-out civil war, but became the target of intrigue and treachery. Southern Jutland including Schleswig and Holstein were independent from the rule for a time. Christopher gained an enemy in the newly named Archbishop of Lund, Jacob Erlandsen.
Erlandsen asserted his rights often at odds with the king, King Christopher insisted that the church pay taxes like any other land owner. Bishop Jacob refused and went so far as to forbid peasants who lived or worked on church properties to give service to King Christopher. Erlandsen was perhaps the wealthiest man in the kingdom and insisted that the government have no control or hold over the church, its property. He simply excommunicated the king to show that he wasnt about to surrender to the kings will, after an incursion into Halland by Haakon IV of Norway, in 1256, Christopher was reconciled with the kings of Norway and Sweden which had been provoked by Abels interventions. There were peasant uprisings against King Christopher the same year and again in 1258 as a result of Christophers new property tax. Archbishop Jacob refused to recognize Christophers young son, Eric, as Denmarks rightful heir in 1257 and he ordered Bishop Erlandsens own brother to arrest the troublesome archbishop.
Christopher humiliated the proud and powerful Archbishop Jakob by forcing him to wear secular clothing, the archbishop was paraded through the country to Hagenskov near Assens where he was chained and cast into prison. Erlandsen had ordered at a Vejle church council that if he was imprisoned that the bishops were to declare interdict against the whole country, Bishop of Roskilde Peder Bang fled to Rügen and convinced Chief Jarimar II of Rügen to invade Zealand. Christopher tried to have his brother Eric IV canonized, but without Archbishop Jacobs support it came to naught, when Duke Valdemar died, King Christopher tried to prevent Valdemars brother, Eric Abelsøn, from taking the dukes place. Valdemars widow encouraged a few counts of northern Germany to rebel, in the confusion, Christopher fled to Southern Jutland to stay with the Bishop of Ribe
The Lund Cathedral is the Lutheran cathedral in Lund, Sweden. It is the seat of the bishop of Lund of the Church of Sweden, until the Danish Reformation, it was the Catholic episcopal see of the Diocese of Lund, dedicated to Saint Lawrence. Lund was an important town long before there was a cathedral, Lund was the site of the Skåne Assembly at St Libers Hill into the Middle Ages. It was the site of a religious center. A cathedral was built in Lund before 1085, but it is difficult to know if the present building was built in the same place. In the gift letter of Canute the Holy, dated to 21 May 1085, Canute gave several properties that enabled the building of the cathedral. However, sources indicate that Canutes cathedral is not the present Lund Cathedral, the Cathedral School was established in 1085, making it Scandinavias oldest school. Lund was named as the headquarters, bishop Asser Thorkilsson became the first archbishop for all of Scandinavia in 1104 and the cathedral was begun sometime after he took office.
The building was constructed in the basilica style with half-rounded arches supporting a flat timber ceiling. The cathedral was constructed out of blocks of sandstone from a quarry near Höör, the high altar of the crypt was consecrated in 1123. The cathedral and the altar were consecrated to St Lawrence on 1 September 1145 by Archbishop Eskil. Of the present church only the apse has remained unchanged, Lund became the religious heart of Denmark and over the years many monasteries, priories sprang up around the cathedral. Lund played a role in Denmarks history from the time it was made a bishopric. It was the place of many important meeting between kings and nobility, valdemar II was crowned there in 1202. In 1234 the church suffered an extensive fire, when the church was rebuilt a lecture wall, new vaults and a new facade to the west were added. Many valuable artistic additions were done to the church in mediaeval times, in 1294 Archbishop Jens Grand was arrested in the Cathedral. In the 1370s, magnificent gothic choir stalls where installed in the church, an astronomical clock was installed in the nave around 1424 and renovated many times.
