The Cross-Harbour Tunnel is the first tunnel in Hong Kong built underwater. It consists of two steel road tunnels each with two lanes constructed using the single shell immersed tube method, it is the earliest of three vehicular harbour crossings in Hong Kong, opened for traffic on 2 August 1972. It was constructed under a 30-year private-sector franchise based on a build–operate–transfer model, the title passed to the Hong Kong government in August 1999 upon termination of the franchise, it has become one of the most congested roads in Hong Kong and the world, with 116,753 vehicles passing through it daily in 2013. The Hong Kong government used the operator model "Build Operate Transfer", or "BOT", for the implementation of the tunnel project; the concession was given to the Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company Limited, today the Cross-Harbour Holdings Limited, founded in 1965 to carry out the tunnel project. The Hong Kong government participated to 20% in order not to hand over their influence on the project.
The tunnel was designed with two lanes for each direction of travel for a capacity of 80,000 vehicles. The project was structurally managed jointly by the British engineering firms Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick & Partners and Freeman Fox & Partners; the tunnel links the main financial and commercial districts on both sides of Victoria Harbour, connecting Kellett Island, with a reclaimed site at Hung Hom Bay, Kowloon. The toll plaza is located at the Hung Hom end of the tunnel, has 14 toll booths, it provides the first road link between Hong Kong Island. Prior to the opening of the tunnel, cross-harbour vehicular traffic depended on ferries and for passengers, the Star Ferry; the project was joint-engineered by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick & Partners and Freeman Fox & Partners Construction began in September 1969 and was to last four years. The concession period ran from the start of construction, so that the operator carried out the construction one year faster than planned. On 2 August 1972, the tunnel cost 5 HK $ per car for transit.
After just three and a half years of operation, the operator had re-recorded the construction costs. In 1984, the Hong Kong government introduced a tax in addition to the operator's toll to make the overcrowded tunnel less priced; the price for a car transit was now 10 HK $. In 1993, an electronic toll collection system was installed. Together with measures to control the flow of traffic, the vehicle capacity could be increased, it was administered by The Cross-Harbour Tunnel Company Ltd until August 1999, when the operation franchise agreement expired and the government assumed control. Since 1 November 2010, the tunnel is managed and maintained by Serco on contract basis; the 2017 Hong Kong action film Shock Wave, starring Andy Lau, set its main plot in the tunnel. The tunnel generates HK$700 million in annual toll revenue; as of 2018, there are 44 bus routes passing through the tunnel. Harbour crossings in Hong Kong List of tunnels and bridges in Hong Kong Megaproject Cross-Harbour Tunnel By-laws, c/o University of Hong Kong
Tsing Sha Highway
Tsing Sha Highway is a major expressway in Hong Kong, which links the island of Tsing Yi to Sha Tin. The road is part of Route 8, it was opened in March 2008 and extended in December 2009. Tsing Sha Highway was built in three stages; the section, known as Route T3 is in Tai Wai. The contract was awarded on 16 March 2003 and construction commenced on 26 March 2003; the southbound bridge was completed on 23 November 2005, the northbound bridge in March 2008. This section cost HK$2,120.2 million to build. This section has two exits; the section between the end of Road T3 and Stonecutters Island commenced construction in November 2002 and was opened on 21 March 2008. It includes the Sha Tin Heights Tunnel and the Eagle's Nest Tunnel; this section has five exits. The section between Stonecutters Island and Tsing Yi commenced construction in April 2002 and was opened on 20 December 2009, it includes the Nam Wan Tunnel. This section has three exits. Before this section was completed, all cars continuing with Tsing Sha Highway have taken exit 2C and so those cars who wish to go to Lantau should use exit 2A.
The road starts off in Sha Tin at an intersection with Tai Po Road – Sha Tin heads southwest towards Cheung Sha Wan through the Tai Wai Tunnel, Sha Tin Heights Tunnel and Eagle's Nest Tunnel. After passing through the Eagle's Nest Tunnel, the road interchanges with Ching Cheung Road of Route 7; the road goes into a flyover, passing over Cheung Sha Wan. At this point the road interchanges at Lai Wan Interchange with Tsing Kwai Highway and West Kowloon Highway of Route 3; the road continues as a flyover across Stonecutters Island turns onto the Stonecutters Bridge towards Tsing Yi. After arriving at Tsing Yi, the road goes through the Nam Wan Tunnel, passing under Tsing Yi's hills comes out on the other side of Tsing Yi; the road intersects with Route 3 again at North West Tsing Yi Interchange, terminates, leading on to the Lantau Link. According to the road signs, the speed limit for the section on the north of the toll plaza is 70 km/h, while at the south of the toll plaza the speed limit is increased to 80 km/h.
