Pensarn railway station
Pensarn railway station serves the village of Pensarn in Gwynedd, Wales. The station is an unstaffed halt on the Cambrian Coast Railway with passenger services to Porthmadog, Barmouth and Shrewsbury; the station opened as Pensarn but on 1 April 1885 it was renamed Llanbedr and Pensarn and on 8 May 1978 it reverted to its original name of Pensarn. Most trains call only on request. Abergele and Pensarn railway station is on the North Wales Coast Line. Train times and station information for Pensarn railway station from National Rail
London Midland Region of British Railways
The London Midland Region was one of the six regions created on the formation of the nationalised British Railways, consisted of ex-London and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. The region was managed first from buildings adjacent to Euston station, from Stanier House in Birmingham, it existed from the creation of BR in 1948, ceased to be an operating unit in its own right in the 1980s, was wound up at the end of 1992. At its inception, the LMR's territory consisted of ex-LMS lines in Wales. LMS lines in Scotland became part of the Scottish Region, whilst those of the Northern Counties Committee in Northern Ireland became part of the Ulster Transport Authority; the Mersey Railway, which had avoided being "Grouped" with the LMS in 1923 joined the LMR. The other regions formed at the same time were the Eastern Region, the North Eastern Region, the Southern Region, the Western Region and the Scottish Region; the LMR's territory principally consisted of the West Coast Main Line, the Midland Main Line south of Carlisle, the ex-Midland Cross Country route from Bristol to Leeds.
During the LMR's existence there were a number of transfers of territory to and from other regions. The major changes were: In 1949 the London and Southend Railway, wholly surrounded by Eastern lines and completely cut off from the rest of the LMR network, was transferred to the Eastern. In 1958 a major re-drawing of the regional boundaries took place. LMR lines in South Wales and south-west of Birmingham were transferred to the Western. In return the London Midland gained the lines of the former Great Central Railway that lay outside Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. In 1974, the Chiltern line from London Marylebone to Banbury and Birmingham Moor Street was transferred to the LMR from the Western Region; the LMR inherited ex-LMS types of steam locomotive. For a few months in early 1948, an M prefix was added to existing LMS locomotive numbers. From mid-1948, 40000 was added, giving numbers of ex-LMS types in the 5XXXX series; some elderly locomotive classes were renumbered in the 58XXX series to make way for new production of LMS designs.
The LMR continued building ex-LMS stock Black Fives, Ivatt 2MT, two Duchesses, rebuilds of Royal Scots and Patriots. Stanier "Period III" carriages continued to be built and were developed into a new style known as "Porthole" stock. Freight stock on order at Nationalisation was completed: some LMS designs were accepted as BR standard designs and continued to be built for the whole network through the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1968 it was the last region of BR to eliminate steam traction under the 1955 Modernisation Plan. In the 1960s, the West Coast Main Line was electrified between London Euston and Crewe, Liverpool and Birmingham; this was extended via Carlisle to Glasgow in the 1970s. Ball, MG. British Railways Atlas Ian Allan Publishing 2004
North Wales is a region of Wales. Retail and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham, Colwyn Bay and Bangor, it is bordered to the rest of Wales with the counties of Ceredigion and Powys, to the east by the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire. North Wales was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd, defined as the area north of the River Dyfi and west of the River Conwy); the division with the rest of Wales depends on the particular use being made. For example, the boundary of North Wales Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales area of the Natural Resources Wales and the North Wales Regional Transport Consortium; the historic boundary follows the pre-1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire which in turn follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn and following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire border. Montgomeryshire, one of the historic counties of Wales, is sometimes referred to as being in North Wales.
The region is steeped in history and was for a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales — only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity; the area is home to two of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Wales. These are Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and canal and, the Edwardian castles and town walls of the region which comprise those at Caernarfon, Beaumaris and Harlech, it shares with Powys and Ceredigion the distinction of hosting the only UNESCO Biosphere reserve in Wales, Biosffer Dyfi Biosphere. The region is made up of the following administrative areas: the county borough of Wrexham the county of Flintshire the county of Denbighshire the county borough of Conwy the county of Gwynedd the county of the Isle of Anglesey In addition to the six Local Authority divisions, North Wales is divided into the following preserved counties for various ceremonial purposes: the preserved county of Clwyd the preserved county of Gwynedd North Wales was a European Parliament constituency until 1999.
There is an electoral region for the National Assembly for Wales with the name, which covers the northeast of Wales as well as the northern-most coastal areas of north-western Wales. The area is rural with many mountains and valleys. This, in combination with its coast, means. Farming, once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance; the average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status. The eastern part of North Wales contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham and Deeside. Wrexham, with a population of 63,084 in 2001 is the largest town; the total population of North Wales is 687,937. The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns, such as Rhyl, Llandudno and Tywyn; the A55 road links these towns to cities like Manchester and Birmingham and the port of Holyhead for ferries to Ireland. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles The area of North Wales is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali.