In the 1510s, during the reign of King John I, in the crypt, van Düren created a well decorated with interesting reliefs and a monumental sarcophagus for the most recent archbishop of Lund, Birger Gunnersen
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Birger Jarl, or Birger Magnusson, was a Swedish statesman, Jarl of Sweden and a member of the House of Bjelbo, who played a pivotal role in the consolidation of Sweden. Birger led the Second Swedish Crusade, which established Swedish rule in Finland, additionally, he is traditionally attributed to have founded the Swedish capital, Stockholm around 1250. Birger used the Latin title of Dux Sweorum which in English equals Duke of Sweden, and it is known that Birger grew up and spent his adolescence in Bjälbo, Östergötland but the exact date of his birth remains uncertain and available historical sources are contradictory. Examinations of his mortal remains indicate that he was probably about 50 upon his death in 1266 which would indicate a birth around 1216. However, his father Magnus Minnesköld is assumed to have died no than 1210 and his brothers or half-brothers — Eskil and Bengt — were all born long before 1200, and it can therefore be assumed that they had another mother. He was a nephew of the jarl Birger Brosa from the House of Bjelbo, the combination of this background proved to be of vital importance.
During the 15 years to follow, Birger consolidated his position and was one of the most influential men years before being formally given the title jarl in 1248 by King Eric XI. Although Birger Jarl saw many battles, some have speculated that traces of a blow in Birgers cranium might have originated from this battle. However, the original 14th-century Russian version of the battle had no information on this at all, in 1247, royal troops led by Birger at the Battle of Sparrsätra fought with Folkung forces led by pretender Holmger Knutsson, son of King Canute II. The Folkungs lost the battle and were unable to resist the central government, Holmger Knutsson fled to Gästrikland and was captured there by Birger in the following year. Quickly brought to trial, he was beheaded, in 1249, Birger succeeded in ending a decades-long period of hostilities with Norway. As a part of the Treaty of Lödöse, he managed to marry off his daughter Rikissa, only 11 years old, to Haakon Haakonsson the Young. Presumably that year, Birger led an expedition to Finland, dubbed as the Second Swedish Crusade, on King Erics death in 1250, Birgers son Valdemar was elected as the new king while Birger acted as regent, holding the true power in Sweden until his death.
Birger thus combined financial support from Germany with papal political support to consolidate his own position, ingeborg died in 1254 and in 1261 Birger married the widow of King Abel of Denmark, the Danish queen dowager, Matilda of Holstein. Birger died on 21 October 1266, at Jälbolung in Västergötland and his grave in Varnhem Abbey was opened in May 2002. There is a cenotaph for him at the base of the tower of Stockholm City Hall and it was originally intended that his remains be removed there, but this was never done. Several other historical structures there are named for him including the street Birger Jarlsgatan on Norrmalm. The Hotel Birger Jarl is located in Stockholms Norrmalm neighborhood and he is the central figure of Bröllopet på Ulvåsa by Frans Hedberg
Eiderstedt is a peninsula in the district of Nordfriesland in the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein. It is approximately 30 km in length and 15 km in width and has created through diking from three islands, Eiderstedt around Tönning, Utholm around Tating, and Evershop around Garding. The diking started around the year 1000 AD, since these three islands were administrative districts of their own, the area was originally called Dreilande - Three Lands. Alluvial soil won from the North Sea makes the area well-suited for agriculture, at present, tourism dominates, particularly in the city of Sankt Peter-Ording on the peninsulas western tip. The Westerhever lighthouse is the main emblem and the most prominent lighthouse in Germany. The constant threat of the sea overcoming their habitations forced Eiderstedt to a form of self-administration at a very early stage as diking was only possible through strong cooperation. Originally settled by Frisians, Eiderstedt was part of the Duchy of Schleswig from the 14th century on, in 1864, the Danish Duchy of Schleswig became part of Prussia.
