Oberon Council is a local government area in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. Oberon Council includes Black Springs, Shooters Hill, Edith, O'Connell and Burraga; the Mayor of Oberon Council is Cr. Kathy Sajowitz, an independent politician; the Oberon Council has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Jenolan, Caves Road: Jenolan Caves Oberon, 124 Oberon Street: Malachi Gilmore Memorial Hall Oberon, Tarana-Oberon railway: Oberon railway station According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics there: were 5,503 people as at 30 June 2006, the 125th largest Local Government Area in New South Wales. It was equal to less than 0.1% of the New South Wales population of 6,827,694 was an increase of 60 people over the year to 30 June 2006, the 99th largest population growth in a Local Government Area in New South Wales. It was equal to 0.1% of the 58,753 increase in the population of New South Wales was, in percentage terms, an increase of 1.1% in the number of people over the year to 30 June 2006, the 41st fastest growth in population of a Local Government Area in New South Wales.
In New South Wales the population grew by 0.9% was an increase in population over the 10 years to 30 June 2006 of 648 people or 13%, the 32nd highest rate of a Local Government Area in New South Wales. In New South Wales the population grew by 10 % over the same period. Oberon Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as a single ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 9 September 2017; the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2017, in order of result is
A Gold Rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere; the wealth that resulted was distributed because of reduced migration costs and low barriers to entry. While gold mining itself was unprofitable for most diggers and mine owners, some people made large fortunes, the merchants and transportation facilities made large profits; the resulting increase in the world's gold supply stimulated global investment. Historians have written extensively about the migration, trade and environmental history associated with gold rushes. Gold rushes were marked by a general buoyant feeling of a "free for all" in income mobility, in which any single individual might become abundantly wealthy instantly, as expressed in the California Dream.
Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that led to permanent settlement of new regions. Activities propelled by gold rushes define significant aspects of the culture of the Australian and North American frontiers. At a time when the world's money supply was based on gold, the newly mined gold provided economic stimulus far beyond the gold fields. Gold rushes extend as far back to the Roman Empire, whose gold mining was described by Diodorus Siculus and Pliny the Elder, further back to ancient Egypt. Within each mining rush there is a transition through progressively higher capital expenditures, larger organizations, more specialized knowledge, they may progress from high-unit value to lower unit value minerals. A rush begins with the discovery of placer gold made by an individual. At first the gold may be washed from the sand and gravel by individual miners with little training, using a gold pan or similar simple instrument. Once it is clear that the volume of gold-bearing sediment is larger than a few cubic metres, the placer miners will build rockers or sluice boxes, with which a small group can wash gold from the sediment many times faster than using gold pans.
Winning the gold in this manner requires no capital investment, only a simple pan or equipment that may be built on the spot, only simple organisation. The low investment, the high value per unit weight of gold, the ability of gold dust and gold nuggets to serve as a medium of exchange, allow placer gold rushes to occur in remote locations. After the sluice-box stage, placer mining may become large scale, requiring larger organisations and higher capital expenditures. Small claims owned and mined by individuals may need to be merged into larger tracts. Difficult-to-reach placer deposits may be mined by tunnels. Water may be diverted by dams and canals to placer mine active river beds or to deliver water needed to wash dry placers; the more advanced techniques of ground sluicing, hydraulic mining and dredging may be used. The heyday of a placer gold rush would last only a few years; the free gold supply in stream beds would become depleted somewhat and the initial phase would be followed by prospecting for veins of lode gold that were the original source of the placer gold.
Hard rock mining, like placer mining, may evolve from low capital investment and simple technology to progressively higher capital and technology. The surface outcrop of a gold-bearing vein may be oxidized, so that the gold occurs as native gold, the ore needs only to be crushed and washed; the first miners may at first build a simple arrastra to crush their ore. As the miners dig down, they may find that the deeper part of vein contains gold locked in sulfide or telluride minerals, which will require smelting. If the ore is still sufficiently rich, it may be worth shipping to a distant smelter. Lower-grade ore may require on-site treatment to either recover the gold or to produce a concentrate sufficiently rich for transport to the smelter; as the district turns to lower-grade ore, the mining may change from underground mining to large open-pit mining. Many silver rushes followed upon gold rushes; as transportation and infrastructure improve, the focus may change progressively from gold to silver to base metals.
In this way, Colorado started as a placer gold discovery, achieved fame as a silver-mining district relied on lead and zinc in its days. Butte, Montana began mining placer gold became a silver-mining district became for a time the world’s largest copper producer. Various gold rushes occurred in Australia over the second half of the 19th century; the most significant of these, although not the only ones, were the New South Wales gold rush and Victorian gold rush in 1851, the Western Australian gold rushes of the 1890s. They were significant to their respective colonies' political and economic development as they brought a large number of immigrants, promoted massive government spending on infrastructure to support the new arrivals who came looking for gold. While some found their fortune, those who did not remained in the colonies and took advantage of liberal land laws to take up farming. Gold rushes happened at or around: In New Zealand the Central Otago Gold Rush from 1861 attracted prospectors from the California Gold Rush and the Victorian Gold Rush and many moved on to the West Coast Gold Rush from 1864.
The first significant gold rush in the United States was in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, in 1799 at today's Reed's Gold Mine. Thirty years in 1829, the Geor
A watercourse is the channel that a flowing body of water follows. In the UK, some aspects of criminal law, such as The Rivers Act 1951, specify that a watercourse includes those rivers which are dry for part of the year. In some jurisdictions, owners of land over which the water flows may have rights to some or much of the water in a legal sense; these include estuaries, streams and canals. If it is navigable, it is a "waterway". Environmental flow Hydrology Physical geography Wadi Aqueduct Qanat Watercourse at the Online Etymology Dictionary
Central West (New South Wales)
The Central West is a region of New South Wales, Australia. The region is geographically in eastern New South Wales, in the area west of the Blue Mountains, which are west of Sydney, it has an area of 63,262 square kilometres. Major population and service centres in the Central West include the cities of Bathurst and Dubbo. Bathurst and Dubbo are home to campuses of Charles Sturt University, the only main provider of university education for the region; the Central West includes three cities: Bathurst and Orange. The following local government areas are contained within the region: The Central West's east is higher and hillier and supports orchards, vegetable-growing and pastoralism; the west supports grain crops and pastoralism. The Central West region is traversed by the Great Western Highway, the Mid-Western Highway, the Mitchell Highway, the Newell Highway and the Castlereagh Highway; the Central West has several radio stations, including 97.9 2LVR, 105.1 2GZFM, 105.9 Star FM, 107.5 Community Radio, 103.5 Rhema FM and 1089AM — a commercial station that gets most of its programming from 2SM in Sydney.
Other electronic media are represented by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation with both television and radio broadcasting. The Central Western Daily newspaper is published in Orange; the Central West area was inhabited by the Wiradjuri people. The first white explorer, George Wilson Evans, entered the Lachlan Valley in 1815, he named the area the Oxley Plains after his superior John Oxley. In 1817 he deemed the area unfit for white settlement. A Military Depot was established not long after at Soldiers Flat near present-day Billimari. Arthur Ranken and James Sloan, from Bathurst, were amongst the first white settlers on the Lachlan, they moved to the area in 1831. In the 1850s many gold prospectors passed through headed for gold fields at Lambing Flat and Grenfell. NSW Forecast Areas map Department of Local Government page for the region listing links to council pages "Open Directory" listing
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales. It is held by a coalition of the Liberal Party and the National Party; the Government of New South Wales, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, the federal law prevails; the New South Wales Constitution says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws for the peace and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever."
The Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of New South Wales, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, the two Houses, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers; the Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales and the Cabinet. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly.
Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of New South Wales and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Constitution Amendment Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No. 6 was enacted to amend the Constitution Act 1902 to require Members of the New South Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge of loyalty to Australia and to the people of New South Wales instead of swearing allegiance to the Queen her heirs and successors, to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006; the following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of New South Wales. The government ministers are listed in order of seniority as listed on the Parliament of New South Wales website and were sworn on by the Governor with effect from 2 April 2019, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers.
All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales. List of New South Wales government agencies Local government areas of New South Wales New South Wales Ministry New South Wales Shadow Ministry Public Service Association of NSW Government of New South Wales website New South Wales Government Annual Reports and Other Publications The Constitution of New South Wales
Cowra is a small town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest population centre and the council seat for the Cowra Shire, with a population of 10,063. Cowra is located 310 m above sea level, on the banks of the Lachlan River, in the Lachlan Valley. By road it is 310 km south-west of the state capital, 189 km north of the nation's capital, Canberra; the town is situated at the intersection of three state highways: the Mid-Western Highway, Olympic Highway, the Lachlan Valley Way. Cowra is included in the rainfall records and weather forecast region for the Central West Slopes and Plains division of the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts; the Wiradjuri people Wiradjuri southern dialect pronunciation ) are a group of indigenous Australian Aboriginal people that were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups or clans scattered throughout central New South Wales. The first European explorer to the area, George William Evans, entered the Lachlan Valley in 1815.