The shortest of the three tunnels on Route T3 of the main runs from Shatin to Hin Tin. Transport Department – Driving along Tsing Sha Highway
Wong Nai Chung Gap
Wong Nai Chung Gap is a geographic gap in the middle of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. The gap is between Jardine's Lookout behind Wong Nai Chung. Five roads meet at the Gap Wong Nai Chung Gap Road, Tai Tam Reservoir Road, Repulse Bay Road, Deep Water Bay Road and Black's Link, it is a strategic passage between the north and south of the island, though less so today since the opening of the Aberdeen Tunnel. In the 1930s, the British army began installing defence structures at the gap as a strategically important location, being the primary passage between the North and South of Hong Kong Island. Defensive structures included bunkers along Wong Nai Chung Gap road, along with fortifications on Jardines lookout, near the end of Sir Cecils Ride; the Battle of Wong Nai Chung Gap was the largest sustainment of casualties in a single day, on both sides, in the whole conflict. Its subsequent capture by the Japanese led to the downfall of Hong Kong Island, splitting the forces there in two. At the time of this Battle, the Wong Nai Chung Gap area included defenders of the Middlesex Regiment, The Winnipeg Grenadiers and the HKVDC.
Canadian Army Brigadier John K. Lawson was present at the HQ and involved in the Battle. On 18 December, the Japanese had landed around present day Taikoo and had made advances into the North Point area, they moved up towards Wong Nai Chung Gap from Braemar Hill through the primary use of Sir Cecil's Ride, but through Wan Chai and Happy Valley. Primary engagements occurred around the area of Jardine's Catch-water, where there were two pillboxes manned by Middlesex Machine Gunners. Royal Scots on Mount Nicholson became engaged in fighting the Japanese advance units on the adjacent Jardine's Lookout, but those coming up Happy Valley/Wanc Chai area; the superior Japanese force soon closed in on the West Brigade HQ, before the staff and other units could be evacuated. The conflict ensued for a long period, with defenders holding out and inflicting heavy casualties through the use of heavy machine gun fire; the defenders were pinned down, with few units able to get through to relieve them. The defense deteriorated after nearly every defender was either killed or wounded.
Brigadier Lawson made a call to Fortress HQ, saying he was going outside to ‘fight it out’ and was killed in action. Few stragglers managed to escape and the remainder of the soldiers were taken prisoner; the Japanese held the position against a number of counterattacks, were able to split the Commonwealth forces in Hong Kong Island. This was key factor that led to the downfall of the colony on 25 December Surrender
Kai Tak Tunnel
Kai Tak Tunnel known as the Airport Tunnel is a tunnel in New Kowloon, Hong Kong, which connects the Kowloon Bay and Ma Tau Kok areas by going beneath the former Hong Kong International Airport. It is part of Route 5; the tunnel provides a quick link between the two ends of the tunnel, as before the construction of the tunnel vehicles had to detour through Kowloon City to reach the other end. Kai Tak Tunnel is managed by Greater Lucky Company Limited. Construction of the tunnel had started by 1975, but because of the difficulties in digging under the airport runway, it was not complete until 1982; the southern tube opened to two-way traffic at 3:00 pm on 29 June 1982. The second tube opened on 8 October 1982; the Airport Tunnel was the first tunnel in Hong Kong to be toll-free, excluding short underpasses. With Kai Tak Airport's shutdown in 1998, the Airport Tunnel was no longer fulfilled to its name; the Hong Kong Government announced to rename to Kai Tak Tunnel on 2 March 2006 that the tunnel, effective from 4 May 2006, after several years of consultation with groups including the Kowloon City District Council.
The name was changed to commemorate the former Kai Tak International Airport. The tunnel consists of a pair of tubes of about 7 metres diameter each, 1.26 km long. The southern tube carries west-bound traffic from Kowloon Bay to Ma Tau Kok. A point of interest is, it is the only major vehicular tunnel in Hong Kong built by the cut-and-cover technique. Many major express bus routes of Kowloon Motor Bus between Kowloon and the eastern end of New Kowloon travel through the Kai Tak Tunnel. Most of them run between Tsim Sha Tsui, they include 13X, 98D, 98P, 215X, 219P, 219X, 296D. Westbound departures of routes 11X and 28 run through Kai Tak Tunnel. In total, an estimated 60000 vehicles use the tunnel each day
Tai Lam Tunnel
Tai Lam Tunnel, running along Tsing Long Highway, is part of Route 3 Country Park Section and is a transport link between the western New Territories in Ting Kau and Yuen Long. Tai Lam Tunnel was constructed to ease traffic congestion at Tuen Mun Road, Tate's Cairn Tunnel and Castle Peak Road, to link traffic directly from New Territories West to urban areas of Kowloon West and Hong Kong Island, the Hong Kong International Airport and the Kwai Tsing Container Terminals. Located adjacent to the boundary crossings of Lok Ma Chau and Shenzhen Bay, it connects smoothly with Shenzhen and Guangzhou for serving both cross-boundary passenger services and cargo logistics. Tai Lam Tunnel is a 3.8 km dual 3-lane tunnel. The total length of the R3CPS is 10.1 km. The tolled area, with two entrances/exits at the south end, Ting Kau Bridge and Tuen Mun Road at Ting Kau, crosses Tai Lam Country Park to its north end at Pat Heung. Located at Pat Heung and about 1 km from the north tunnel portal, the toll plaza consists of 22 tollbooths, 16 of which are for manual tolls and 6 are Autotoll lanes.