The highest mountain in Wales and Ireland, is Snowdon in northwest Wales. North Wales has a diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait and the great Cambrian dome behind Harlech and underlying much of western Snowdonia. In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh and Migneint Moors. To the east, around Llangollen, to the north on Halkyn Mountain and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists. North Wales has a distinct regional identity, its dialect of the Welsh language differs from that of other regions, such as South Wales, in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk".
Transport for Wales Rail Services
Keolis Amey Operations, trading as Transport for Wales Rail Services, or TfW Rail, is a Welsh train operating company operated by Keolis Amey Wales Cymru Limited, which commenced operating the Wales & Borders franchise on 14 October 2018. Alongside CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains and Chiltern Railways, TfW is one of the few franchised train operating companies not to operate any electric powered trains. In October 2016 Abellio, the incumbent operator Arriva, a Keolis/Amey joint venture and MTR Corporation were shortlisted to bid for the next Wales & Borders franchise. In October 2017, Arriva withdrew from the bidding process, followed in February 2018 by Abellio, after the collapse of its partner Carillion. In May 2018, the franchise was awarded to Keolis Amey Wales Cymru, it runs for 15 years. Unlike the previous franchise, awarded by the Department for Transport, the new franchise was awarded by Transport for Wales, on behalf of the Welsh Government. Typical TfW weekday off-peak service is as follows: There are plans to improve services between 2018 and 2033 as part of the new franchise:North Wales and North West England Introduction of a new hourly Liverpool Lime Street to Chester service from May 2019, with limited services extended to Wrexham General Introduce Class 230 D-Trains on services on the Borderlands, Conwy Valley and Crewe-Chester lines during 2019 Twelve refurbished Mark 4 carriages for the Holyhead to Cardiff Central Premier Service by the end of 2019, to replace the Mark 3 carriages Increase Wrexham Central to Bidston services to 2tph by December 2021, as part of the North Wales Metro Introduction of a new hourly Liverpool to Llandudno and Shrewsbury service, a new two-hourly Liverpool to Cardiff Central service from December 2022 Introduction of a direct Manchester Airport to Bangor service from December 2022 Introduce the new fleet of Civity diesel multiple units to the North Wales Coast line and other North Wales routes during 2022 Invest in Shotton and Wrexham General stations from April 2024, in Chester station by 2028 Invest to co-fund new station buildings at Blaenau Ffestiniog Introduce new Community Rail Partnerships on the North Wales Coast Line and the Crewe to Hereford lineSouth West and Mid Wales and the Borders Open a new station at Bow Street in March 2020 An additional service every day on the Heart of Wales line from December 2022 A consistent 1 tph on the Cambrian line from Shrewsbury to Aberystwyth from December 2022 New Civity DMUs on the Cambrian line during 2022, to replace the Class 158 Express Sprinters Refurbished Class 170 Turbostar two-car DMUs on services to West Wales, Ebbw Vale and Maesteg from 2019, the Heart of Wales line from 2022, to replace Class 153 Super Sprinters Introduce new two and three-car new diesel multiple units for the Milford Haven to Manchester Piccadilly service by 2023, to replace the Class 175 Coradias Additional summer Sunday services from May 2023 between Tywyn and Pwllheli – including a new 1 tph express service between major centres by 2025 Invest in Carmarthen and Machynlleth stations in 2021, Llanelli station in 2025 A first-class service between Swansea and Manchester from December 2024 Introduce a new Community Rail Partnership for the West Wales lineSouth East Wales Provide ticket machines at all South Wales Metro stations by April 2019 Introduce Class 769 Flex bi-mode multiple units to the Valley Lines during 2019 Replace all Class 142 and 143 Pacers by the end of 2019 4tph between Cardiff Central and Bridgend from December 2019 Introduce pay-as-you-go for users of smartcards by April 2020 Increasing capacity of trains on early morning services to Cardiff Central from 2-car services to 4-car services A new 1 train per hour Ebbw Vale Town to Newport service from May 2021 4tph between Treherbert, Merthyr Tydfil and Cardiff from December 2022, operated by Citylink tram-trains 6tph between Cardiff Queen Street and Cardiff Bay from December 2022 Hourly Cheltenham Spa to Cardiff Central services from December 2022 Introduce new FLIRT diesel-electric multiple units on the Ebbw Vale and Maesteg lines during 2022 Introduce new FLIRT tri-mode multiple units between Penarth and Bridgend to Rhymney and Coryton during 2023 2tph between Cardiff and Bridgend via the Vale of Glamorgan Line from December 2023 4tph throughout on the Rhymney line from December 2023 Introduce Citylink tram-trains to the City Line during 2023 Eliminate diesel use on the Central Metro lines by 2024 Open new stations at Cardiff Parkway in February 2020, Crwys Road, Loudoun Square and Cardiff Bay by December 2023, Treforest Estate by December 2025, Gabalfa by 2028 Invest in Merthyr Tydfil from April 2020, Abergavenny from April 2023, Cardiff Central and Chepstow from April 2025 Develop a fleet maintenance depot at Taffs Well and a dedicated Infrastructure Management depot in the Valleys Build a Major Events Stabling Line and a new station in Llanwern TfW Rail inherited a fleet of Class 142, 143, 150, 153, 158 and 175 diesel multiple units and Mark 3 carriages from Arriva Trains Wales.
In April 2019 it added 5 153s acquired from Great Western Railway to the 8 it had. As of April 2019, all of TfW Rail's Class 142 & 143 Pacer railbus DMUs, which will be withdrawn and replaced by 2020, have had advertising vinyls applied, with the messages "The Start of a New Journey", "The Journey is Almost Over for Old Trains", "These Trains will Terminate Soon", stating rolling stock and service improvements; the Mark 3 carriages for the locomotive-hauled trains have had Transport for Wales logos applied to the ex-Arriva Trains Wales livery, as t
North Wales Coast Line
The North Wales Coast Line known as the North Wales Main Line, is the railway line from Crewe to Holyhead. Virgin Trains consider their services along it to be a spur of the West Coast Main Line. In April 2006, Network Rail organised its maintenance and train control operations into "26 Routes"; the main line through Crewe forms part of Route 18. The North Wales Coast Line from Crewe to Chester and North Wales has been designated Route 22 and this includes the line to Chester from Acton Grange Junction, south of Warrington; the line from Shrewsbury to Chester via Wrexham is Route 14. The line is not electrified, so Virgin Trains, the current operator of the InterCity West Coast franchise uses its diesel Super Voyagers, which they have done since December 2007, on routes to Holyhead. There are no official plans to electrify the line, but both the Welsh government and former Chancellor George Osborne have indicated that there is a strong case for electrification in the future; the line contains several notable engineering structures, namely Conwy railway bridge across the River Conwy, Britannia Bridge across the Menai Strait.
The first section from Crewe to Chester was built by the Chester and Crewe Railway and absorbed by the Grand Junction Railway shortly before opening in 1840. The remainder was built between 1844 and 1850 by the Chester and Holyhead Railway Company as the route of the Irish Mail services to Dublin; the line was incorporated in the London and North Western Railway. Between Chester and Saltney Junction, the line was, from the start, used by trains of the Shrewsbury and Chester Railway to be incorporated in the Great Western Railway. So important was the line in the 19th and early 20th centuries to passenger and freight traffic between Britain and Ireland that the world's first experimental and operational water troughs were installed at Mochdre between Colwyn Bay and Llandudno Junction, their purpose was to enable steam engines to collect water without stopping. Considerable stretches of line between Chester and Colwyn Bay were quadrupled to increase line capacity but these sections have now been reduced to two tracks.
The main towns served by the route are listed below: Crewe Chester Line diverges to serve Wrexham and Cardiff Wirral Line diverges to serve Birkenhead and Liverpool - Route 21 Shotton The Borderlands Line from Wrexham to Bidston crosses at Shotton with interchange facilities. Flint Prestatyn Rhyl Abergele Colwyn Bay Llandudno Junction Lines diverge to serve Blaenau Ffestiniog and Llandudno Conwy Penmaenmawr Llanfairfechan Bangor Llanfairpwll Line diverges to Amlwch Bodorgan Ty Croes Rhosneigr Valley Freight from Wylfa nuclear power station is loaded at a depot in Valley Holyhead Principal through passenger services are London Euston to Holyhead, Bangor and Wrexham General operated by Virgin Trains and Crewe to Holyhead, Cardiff to Holyhead and Manchester to Llandudno operated by Transport for Wales Rail. A revised timetable has operated since December 2005 incorporating a new service to and from Cardiff Central every two hours; the line still provides the UK railway part of the through passenger service to Dublin using fast car ferries from Holyhead to Dublin Port.
The Welsh Government would like the line to be electrified if Crewe becomes a rail hub due to HS2 in 2026. Chancellor George Osborne said in July 2015 that there was a "really strong case" for electrification of the line; the Electrification Task Force said that the Chester to Crewe line was a Tier 2 priority for being electrified in the CP6 period. A £50 million signalling upgrade programme is being carried out between Shotton and Colwyn Bay, which will see modular colour lights supervised from the South Wales Rail Operating Centre in Cardiff replace the manual signal boxes and mixture of semaphore and older colour lights in use, in March 2018. Allen, David. "Sun, sand...and semaphores". RAIL. No. 307. EMAP Apex Publications. Pp. 40–45. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699
Llandudno is a seaside resort and community in Conwy County Borough, located on the Creuddyn peninsula, which protrudes into the Irish Sea. In the 2011 UK census, the community, which includes Gogarth, Penrhyn Bay and Penrhynside, had a population of 20,701; the town's name is derived from Saint Tudno. Llandudno is the largest seaside resort in Wales, as early as 1861 was being called'the Queen of the Welsh Watering Places'. A part of Caernarfonshire, Llandudno was in the district of Aberconwy within Gwynedd; the town of Llandudno developed from Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements over many hundreds of years on the slopes of the limestone headland, known to seafarers as the Great Orme and to landsmen as the Creuddyn Peninsula. The origins in recorded history are with the Manor of Gogarth conveyed by King Edward I to Annan, Bishop of Bangor in 1284; the manor comprised three townships, Y Gogarth in the south-west, Y Cyngreawdr in the north and Yr Wyddfid in the south-east. Modern Llandudno takes its name from the ancient parish of Saint Tudno but encompasses several neighbouring townships and districts including Craig-y-Don and Penrhyn Bay.
Nearby is the small town and marina of Deganwy and these last four are in the traditional parish of Llanrhos. The ancient geographical boundaries of the Llandudno area are complex: although they are on the eastern side of the River Conwy, the ancient parishes of Llandudno and Llangystennin were in the medieval commote of Creuddyn in the Kingdom of Gwynedd, afterwards part of Caernarfonshire. Today and Llandudno Junction are part of the town community of Conwy though they are across the river and only linked to Conwy by a causeway and bridge. Owned by Mostyn Estates, Great Orme is home to several large herds of wild Kashmiri goats descended from several goats given by Queen Victoria to Lord Mostyn; the summit of the Great Orme stands at 679 feet. The Summit Hotel, now a tourist attraction, was once the home of world middleweight champion boxer Randolph Turpin. A haven for flora and fauna with some rare species such as peregrine falcons and a species of wild cotoneaster which can only be found on the Great Orme.
The sheer limestone cliffs of the Great Orme provide ideal nesting conditions for a wide variety of sea birds, including cormorants, guillemots, puffins, kittiwakes and numerous gulls. This great limestone headland has many attractions including the Great Orme Tramway and the Llandudno Cable Car that takes tourists effortlessly to the summit; the Great Orme is home to the longest toboggan run in Britain at 750m long. By 1847 the town had grown to a thousand people, served by the new church of St George, built in 1840; the great majority of the men worked in the copper mines, with others employed in fishing and subsistence agriculture. In 1848, Owen Williams, an architect and surveyor from Liverpool, presented Lord Mostyn with plans to develop the marshlands behind Llandudno Bay as a holiday resort; these were enthusiastically pursued by Lord Mostyn. The influence of the Mostyn Estate and its agents over the years was paramount in the development of Llandudno after the appointment of George Felton as surveyor and architect in 1857.
Between 1857 and 1877 much of central Llandudno was developed under Felton's supervision. Felton undertook architectural design work, including the design and execution of Holy Trinity Church in Mostyn Street; the town is just off the North Wales Coast railway line, opened as the Chester and Holyhead Railway in 1848. It became part of the London and North Western Railway in 1859, part of the London and Scottish Railway in 1923. Llandudno was built as a mid-Victorian era holiday destination and is served by a branch railway line opened in 1858 from Llandudno Junction with stations at Deganwy and Llandudno. Great Orme Tramway The Llandudno and Colwyn Bay Electric Railway operated an electric tramway service between Llandudno and Rhos-on-Sea from 1907, this being extended to Colwyn Bay in 1908; the service closed in 1956. A beach of sand and rock curves two miles between the headlands of the Great Orme and the Little Orme. For most of the length of Llandudno's North Shore there is a wide curving Victorian promenade.
The road, collectively known as The Parade, has a different name for each block and it is on these parades and crescents that many of Llandudno's hotels are built. Near the centre of the bay is the Venue Cymru; the Llandudno Sailing Club and a roundabout mark the end of this section of The Parade and beyond are more hotels and guest houses but they are in the township of Craig-y-Don. At Nant-y-Gamar Road, the Parade becomes Colwyn Road with the fields of Bodafon Hall Farm on the landward side but with the promenade continuing until it ends in a large paddling pool for children and at Craigside on the lower slopes of the Little Orme; the pier is on the North Shore. Built in 1878, it is a Grade II listed building; the pier was extended in 1884 in a landward direction along the side of what was the Baths Hotel to provide a new entrance with the Llandudno Pier Pavilion Theatre, thus increasing the pier's length to 2,295 feet. Attractions on the pier include a bar, a cafe, amusement arcades, children's fairground rides and an assortment of shops & kiosks.
In the summer, Professor Codman's Punch and Judy s