He named the area the Oxley Plains after his superior John Oxley. In 1817 he deemed the area "unfit for settlement". A military depot was established not long after at Soldiers Flat near present-day Billimari. Arthur Ranken and James Sloan, from Bathurst, were amongst the first white settlers on the Lachlan, they moved to the area in 1831. The township of "Coura Rocks" had its beginnings in 1844. Around 1847, the township site became known as Cowra, in 1849, was proclaimed a village. In the 1850s many gold prospectors passed through headed for gold fields at Lambing Flat and Grenfell; the first school was established in 1857. The first bridge over the Lachlan River was built in 1870. Gold was discovered at Mount McDonald in the 1880s; the rail head, from Sydney, reached Cowra in 1886. Local government was granted in 1888; the first telephone exchange was established in 1901. The town water supply was established in 1909, the gasworks in 1912 and town supplied electricity was introduced in 1924. Cowra hosts an annual Festival of International Understanding, featuring a parade, balloons for the kids and events showcasing a particular foreign culture.
During World War II, Cowra was the site of a prisoner of war camp. Most of the detainees were captured Italian military personnel. However, in July 1942, Indonesian political prisoners from the Dutch Tanahmerah prison on the Digul river, in West Papua, were transported as "prisoners-of-war" to the Cowra prison camp, at the behest of Netherlands East Indies government in exile; these Indonesian prisoners arrived in mid 1942 and were released on 7 December 1943, subsequent to their release, played an important role in the black bans which frustrated the Dutch reimposition of colonial rule in the Indies.) On 5 August 1944, at least 545 Japanese POWs attempted a mass breakout from the camp. Other Japanese prisoners committed suicide, or were killed by their countrymen, inside the camp; the actions of the POWs in storming machine gun posts, armed only with improvised weapons, showed what Prime Minister John Curtin described as a "suicidal disregard of life". During the breakout and subsequent recapture of POWs, four Australian guards and 231 Japanese died, 108 prisoners were wounded.
The dead Japanese were buried in Cowra in the specially created Japanese War Cemetery. This is the only such cemetery in Australia, holds some of the dead from the World War II air raids on Darwin. An Avenue of Honour commemorates those who died in World War I. Cowra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Blayney-Harden railway: Lachlan River railway bridge, Cowra Blayney-Harden railway: Cowra railway station Evans Street: Cowra Prisoner of War Camp Site According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 10,063 people in Cowra. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.5% of the population. 85.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was England at 1.4%. 89.0% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 29.7%, Anglican 26.0% and No Religion 16.0%. Cowra has a temperate climate, with average maximum temperatures ranging from 32 °C in summer to 14 °C in winter, while minimums range from 16 °C to 2 °C.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Cowra has a borderline semi-arid and humid subtropical climate. Cowra sits on the border zone between the cool, wet highlands of the Great Dividing Range and the hot, dry plains of Western New South Wales; as a result, Cowra experiences climate characteristics of both regions, with cold sub-zero temperatures, frequent frost and occasional snow in winter, frequent 40+ °C temperatures in summer. Other towns that experience this'border' climate are Gunnedah and Mudgee further north and Gundagai further south, Wangaratta in Victoria and Dalby in Queensland. Rainfall is mild and distributed evenly all year round, however it peaks in summer with thunderstorms and again in winter with cold fronts; the average annual rainfall is 598.3 mm, while Cowra's wettest month on record was January 1984, with 371.0 mm recorded. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 46.6 °C to −8.0 °C. Cowra has 145.8 clear days on an annual basis. Primary schoolsCowra Public Mulyan Public School Holman Place Public School St Raphael's Catholic School Secondary schoolsCowra High School St Raphael's Catholic School Cowra has a campus of the Western Institute of TAFE.
Radio stations with tr
Murrumbidgee River, a major tributary of the Murray River within the Murray–Darling basin and the second longest river in Australia. It flows through the Australian state of the Australian Capital Territory, it descends 1,500 metres as it flows 1,485 kilometres in a west-northwesterly direction from the foot of Peppercorn Hill in the Fiery Range of the Snowy Mountains towards its confluence with the Murray River near Boundary Bend. The word Murrumbidgee means "big water" in the Wiradjuri language, one of the local Aboriginal languages; the river itself flows through several traditional Indigenous Australian lands, home to various Aboriginal tribes. In the Australian Capital Territory, the river is bordered by a narrow strip of land on each side; this land includes nature reserves, eight recreation reserves, a European heritage conservation zone and rural leases. The mainstream of the river system flows for 900 kilometres; the river's headwaters arise from the wet heath and bog at the foot of Peppercorn Hill situated along Long Plain, within the Fiery Range of the Snowy Mountains.
From its headwaters it flows to its confluence with the Murray River. The river flows for 66 kilometres through the Australian Capital Territory near Canberra, picking up the important tributaries of the Gudgenby, Queanbeyan and Cotter Rivers; the Murrumbidgee drains much of southern New South Wales and all of the Australian Capital Territory, is an important source of irrigation water for the Riverina farming area. The reaches of the Murrumbidgee in the Australian Capital Territory are affected by the complete elimination of large spring snow melt flows and a reduction of average annual flows of 50%, due to Tantangara Dam. Tantangara Dam was completed in 1960 on the headwaters of Murrumbidgee River and diverts 99% of the river's flow at that point into Lake Eucumbene; this has serious effects on native fish populations and other native aquatic life and has led to serious siltation, stream contraction, fish habitat loss and other problems. The Murrumbidgee where it enters the ACT is half the river it used to be.
A study suggests a section of the upper river's channels are new in geological terms, dating from the early Miocene. It is suggested that the Upper Murrumbidgee is an anabranch of the Tumut River when geological uplift near Adaminaby diverted its flow. From Gundagai onwards the rivers flow within its ancestral channel. In June 2008 the Murray-Darling Basin Commission released a report on the condition of the Murray-Darling basin, with the Goulburn and Murrumbidgee Rivers rated in a poor condition in the Murray-Darling basin with fish stocks in both rivers were rated as poor, with only 13 of the original 22 native fish species still found in the Murrumbidgee River; the Murrumbidgee River runs through the traditional lands of the Ngarigo, Wiradjuri, Nari Nari and Muthi Muthi Aboriginal tribes. The Murrumbidgee River was known to Europeans before it was discovered by them. In 1820 the explorer Charles Throsby informed the Governor of New South Wales that he anticipated finding "a considerable river of salt water, called by the natives Mur-rum-big-gee".
In the expedition journal, Throsby wrote as a marginal note: "This river or stream is called by the natives Yeal-am-bid-gie...". The river he had stumbled upon was in fact the Molonglo River, Throsby reached the actual river in April 1821. In 1823, Brigade-Major John Ovens and Captain Mark Currie reached the upper Murrumbidgee when exploring south of Lake George. In 1829, Charles Sturt and his party rowed down the lower half of the Murrumbidgee River in a stoutly built, large row-boat, from Narrandera to the Murray River, down the Murray River to the sea, they rowed back upstream, against the current, to their starting point. Sturt's description of their passage through the junction of the Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers is dramatic, his description of wild strong currents in the Murrumbidgee—in the middle of summer, when flows are declining and close to the seasonal summer/autumn minimum, are in contrast to the sluggish, chronically irrigation-reduced flow seen at the junction today in mid-summer: The men looked anxiously out ahead.
We were carried at a fearful rate down its gloomy and contracted banks... At 3 p.m. Hopkinson called out that we were approaching a junction, in less than a minute afterwards, we were hurried into a broad and noble river... such was the force with which we had been shot out of the Morumbidgee, that we were carried nearly to the bank opposite its embouchure, whilst we continued to gaze in silent astonishment on the capacious channel we had entered... The Murrumbidgee basin was opened to settlement in the 1830s and soon became an important farming area. Ernest Favenc, when writing on Australian exploration, commented on the tardy European discovery of the river and that the river retained a name used by Indigenous Australians: Here we may remark on the tenacity with which the Murrumbidgee River long eluded the eye of the white man, it is scarcely probable that Meehan and Hume, who on this occasion were within comparatively easy reach of the head waters, could have seen a new inland river at that time without mentioning the fact, but there is no record traceable anywhere as to the date of its discovery, or the name of its find