Abell is a neighborhood located in the north-central area of Baltimore, United States. It is considered to be part of Baltimore. Abell is a predominantly residential community that structurally conforms to a grid street pattern established in the area during the first quarter of the 20th century. However, remnants of earlier diagonal roads still exist in the neighborhood—today's Merryman Lane, the truncated Vineyard Lane, both of which are in the northeast section of the area; the Abell neighborhood, like Abell Avenue, derives its name from the Abell family, longtime owners of the Baltimore Sun newspapers. The Abell family owned a large summer estate known as Guilford, located a short distance north of today's Abell community; the majority of residential structures in Abell are row houses of medium-to-large size. East of Barclay Street in the northern portion are a number of interesting late-19th-century individual frame structures which remain from the former Victorian-era village of Waverly.
Scattered throughout the community are a number of small apartment buildings. Mixed residential and commercial uses are prevalent along Greenmount Avenue. Since the 1950s, portions of the community's southeast section have been dedicated to light industrial and educational use. Early in its development, during the'Teens and 1920's, Abell was known for its well-constructed row houses and such plumbing amenities as running water and indoor sanitary provisions. Daylight houses, which allowed light into all rooms, were built by Edward J. Storck in the northern blocks. Areas to the south were developed with porch-front row houses; these new blocks were advertised as being in the Guilford area, thereby capitalizing on their proximity to that wealthier neighborhood to the north. The Abell community was part of the original "Huntington" tract of' 136 acres laid out for Tobias Stanboro in 1688; the early subdivision of Huntington had brought into being a number of attractive country seats including a few in the Abell neighborhood.
In 1889 a portion of the land near 29th Street and Greenmount Avenue was used as a baseball park—the first Oriole Park. However, this was abandoned two years because it was considered too far out from the City. In 1914 Terrapin Park was established north of 29th Street at Greenmount Avenue as a ballpark for the Federal League's Baltimore Orioles, the field was renamed Oriole Park; the lives of many local children revolved around the dramatic presence of baseball in their community. In 1937 a new scoreboard, as tall as a 3 1⁄2-story building and as wide as four houses, was erected and billed as the largest scoreboard in the world, its ability to display all the important operations of the game using electricity was a marvel of the time; when a six-alarm nighttime fire destroyed the wooden stands and buildings in 1944, 1,500 people had to flee the neighborhood. The intense heat melted asphalt on tar on nearby roofs; the Orioles moved to the twenty-year-old Baltimore Municipal Stadium, Barclay Street was cut through the old Oriole Park site.
For years the land was used as a playground. During the mid-1950s, commercial and warehouse structures were built along the eastern portion, the Barclay School, #54, was built to the west in 1959. An important local landmark part of the early Waverly community still exists in Abell; the Huntington Baptist Church, at the northeast corner of 31st Street and Barclay Street, was founded in 1836 as a small Sabbath school for convalescent soldiers. Throughout the early 19th century men from Ft. McHenry were moved to the higher and healthier atmosphere of the Abell area, near the intersection of Old and New York Roads, to escape the threat of malaria. Convalescing soldiers from the barracks would attend Baptist services in private homes of the neighborhood. A Sabbath school was established nearby in an old barracks building in 1836. Alternate visiting ministers preached weekly sermons for a few civilians. In 1846 James Wilson, a large landowner in the area, erected a small chapel which he called the Huntington Baptist Church.
The congregation grew until it required a new building in 1873. Modeled after Talmage's Tabernacle in Brooklyn, it was covered with corrugated iron plates. In service for fifty years, the old tabernacle landmark was replaced in 1922 with the present church; as of 2017 the building is home to a non-denominational congregation. List of Baltimore neighborhoods Abell Improvement Association LiveBaltimore.com Neighborhood Profile Baltimore, Maryland, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary North District Maps
The Baltimore Sun
The Baltimore Sun is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in the American state of Maryland and provides coverage of local and regional news, issues and industries. Founded in 1837, the newspaper is owned by Tribune Publishing; the Sun was founded on May 17, 1837, by printer/editor/publisher/owner Arunah Shepherdson Abell and two associates, William Moseley Swain, Azariah H. Simmons from Philadelphia, where they had started and published the Public Ledger the year before. Abell was born in Rhode Island, where he began journalism with the Providence Patriot and worked with Newspapers in New York City and Boston; the Abell family and descendents owned The Sun (later after 1910 colloquially known in Baltimore as The Sunpapers until that same year of 1910, when the local Black and Garrett families of wealthy financial means invested funds in the paper under the suggestion of former rival owner/publisher of The News, Charles H. Grasty, they, along with Grasty gained a controlling interest.
That same year, an additional daily publication was established called The Evening Sun under the guidance of former reporter, editor/columnist Henry Louis Mencken, From 1947 to 1986, The Sun was the owner of Maryland's first television station, WMAR-TV, founded 1947 and longtime affiliate of the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS television network, along with several radio stations. In the postwar years, The Sun expanded its overseas presence; the newspaper opened its first foreign bureau in London in 1924. Between 1955 and 1961, it added four new foreign offices; as Cold War tensions grew, it set up shop in Bonn, West Germany, in February 1955. Eleven months The Sun opened a Moscow bureau, becoming one of the first U. S. newspapers to do so. A Rome office followed in July 1957, in 1961, The Sun expanded to New Delhi. At its height, The Sun' ran eight foreign bureaus, giving rise to its boast in a 1983 advertisement that "The Sun never sets on the world."The paper was sold under recent non-family publisher Reg Murphy in 1986 to the Times-Mirror Company of the Los Angeles Times.
The same week, the 115 year old rivalry with The News American, came to an end, as that ancient old paper with publishing antecedents since 1773, with subsequent mergers, announced that it would fold. The oldest paper in the city, it had been owned by William Randolph Hearst and his Hearst Corporation since the 1920s. A decade in 1997, The Sun acquired the Patuxent Publishing Company, a local suburban newspaper publisher that had a stable of 15 weekly papers and a few magazines in several communities and counties. In the 1990s and 2000s, The Sun began cutting back its foreign coverage. In 1995 and 1996, closed its Tokyo, Mexico City and Berlin bureaus. Two more — Beijing and London — fell victim to cost-cutting in 2005; the final three bureaus — Moscow and Johannesburg, South Africa — fell a couple years later. All were closed by 2008, as the Tribune Co. streamlined and downsized the newspaper chain's foreign reporting. Some material from The Sun's foreign correspondents is archived at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
In the 21st century, The Sun, like most legacy newspapers in the United States, has suffered a number of setbacks in the competition with Internet and other sources, including a decline in readership and ads, a shrinking newsroom staff, competition in 2005 from a new free daily, The Baltimore Examiner that lasted two years to 2007, along with a similar Washington publication of a small chain started by new owners that took over the old Hearst flagship paper, the San Francisco Examiner. In 2000, the Times-Mirror company was purchased by the Tribune Company of Chicago. I, 2014 it transferred its newspapers, including The Sun, to Tribune Publishing. On September 19, 2005, again on August 24, 2008, The Baltimore Sun as the paper now titled itself, introduced new layout designs, its circulation as of 2010 was 343,552 on Sundays. On April 29, 2009, the Tribune Company announced that it would lay off 61 of the 205 staff members in the Sun newsroom. On September 23, 2011, it was reported that the Baltimore Sun would be moving its web edition behind a paywall starting October 10, 2011.
The Baltimore Sun is the flagship of the Baltimore Sun Media Group, which produces the b free daily newspaper and more than 30 other Baltimore metropolitan-area community newspapers and Web sites. BSMG content reaches more than one million Baltimore-area readers each week and is the region's most read source of news. On February 20, 2014, The Baltimore Sun Media Group announced that they would buy the alternative weekly City Paper. In April, the Sun acquired the Maryland publications of Landmark Media Enterprises. Although there is now only a morning edition, for many years there were two distinct newspapers—The Sun in the morning and The Evening Sun in the afternoon— each with its own separate reporting and editorial staff; the Evening Sun was first published in 1910 under the leadership of Charles H. Grasty, former owner of the Evening News, a firm believer in the evening circulation. For most of its existence, The Evening Sun led its morning sibling in circulation. In 1959, the afternoon edition's circulation was 220,174, compared to 196,675 for the morning edition.
However, by the 1980s, cultural and economic shifts in America were eating away at afternoon newspapers' market share, with readers flocking to either morning papers or switching to nightly televisi
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Public Ledger (Philadelphia)
The Public Ledger was a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942. Its motto was "Virtue Liberty and Independence". For a time, it was Philadelphia's most popular newspaper, it operated a syndicate, the Ledger Syndicate, from 1915 until 1946. Founded by William Moseley Swain, Arunah S. Abell, Azariah H. Simmons, edited by Swain, the Public Ledger was the first penny paper in Philadelphia. At that time most papers sold for five cents or more, a high price which limited their appeal to only the reasonably well-off. Swain and Abell drew on the success of the New York Herald, one of the first penny papers and decided to use a one cent cover price to appeal to a broad audience, they mimicked the Herald's use of bold headlines to draw sales. The formula was a success and the Ledger posted a circulation of 15,000 in 1840, growing to 40,000 a decade later. To put this into perspective, the entire circulation of all newspapers in Philadelphia was estimated at only 8,000 when the Ledger was founded.
The Ledger was a technological innovator as well. It was the first daily to make use of a pony express, among the first papers to use the electromagnetic telegraph. From 1846, it was printed on the first rotary printing press. By the early 1860s, The Ledger was a money-losing operation, squeezed by rising paper and printing costs, it had lost circulation by supporting the Copperhead Policy of opposing the American Civil War and advocating an immediate peace settlement with the Confederate States of America. Most readers in Philadelphia at the time supported the Union, although there was a strong contingent of Southern sympathizers and families with ties to the South, as Southerners had long had second homes in Philadelphia and sent their daughters to finishing schools there. In the face of declining circulation, publishers were reluctant to increase the one-cent subscription cost, although it was needed to cover the costs of production. In December 1864, the paper was sold to George William Childs and Anthony J. Drexel for a reported $20,000.
Upon buying the paper, Childs changed its policy and methods. He changed the editorial policy to the Loyalist line, raised advertising rates, doubled the cover price to two cents. After an initial drop, circulation rebounded and the paper resumed profitability. Childs was involved in all operations of the paper, from the press room to the composing room, he intentionally upgraded the quality of advertisements appearing in the publication to suit a higher-end readership. Childs's efforts bore fruit and the Ledger became one of the most influential journals in the country. Circulation growth led the firm to outgrow its facilities. Designed by architect John McArthur, Jr. the building had at its corner a larger-than-life-sized statue of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph A. Bailly, which Childs had commissioned; the quality and profitability of the Ledger improved dramatically. By 1894, The New York Times described it as "...the finest newspaper office in the country." Toward the end of Child's leadership, the Ledger was estimated to generate profits of $500,000 per year.
In 1870, Mark Twain mocked the Ledger for its rhyming obituaries, in a piece entitled "Post-Mortem Poetry", in his column for The Galaxy: There is an element about some poetry, able to make physical suffering and death cheerful things to contemplate and consummations to be desired. In 1902, Adolph Ochs, owner of The New York Times, bought the paper from Drexel's estate for a reported $2.25 million. He merged it with the Philadelphia Times, installed his brother George as editor. Oakes served as editor until 1914. In 1913, Cyrus H. K. Curtis purchased the paper from Ochs for $2 million and hired his step son-in-law John Charles Martin as editor. Curtis was owner of Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post, his intention was to establish the Ledger as Philadelphia's premier newspaper, which he achieved by buying and closing several competing papers: the Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, the Philadelphia North American, The Philadelphia Press among them. Philadelphia went from a peak of 13 papers in 1900 to seven in 1920, a time when the newspaper industry in the United States was consolidating in general.
Under Curtis' ownership, the conservative appearance of the Ledger was increased: it avoided bold headlines and printed photographs on the front page. Its conservative format has been compared by scholars to the Wall Street Journal or New York Times of the twentieth century. Curtis built the Ledger's foreign news service and syndicated it to other papers via his Ledger Syndicate. From 1918 to 1921, former President William Howard Taft was on staff as an editorial contributor. To broaden the market, compete against The Evening Bulletin, in 1914 Curtis began publishing the Evening Public Ledger, a bolder paper designed to appeal to a broader public; the Ledger suffered by competition from an ascendant The Evening Bulletin, which under publisher William L. McLean grew in size from 12 pages in 1900 to 28 pages in 1920, from circulation of 6,000 to a leadership position of over 500,000 readers in the same time; the Bulletin's bolder and more commercial approach attracted additional advertising, which in turn drew more readers.
Advertising, which comprised only 1/3 of the Bulletin in 1900, grew to nearly 3/4 of its pages in 1920. At the same time, the circulation at the Ledger stagnated. Curtis built a new Public Ledger
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
The Abell catalog of rich clusters of galaxies is an all-sky catalog of 4,073 rich galaxy clusters of nominal redshift z ≤ 0.2. This catalog supplements a revision of George O. Abell's original "Northern Survey" of 1958, which had only 2,712 clusters, with a further 1,361 clusters – the "Southern Survey" of 1989, published after Abell's death by co-authors Harold G. Corwin and Ronald P. Olowin from those parts of the south celestial hemisphere, omitted from the earlier survey; the Abell catalog, its clusters, are of interest to amateur astronomers as challenge objects to be viewed in dark locations on large aperture amateur telescopes. The original catalog of 2,712 rich clusters of galaxies was published in 1958 by George O. Abell, studying at the California Institute of Technology; the catalog, which formed part of Abell's PhD thesis, was prepared by means of a visual inspection of the red 103a-E plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, for which Abell was one of the principal observers.
A. G. Wilson, another of the principal observers, assisted Abell in the initial stages of the survey by inspecting the plates as they were produced. After the completion of the survey, Abell went over the plates again and carried out a more detailed inspection. In both cases inspection was made with a 3.5× magnifying lens. To qualify for inclusion in the catalog, a cluster had to satisfy four criteria: Richness: A cluster must have a minimum population of 50 members within a magnitude range of m3 to m3+2. To ensure a healthy margin of error, this criterion was not applied rigorously, the final catalog included many clusters with fewer than fifty members. Abell divided the clusters into six "richness groups", depending on the number of galaxies in a given cluster that lie within the magnitude range m3 to m3+2: Group 0: 30–49 galaxies Group 1: 50–79 galaxies Group 2: 80–129 galaxies Group 3: 130–199 galaxies Group 4: 200–299 galaxies Group 5: more than 299 galaxies Compactness: A cluster must be sufficiently compact that its fifty or more members lie within one "counting radius" of the cluster's centre.
This radius, now known as the "Abell radius", may be defined as 1.72/z arcminutes, where z is the cluster's redshift, or as 1.5h−1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant is assumed to beH0 = 100 km s−1 Mpc−1, h is a dimensionless scale parameter which takes value between 0.5 and 1. H = H0/100; the precise value of the Abell radius depends on the value taken for that parameter h. For h = 0.75, the Abell radius is 2 megaparsecs. This is more than twice the estimate Abell gave in 1958, when H0 was thought to be as high as 180 km s−1 Mpc−1. Distance: A cluster should have a nominal redshift of between 0.02 and 0.2. Assuming H0 = 180 km s−1 Mpc−1, these values correspond to distances of about 33 and 330 Mpc respectively, it has since been shown than many of the clusters in the catalog are more remote than this, some being as far away as z = 0.4. Abell divided the clusters into seven "distance groups" according to the magnitudes of their tenth-brightest members: Group 1: mag 13.3–14.0 Group 2: mag 14.1–14.8 Group 3: mag 14.9–15.6 Group 4: mag 15.7–16.4 Group 5: mag 16.5–17.2 Group 6: mag 17.3–18.0 Group 7: mag > 18.0 Galactic latitude: Areas of the sky in the neighbourhood of the Milky Way were excluded from the study because the density of stars in those fields – not to mention interstellar obscuration – made it difficult to positively identify galaxy clusters.
Like the richness criterion, this one was not applied rigorously, several clusters in or close to the Galactic Plane being included in the catalog where Abell was satisfied that they were genuine clusters that met the other criteria. In the catalog as published the clusters were listed in increasing order of right ascension. Equatorial coordinates were given for the equinox of 1855 and galactic coordinates for 1900. Listed for each cluster were the following: the cluster's precession rate the magnitude of the cluster's tenth-brightest member the distance group of the cluster the richness group of the cluster The sky-coverage of the 1958 catalog was limited to declinations north of –27°, the original southern limit of POSS. To rectify this and other shortcomings, the original catalog was revised and supplemented with an additional catalog – the "Southern Survey" – of rich galaxy clusters from those parts of the south celestial hemisphere, omitted from the original catalog; the Southern Survey added a further 1,361 rich clusters to Abell's original Northern Survey.
The deep IIIa-J plates of the Southern Sky Survey were used in the survey. These photographic plates were taken with the United Kingdom's 1.2-metre Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in the 1970s. Abell began the survey during a sabbatical year in Edinburgh in 1976. There he enlisted the assistance of Harold G Corwin of the University of Edinburgh, who continued to work on the catalog until 1981, at which time he joined the Department of Astronomy at the University of Texas. By about half the survey had been completed. An interim paper on the Southern Survey was read at a symposium in 1983, about one month before Abell's death.
Arunah Shepherdson Abell
Arunah Shepherdson Abell was an American publisher and philanthropist from New England, active in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Born in East Providence, Rhode Island, Abell learned the newspaper business as an apprentice at the Providence Patriot. After stints with newspapers in Boston and New York City, he co-founded the Public Ledger in Philadelphia and independently founded The Sun of Baltimore, Maryland. Abell and his descendants continued ownership of The Sun as a family business until 1910. Abell is noted as an innovative publisher in the newspaper business, making use of new systems and technology: pony express delivery of news from New Orleans, using the telegraph to transmit news from the first Mexican–American War and a President's speech to the Congress in Washington, D. C. and using the new rotary/cylinder printing press invented by Richard March Hoe. Abell was born in East Providence, Rhode Island on August 10, 1806 to parents of generations of English ancestry. After leaving school at the age of 14, he worked as a clerk in a retail business specializing in West Indian wares, before he became an apprentice at the Providence Patriot newspaper in 1822.
He served as a journeyman printer in New York City. In New York, he met two other young newspapermen, Azariah H. Simmons and William Moseley Swain, they became friends. Together, they decided to go into business and found a "penny paper". At the time, the majority of newspapers were associated with a political party or with business interests. For example, Abell's newspaper in Baltimore was associated with the Democratic Party. Penny papers were a new phenomenon at the time. Originating in England, they made newspapers accessible to the working class, whereas other existing papers were too expensive for many consumers; as New York had a number of penny papers, Abell and Swain founded their paper in Philadelphia where there was less competition, starting the Public Ledger in 1836. Within 2 years, the Public Ledger absorbed the Philadelphia Transcript. Under Abell, the Ledger continued to appeal to the working class as a penny paper; the following year, Abell convinced his partners to back him financially to found a penny paper in Baltimore, which at the time had a number of more expensive papers costing six pennies an issue.
They agreed, based on his commitment to oversee the new venture. Abell published his first four-page tabloid-sized issue of The Sun on May 17, 1837. While it was an independent newspaper, The Sun editorially leaned toward the ideals of Jacksonian democracy as championed by sixth President Andrew Jackson. Soon each issue used the phrase "Light for All" as its motto, with a distinctive "vignette" on its masthead, still in use; the newspaper became a success. In 1838, Abell married a widow, they had children together. By 1850, business was good enough that Abell commissioned architect James Bogardus to design a new building for the paper. Throughout the 19th century, Baltimore had a number of newspapers. Many were overtly partisan, such as Baltimore American. Despite its origins as a penny paper, by the late 19th century the Sun had won a position as the newspaper of choice of Baltimore's upper class. By 1864, Abell was sole proprietor of The Sun and had sold his share in the Public Ledger to partner Swain.
Abell was a pioneer in making use of technology and a variety of transportation systems to transmit and deliver news. To get news from his reporters as as possible, he used pony express, trains and carrier pigeons, he established a new pony express route from New Orleans, in conjunction with the publishers of the New Orleans Daily Picayune, during the Mexican–American War. With this system, he learned of the U. S. victory at Veracruz, Mexico before officials in the nation's capital, Washington, D. C.. He was the first newspaperman to use telegraphy when he transmitted President John Tyler's message of May 11, 1846, he was the first to buy a Hoe cylinder press; the carrier pigeons were part of a network that Abell established with another newspaper publisher in New York. C. and from incoming ships. They were superseded by the spread of telegraphy. Abell's newsroom received foreign news by a convoluted route. News from Europe was delivered to Nova Scotia by ship. S. by steamship to Portland, by rail to Baltimore.
Through a journey of nearly one thousand miles, the news was delivered in little more than two days from Halifax to Baltimore. In years, Abell supported telegraph pioneer Samuel F. B. Morse and helped finance the construction of telegraph lines into Baltimore. By the start of the American Civil War, Abell had increased circulation of The Sun to 30,000 subscribers, he remained owner of The Sun until his death. Abell is entombed in Baltimore's Green Mount Cemetery off East North Avenue, his three sons and their grandsons retained control of the newspaper until 1910. As a result of a financial restructuring of the former Abell-Swain-Sim