Prussian administration gave Eiderstedt independence as a district, in 1970, the district of Eiderstedt was merged with the districts of Husum and Südtondern to form the district of Nordfriesland. The peninsula represents a same named Amt, with the seat in the town of Garding. The only town of the peninsula not part of the Amt is Tönning, media related to Eiderstedt at Wikimedia Commons Eiderstedt. net Eiderstedt. de Eiderstedt tourism central
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
John I, Count of Holstein-Kiel
John I, Count of Holstein-Kiel was a member of the House of Schauenburg. He was Count of Holstein-Kiel from 1261 until his death, John was the eldest son of Count Adolf IV of Schauenburg and Holstein and his wife Heilwig of Lippe. After his father retired to the monastery in 1239, John ruled jointly with his younger brother Gerhard I and he was constantly embroiled in disputes with his brother and the Bishop of Minden. In 1255, they signed a agreement with Lübeck. In 1261, the county was divided, John received Wagria, East Holstein and Segeberg, his brother received Stormarn, Plön and Schaumburg. John chose Kiel as his residence, Gerhard chose Itzehoe, when Denmark ceded Rendsburg, it went to Gerhard. After his death, his sons ruled jointly under the regency of their uncle gerhard, however, in 1273, they divided their territory into Holstein-Segeberg and Holstein-Kiel. When Adolf died without an hier in 1308, the two parts were reunited, the inscription in his seal read, S * IOH * IS * STORM Comitis WAGRIE * ARIA * ET * HOLTSACIE.
In the middle, SCOVENBG COMES John married in 1249 or 1250 to Elisabeth, married Count Nicholas I of Schwerin-Wittenburg Heilwig, married in 1262 to Margrave Otto IV of Brandenburg Adolph V, married Euphemia of Pomerania. John II Agnes, married Lord Waldemar of Rostock Albert, from 1283 provost in Hamburg Entry at genealogie-mittelalter. de
Eric IV of Denmark
Eric IV, known as Eric Ploughpenny or Eric Plowpenny, was king of Denmark from 1241 until his death in 1250. He was the son of King Valdemar II by his wife, Berengaria of Portugal, Eric was born in 1216 as the second legitimate son of King Valdemar II by his second wife Berengária of Portugal. In 1218, when his older half-brother Valdemar was crowned king as their fathers co-ruler and designated heir, after the premature death of Valdemar in 1231, Eric in his turn was crowned king at Lund Cathedral 30 May 1232 as his fathers coruler and heir. Subsequently, he ceded the Duchy of Schleswig to his younger brother Abel, when his father died in 1241, he automatically acceded to the throne. His rule was marked by conflicts and civil wars against his brothers. Especially he fought his brother, Duke Abel of Schleswig who seems to have wanted an independent position, Eric fought the Scanian peasants, who rebelled because of his hard taxes, among other things, on ploughs. The number of ploughs a man owned was used as a measure of his wealth and this gave the king the epithet plough-penny, Plovpenning).
Eric had only been king for about a year when he first came into conflict with his brother, Duke Abel of Schleswig, the conflict lasted for two years before the brothers agreed on a truce in 1244 and made plans for a joint crusade to Estonia. At the same time Eric faced trouble from the religious orders who insisted that they were immune from taxes that Eric might assess, Eric wanted the church lands taxed as any other land holder would be. The pope sent a nuncio to negotiate between the king and the bishops at Odense in 1245, excommunication was threatened for anyone, great or small who trespassed upon the ancient rights and privileges of the church. It was a warning to Eric that the church would not tolerate his continued insistence at assessing church property for tax purposes. Infuriated, King Eric directed his rage at Bishop Niels Stigsen of Roskilde who fled Denmark the same year, Eric confiscated the bishoprics properties in Zealand, including the emerging city of Copenhagen, as compensation for his troubles with Abel.