Tai Lam Tunnel is a Build-Operate-Transfer project with a franchise period of 30 years. Its total construction cost was HK$7.25 billion. Construction on Tai Lam Tunnel started on 13 March 1995 and was opened to traffic on 25 May 1998 to match with the opening of the new Hong Kong International Airport; the designed traffic capacity of Tai Lam Tunnel is 140,000 vehicles per day. In 2011/2012, the average daily traffic was over 54,000 vehicles. According to the statistics from the Transport Department of the Government of Hong Kong, Tai Lam Tunnel has higher-than-average safety records. In 2011, the accident rate per million vehicle-km was just 0.07. The tunnel is well known for its high tolls similar as the Western Harbour Tunnel, its toll for private cars is HK$48. For coaches, it is the highest in the city, about 4 times higher than the longer Tate's Cairn Tunnel; the tunnel company performed compensatory tree planting at a rate of three replacement saplings for each tree felled. In total, 250,000 trees, 150,000 shrubs and 60,000 climbing plants were planted during the construction period.
As to conservation of wildlife, there is a small tunnel constructed at the south portal of Tai Lam Tunnel for small wild animals in this area to commute in the valley allowing them to maintain their habituation. To keep in pace with technology development, Tai Lam Tunnel has replaced traditional light bulbs with light-emitting diodes; the indicator lighting signals inside the tunnel tubes and at the toll plaza as well as the illuminating system in the administration building have thus been replaced for reducing carbon emission. Tai Lam Tunnel Bus Interchange Route 3 Company Limited
Shing Mun Tunnels
The Shing Mun Tunnels are a system of tunnels and viaducts in the New Territories, Hong Kong connecting the new towns of Tsuen Wan to the west and Sha Tin to the east. They are a part of Route 9 and the Tsuen Wan entrance is the reset point of Route 9. Construction started on 11 February 1987 and the tunnels opened on 20 April 1990, they are made up of three sections, each with twin two-lane tunnels. The westerly pair passes through Ma Tsz Keng near Shing Mun Reservoir; the toll plaza and bus interchange are located outside the Tsuen Wan end of the tunnel. The tunnels lead to Cheung Pei Shan Road and connect Wo Yi Hop Interchange in Tsuen Wan, Shing Mun Tunnel Road in the east which links Tai Wai Road and ends at Tai Po Road; the Shing Mun Tunnels are managed by Greater Lucky Company Limited. The Shing Mun Tunnels were formally named as such on 19 May 1987, when the name was approved by the Sha Tin District Board; the tunnels were formally inaugurated by Governor David Wilson on 19 April 1990. Kowloon Motor Bus：40X- Wu Kai Sha Station ↔ Kwai Chung Estate 43P- Tsuen Wan West Station ↔ Hong Kong Science Park 43X- Tsuen Wan West Station ↔ Yiu On 46P- Mei Tin ↔ Kwai Fong Station 46X- Hin Keng ↔ Mei Foo 47X- Chun Shek ↔ Kwai Shing 48X- Wo Che ↔ Bayview Garden 49P- Sha Tin Central → Tsing Yi Ferry 49X- Kwong Yuen ↔ Tsing Yi Ferry 73X- Fu Shin Estate ↔ Tsuen Wan 263- Sha Tin Station ↔ Tuen Mun Station 269D- Tin Fu ↔ Lek Yuen 273C- Kau Lung Hang → Tsuen Wan West Station 273P- Tai Wo → Tsuen Wan West Station 278P- Luen Wo Hui → Tsuen Wan 278X- Sheung Shui ↔ Tsuen Wan 848- Sha Tin Racecourse → Kwai Fong Station 868- Sha Tin Racecourse ↔ Tuen Mun Town Centre N48- Yu Chui Court ↔ Bayview Garden Long Win BusA41- Airport ↔ Sha Tin Yu Chui Court A41P- Airport ↔ Wu Kai Sha Station E41- AsiaWorld-Expo ↔ Tai Po Tau E42- Airport ↔ Sha Tin Pok Hong N42- Tung Chung Station ↔ Ma On Shan Yiu On N42A- Tung Chung Station ↔ Fanling Luen Wo Hui R42- Disneyland Resort ↔ Tai Wai Station Minibus403- Shek Lei ↔ Sha Tin Town Central 403A- On Yam ↔ Sha Tin Town Central 403X- Tai Wai Station ↺ Shek Lei 481- Fo Tan ↔ Tsuen Wan Town Centre 481A- Tsuen Wan Town Centre ↔ Sha Tin Centre Street 481B- Tsuen Wan Market Street ↔ Tai Wai 482- Sha Tin Town Central ↔ Tsuen Wan Town Centre Route 9 List of tunnels and bridges in Hong Kong Shing Mun Tunnels Bus Interchange "Shing Mun Tunnel – Tsuen Wan".
Film Services Office. Fso-tela.gov.hk. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2008
Nam Wan Tunnel
Nam Wan Tunnel is a tunnel in Hong Kong opened to traffic on 20 December 2009, along with the West Tsing Yi Viaduct, East Tsing Yi Viaduct and Stonecutters Bridge. The road tunnel, which forms an important part of the HK$15 billion Route 8, linking Tsing Yi and Sha Tin in the city, began construction since 2003 and was completed in 2007; the twin-tube tunnel, built by the Highways Department of the Government of Hong Kong, is 1.2 kilometres long and has three lanes in either direction in the southern part of Tsing Yi from Sai Tso Wan to Nam Wan Kok. It provides linkage between the eastern part of the New Territories and Hong Kong International Airport; the tunnel is toll-free. The twin tunnels are 15 metres wide with 12 cross-passages and emergency walkways, a portal building at each end, they were formed by blasting through volcanic rocks. The tunnel cross section is in the form of an arch; the approximate height and width of the arch is 15.3 m respectively. The geology comprises coarse volcanic ash tuff on the west side and medium grained granite on the eastern side.
Both of these lithologies are intruded by Rhyolite dykes together with some porphyrytic granite and occasional basalt dykes. The two tubes were constructed using the drill/blast method. Temporary support for the tunnels have been provided by rock-bolts. Permanent supports have been provided by a concrete lining of varying thickness depending upon the stability of the ground. Three main types of support have been used: 400mm un-reinforced, 500mm un-reinforced, 600mm reinforced. Nearly all of the 550,000 cubic metres of tunnel spoil will be reused in the Penny's Bay reclamation project or processed into aggregates at a local quarry. Spoil was taken away by a fleet of trucks, one leaving the site every 100 seconds during the working day from 8am to 7pm. Environmental measures taken to minimise noise and nuisance to road users and the public included: a 7.5m-tall noise barrier, continuous monitoring to ensure noise and vibration limits are not exceeded during tunnel blasting. Ove Arup and Partners Hong Kong Ltd were the designers of the tunnel and Gammon Skanska and Skanska International Civil Engineering joint venture were the main construction contractors.
The contract covered construction of tunnel control buildings and the 1.4 kilometres dual three-lane West Tsing Yi Viaduct. The cost for the tunnel has been estimated at HK$470m and HK$83 million. Fläkt Woods provided the ventilation system for the tunnel. COWI has provided specialist assistance to Ove Arup and Partners with the design of electrical and mechanical systems for the Nam Wan Tunnel and two adjoining viaducts. Fläkt Woods provided the ventilation solutions by supplying three immense fans for the tunnel; the axial flow fans measured 2.65 m in diameter, were powered by 900 kW motors and ran at pressures of 3,800 Pa. Fläkt Woods ran one of the fans continuously to self-destruct, to prove their capability of withstanding temperatures of up to 400 °C for one hour; the fans incorporated guide vanes for flow straightening to achieve maximum performance and ran at 995 RPM. In the preliminary design phase of the tunnel COWI established an overall concept for the electrical and mechanical systems with emphasis on safety-related functions such as electric power supply, tunnel lighting, fire fighting, tunnel ventilation and smoke extraction.
This overall concept was used as a basis for the detailed design. In the project COWI reviewed the client's detailed design of electrical and mechanical systems; the electrical and mechanical systems included the following: medium- and low-voltage distribution. Prior to its formal commissioning, a Community Chest Walk for Millions was held on 15 November 2009 to allow the public to walk across Stonecutters Bridge and East Tsing Yi Viaduct and through Nam Wan Tunnel. Over 30,000 participants took part, raising more than HK$10 million for the charity's Children and Youth Services. "Route 8 – Nam Wan Tunnel and West Tsing Yi Viaduct". Highways Department, Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2007