In spite of intervention from Pope Innocent IV who advocated the reinstatement of the bishop and the return of the properties to the diocese, the dispute could not be resolved. Niels Stigsen died in 1249 in the Clairvaux Abbey and the properties were not restored to the diocese until after the death of King Eric in 1250, in the meantime, the conflict between King Eric and his brothers had broken out again in 1246. The conflict started when Eric invaded Holstein in an attempt to restore his fathers control of the county, the following year and the Holsteiners stormed into Jutland and Funen and pillaging as far north as Randers and Odense. Abel was supported by the city of Lübeck, as well as by his brothers Christopher, Lord of Lolland and Falster and Canute. Eric retaliated immediately, reconquering the city of Ribe and occupying Abel’s patrimonial city of Svendborg the same year, in 1247, he captured the castle of Arreskov on Funen, as well as taking Christopher and Canute prisoners. A truce was arranged by Erics sister Sophie of Brandenburg which left Eric in firm control of all of Denmark, in 1249 the peasants in Scania rose in rebellion against the plow tax
It is now a church of the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church, the seat of one of its bishops, and ranks among the most important architectural monuments of Schleswig-Holstein. In 850 a missionary church was founded in Haithabu, between 947 and 949 Otto I installed three dioceses on the Cimbrian peninsula, Schleswig and in 948 Århus. After the foundation of the Schleswig diocese in 947, the first cathedral in Schleswig was built, neither the size nor the location of this cathedral is known. In 1134, construction of a new romanesque basilica began, the work was only completed around 1200, because an additional nave was constructed that can still be seen today. Construction materials included granite, tuff from the Rhine, and brick, in 1134, the Danish King Niels headless body was laid out in St. Peters Cathedral after it was pulled from the Schlei in the nets of local fishermen. The monks who attended the corpse heard strange noises and thought that the spirit of King Niels was wandering about in the church, as a result the kings body was taken to Gottorp and stuffed into a boggy grave.
Someone hammered a stake through Niels chest to him there. Legend has it that King Niels still haunts the cathedral, King Frederick I of Denmark is entombed in the cathedral. After the collapse of two towers and some parts of the basilica in 1275, the High Gothic Hall Choir was constructed and completed around 1300, the Late Gothic Hall Church was built from 1200 to 1408 and was finally completed in the 16th century. In 1894 that the cathedral got its final outward appearance, in 1879 Schleswig became the provincial capital in 1879, and in 1888 the construction of a Gothic revival western tower began at the request of the King William II of Prussia. It was completed in 1894 and at 112 metres, a too high compared to the proportions of the cathedral. There is a platform on the tower at 65 metres which commands a great view on the city of Schleswig, the Schlei. As of 2006, one can view the bells above the platform with a guided tour starting in the cathedral. Access to the cathedral is granted through the romanesque Petri Portal, a variety of materials were used for the portals construction, red sandstone from Skåne, limestone from Gotland and tuff from the Rhineland.
On the Tympanum, Christ is depicted amongst evangelists and saints, the one holding the key is the disciple Peter, and the other one who is given the scroll with the Christian mission, is St. Paul. Beside the portal, there is a sculpture of a lion. The sacristy, build around 1480, first served, indeed, as sacristy and conference room of the cathedral chapter, after the Reformation, it was converted to a Fürstengruft as tomb for the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp. Bishop Berthold arranged for an expansion of the High Choir at the end of the 13th century, frescos were added, depicting the Annunciation, the Coronation of Mary, St. Catherine, St. Philippus, St. Peter and angels
Schleswig is a town in the northeastern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the capital of the Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg and it has a population of about 27,000, the main industries being leather and food processing. It takes its name from the Schlei, an inlet of the Baltic sea at the end of which it sits, Schleswig or Slesvig therefore means bay of the Schlei. The urban area ranges from 0 to 20 m above sea level, the nearest major cities are Flensburg and Kiel. Autobahn 7 runs immediately west of the city, highways 76 and 77 end in Schleswig and B201 runs to the north of the town. Schleswig station is a stop for InterCity and Intercity-Express trains and is on the Hamburg–Neumünster–Flensburg, the climate is humid and maritime. The annual mean temperature is 8 °C and precipitation averages 925 mm, the Viking settlement of Hedeby, located south of the modern town, was first mentioned in 804. It was a settlement in the Baltic region, dominating the area for more than 200 years. In 1050, following several destructions, the population was moved to the shore of the Schlei.
In 1066 Hedeby was finally destroyed, and Schleswig remained as a part of the Danish kingdom, in 1544, Gottorf Castle became the residence of the local rulers. The dukes of Gottorf were vassals of the Danish kings and ruled much of present-day Schleswig-Holstein. In 1721, when the Great Northern War ended, the dukes of Gottorf lost their power, after the Second Schleswig War, Schleswig was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia