Earl of Milltown
Earl of Milltown, in the County of Dublin, was a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1763 for 1st Viscount Russborough, he had been created Baron Russborough, in the County of Wicklow, in 1756, Viscount Russborough, of Russellstown in the County of Wicklow, in 1760 in the Peerage of Ireland. His eldest son, the second Earl, represented Thomastown in the Irish House of Commons; the sixth Earl was elected an Irish Representative Peer in 1881 and served as Lord Lieutenant of Wicklow. The titles became dormant on the death of the seventh Earl in 1891. Two unsuccessful attempts were made to claim the title, in 1891 and in 1905; the title is considered dormant rather than extinct, as it is thought that there may still be living male descendants of the youngest son of the 1st Earl. The family seat, commissioned by the first Earl, was Russborough House in Ireland. Joseph Leeson, 1st Earl of Milltown Joseph Leeson, 2nd Earl of Milltown Brice Leeson, 3rd Earl of Milltown Joseph Leeson, 4th Earl of Milltown Joseph Henry Leeson, 5th Earl of Milltown Edward Nugent Leeson, 6th Earl of Milltown Henry Leeson, 7th Earl of Milltown Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour hereditary. The female equivalent is baroness; the word baron comes from a Late Latin barō "man. The scholar Isidore of Seville in the 7th century thought the word was from Greek βᾰρῠ́ς "heavy", but the word is of Old Frankish origin, cognate with Old English beorn meaning "warrior, nobleman". Cornutus in the first century reports a word barones which he took to be of Gaulish origin, he glosses it as meaning servos militum and explains it as meaning "stupid", by reference to classical Latin bārō "simpleton, dunce". During the Ancien Régime, French baronies were much like Scottish ones. Feudal landholders who possessed a barony were entitled to style themselves baron if they were nobles; these baronies could be sold until 1789 when feudal law was abolished. The title of baron was assumed as a titre de courtoisie by many nobles, whether members of the Nobles of the Robe or cadets of Nobles of the Sword who held no title in their own right. Emperor Napoléon created a new imperial nobility.
The titles could not be purchased. In 1815, King Louis XVIII created a new peerage system and a Chamber of Peers, based on the British model. Baron-peer was the lowest title, but the heirs to pre-1789 barons could remain barons, as could the elder sons of viscount-peers and younger sons of count-peers; this peerage system was abolished in 1848. In pre-republican Germany all the knightly families of the Holy Roman Empire were recognised as of baronial rank, although Ritter is the literal translation for "knight", persons who held that title enjoyed a distinct, but lower, rank in Germany's nobility than barons; the wife of a Freiherr is called a Freifrau or sometimes Baronin, his daughter Freiin or sometimes Baroness. Families which had always held this status were called Uradel, were heraldically entitled to a three pointed coronet. Families, ennobled at a definite point in time had seven points on their coronet; these families held their fief in vassalage from a suzerain. The holder of an allodial barony was thus called Freiherr.
Subsequently, sovereigns in Germany conferred the title of Freiherr as a rank in the nobility, without implication of allodial or feudal status. Since 1919, hereditary titles have had no legal status in Germany. In modern, republican Germany and Baron remain heritable only as part of the legal surname. In Austria, hereditary titles have been banned. Thus, a member of the reigning House of Habsburg or members of the former nobility would in most cases be addressed as Herr/Frau in an official/public surrounding, for instance in the media. Still, in both countries, honorary styles like "His/her Highness", "Serenity", etc. persists in social use as a form of courtesy. In Luxembourg and Liechtenstein, barons remain members of the recognized nobility, the sovereigns retain authority to confer the title Generally, all legitimate males of a German baronial family inherit the title Freiherr or Baron from birth, as all legitimate daughters inherit the title of Freiin or Baroness; as a result, German barons have been more numerous than those of such countries where primogeniture with respect to title inheritance prevails as France and the United Kingdom.
In Italy, barone was the lowest rank of feudal nobility except for that of vassallo. The title of baron was most introduced into southern Italy by the Normans during the 11th century. Whereas a barony might consist of two or more manors, by 1700 we see what were single manors erected into baronies, counties or marquisates. Since the early 1800s, when feudalism was abolished in the various Italian states, it has been granted as a simple hereditary title without any territorial designation or predicato; the untitled younger son of a baron is a nobile dei baroni and in informal usage might be called a baron, while certain baronies devolve to heirs male general. Since 1948 titles of nobility have not been recognised by the Italian state. In the absence of a nobiliary or heraldic authority in Italy there are, in fact, numerous persons who claim to be barons or counts without any basis for such claims. Baron and noble are hereditary titles and, as such, could only be created or recognised by the kings of Italy or the pre-unitary Italian states such as the Two Sicilies, Parma or Modena, or by the Holy See or the Republic of San Marino.
Beginning around 1800, a number of signori began to style themselves barone but in many cases this was not sanctioned by decree, while there was less justification in the holder of any large landed estate calling himself a baron. Both were common p
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
The British Columbia Civil Liberties Association is an autonomous, non-partisan charitable society that seeks to "promote, defend and extend civil liberties and human rights." It works towards achieving this purpose through litigation, complaint assistance, social media, publications. Founded in 1962, it is Canada's oldest civil liberties association, it is based in Vancouver and is jointly funded by the Law Foundation of British Columbia and by private citizens through donations and memberships. The BCCLA, through its staff lawyers and pro bono counsel, litigates constitutional issues and appears as an intervenor, applicant, or plaintiff at all levels of Canadian courts, including the Supreme Court of Canada; the association's work is guided by the rights and liberties embodied in such documents as Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, France's Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the bills of rights in the United States and Canada.
The association is unaffiliated with political group. The BCCLA has been consulted by both the governments of Canada and British Columbia on proposed actions or policies that may give rise to civil liberties or human rights concerns. In the early 1980s, the association was invited to appear before the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons on the Constitution to participate in the public consultations on the proposed Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the association was consulted by the federal government in its creation of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and by British Columbia's government in its creation of the Personal Information Privacy Act. The BCCLA is led by Lindsay Lyster and executive director Joshua Paterson. Honorary directors of the board include former prime minister of Canada Kim Campbell, founding president Reverend Phillip Hewett, environmentalist David Suzuki. Reg Robson joined the association soon after its founding and served as its main spokesperson and organizational leader between the mid-1960s and mid-1980s.
Robson served in various executive positions, including executive secretary and treasurer. Robson sat on the Board of Directors into the 1980s and is credited for helping to ensure the viability of the association and its institutional memory. In the year ending December 31, 2016, the BCCLA had a combined revenue of $1.26 million, originating from membership and donations and other sources, including gaming revenue and litigation recovery. In the year ending December 31, 2016, the expenses of the BCCLA were $1.22 million, attributed to staff salaries and benefits, office operating, litigation costs, other costs, including rent, professional fees, travel. The association organizes forums across British Columbia on a variety of topics, including national security, social justice law reform, HIV disclosure laws, food rights, it organizes speaking events, with past speakers including: Jameel Jaffer, Deputy Legal Director at the American Civil Liberties Union. S. authorities. Since 2005, the BCCLA has presented an annual Youth Rights Conference, a daylong seminar for high school students, intended to promote student activism and civic engagement.
Past topics have included gay/straight alliances, protest rights, aboriginal justice, immigrant rights. The association presents an annual Reg Robson Award to honour people who have demonstrated a substantial and long-lasting contribution to civil liberties issues in British Columbia and Canada. Past recipients of the award have included: Janine Fuller Peter and Murray Corren Joseph Arvay Lieutenant Commander William Kuebler Kent Roach and Craig Forcese In addition to the Reg Robson Award, the association has awarded Liberty Awards in several categories: excellence in legal advocacy; the events preceding the formation of the BCCLA involved a Kootenays, British Columbia sect of the Doukhobors known as the Fraternal Council of the Sons of Freedom. On March 6, 1962, members of the sect used explosives to bring down a 100-meter tower supporting power transmission lines crossing Kootenay Lake to a lead and zinc mine in Kimberly, British Columbia; as a result, over one thousand mine workers were laid off until power to the mining operations could be restored.
Civic leaders called on the federal government to respond to the bombing with "drastic action" and the government of British Columbia offered a $10,000 reward for information le
Baron Grey of Codnor
The title of Baron Grey of Codnor is a title in the peerage of England. This barony was called out of abeyance in 1989, after 493 years, in favour of the Cornwall-Legh family of East Hall, High Legh, Cheshire; the Lords Grey of Codnor are senior lineal representatives of the noble house of Grey, as hereditary peers are eligible for election to a seat in the House of Lords. They descend from the eldest son of Henry de Grey, whose younger son Sir John de Grey was father of the first Baron Grey de Wilton; the first Baron Grey of Ruthyn was son of a younger son of the 2nd Baron Grey de Wilton, Sir John Grey of Groby, descended from a younger son of the 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn, was the ancestor of the last known male-line branch of the ancient Greys, who held and lost the titles of Marquess of Dorset and Duke of Suffolk before being created Baron Grey of Groby and Earl of Stamford before extinction in 1976. The last Earl was coincidentally seated near High Legh; this branch of the ancient Grey family was seated in the Middle Ages at Codnor Castle.
Together with the other noble branches of the Greys, they share descent from the Norman knight Anchetil de Greye, a vassal of King William I. During the reign of King John, Sir Henry de Grey purchased the manor of Grays Thurrock in Essex from Isaac the Jew and his son Josce, confirmed by the king in 1195. Sir Henry de Grey held the manor of Codnor, granted by the boy King Henry III's regents, as well as the manor of Grimston, Nottinghamshire. Sir Henry died a few years in 1219, his widow married again to Sir Reynold de Bohun. Sir Henry de Grey's many offspring include: his second son to whom he left the encumbered manor of Shirland; as well as being Sheriff of Hertfordshire and Essex, Lord Grey played a vital role on the coast of Gascony between 1248 and 1253. However he fell out with the maturing King and his new courtiers, rebelling with De Montfort at the Battle of Lewes. By 1223 he had married Lucy and heiress of John de Hume, before dying on 8 September 1271, his son, John de Grey married Lucy, daughter of Sir Raynold de Mohun of Dunster Castle, Somerset by Hawise, daughter of William le Fleming, may have outlived his aged father by only a few months, leaving a fifteen-year-old boy to inherit.
Sir Henry de Grey saw military service under Edward I, was summoned to Parliament by writ in 1299, before that on the Gascony campaign of 1294–1297. He campaigned with Edward I at the Siege of Caerlaverock, may have been with him on his last and fatal campaign across the Solway Firth in 1306–07, he seems to have been summoned to the Model Parliament as one of the King's great nobles. His first wife was sister of the 1st Earl of Devon, a fellow officer. After her death he married Joan, daughter of Sir Ralph de Cromwell by 6 June 1301, he only left three children before he died in September 1308. His eldest, Sir Richard was one of the Lords ordainer who rebelled against the Despencers, favourites of Edward II, but was subsequently pardoned in 1321, his son, Sir John took his mother's FitzPayne lands in Nottingham, distinguished himself on the battlefield in Scotland and was appointed a Knight of the Garter. Lord Grey was at the Battle of Siege of Calais, he was appointed Keeper of Rochester Castle, married Alice, daughter of Sir Warren de Lisle, himself a distinguished soldier.
His son, Sir Henry married the daughter of one of the most distinguished generals of Edward III's court, Sir Reynold de Cobham KG, a brilliant commander, victorious in many battles and ancestor of the Viscounts Cobham. Grey married Joan de Cobham; this ancient barony was created as Grey by writ, but is referred to as "Grey of Codnor" or "Grey" to distinguish it from other Grey baronies, so as not to be confused with the extant Grey earldom. The style of "Lord Grey" had previously been used a courtesy title by the Earls of Stamford and Warrington; the Greys produced among others, Sir Richard de Grey, who pursued a distinguished career in the service of Edward III: Admiral of the Thames and South, King's Chamberlain, Deputy Constable of the Tower, Marshal of All England and Keeper of several castles. Granted substantial lands on the Welsh Marches, he was responsible for crushing Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion in 1410 and as Steward of Sherwood Forest and Constable of Nottingham Castle, his responsibilities extended into the lawless lands of the South Wales valleys becoming Justiciar of Wales.
He married Elizabeth, younger daughter and co-he
Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr
Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr and 6th Baron West, KG was the eldest son of Thomas West, 8th Baron De La Warr, by his second wife, Elizabeth Mortimer, daughter of Sir Hugh Mortimer of Martley and Kyre Wyard, Worcestershire, by Eleanor Cornwall, daughter of Sir Edmund Cornwall. West married, before 24 August 1494, Elizabeth Bonville, daughter and co-heiress of John Bonville, esquire, of Shute, Devon, by Katherine Wingfield, daughter of Sir Robert Wingfield, but had no issue by her, he succeeded to his titles at the age of 50. He was made Knight of the Garter in 1549 after having fought in France. West died 25 September 1554 at his home at Offington and was buried 10 October at Broadwater; the diarist Henry Machyn recorded his funeral, describing him as'the best house-keeper in Sussex'. At his death the baronies of West and De La Warr both'fell into abeyance, according to modern doctrine', between the two daughters and co-heirs of his half-brother, Sir Owen West, eldest son of his father's third marriage to Eleanor Copley.
Sir Owen West married Mary Guildford, daughter of George Guildford, second son of Sir Richard Guildford, by whom he had two daughters: Mary West, who married firstly Sir Adrian Poynings, secondly, as his second wife, Sir Richard Rogers. According to Cokayne: A new barony of de la Warr was subsequently conferred on the heir male, William West, 1st Baron De La Warr, whose son Thomas was allowed the precedence of the ancient Barony of la Warre. West's heir male, William West, 1st Baron De La Warr, was the elder son of Sir George West, second son of West's father's third marriage to Eleanor Copley. According to Riordan: placed a private bill before parliament to disinherit his nephew William West, first Baron De La Warr; the latter was the son of the ninth baron's half-brother Sir George West of Warbleton and his wife, daughter of Sir Robert Morton of Lechlade, Gloucestershire. His uncle was childless, had at some time adopted William as his heir. However, West tried to gain the de la Warr estate early by poisoning his uncle.
The attempt was unsuccessful and he was in the Tower by October 1548. He was disinherited by an act of parliament in 1550, although he had been reinstated as heir by the time of his uncle's death. Despite the fact that he had been reinstated as heir by his uncle, when the latter died in 1554 William West was unable to inherit the barony of de la Warr as a result of the Act of Parliament of 1550 which had deprived him of all honours. Two years he was involved in the Dudley conspiracy, on 30 June 1556 was arraigned at the Guildhall on charges of treason, to which he responded as'William, Lord de la Warr', forcing the heralds to prove during the trial that he was not entitled to the barony and therefore not entitled to a trial by his peers in the House of Lords, he was convicted of treason. However the death sentence was not carried out, in 1557 he was pardoned by Queen Mary, he fought at the siege of St. Quentin in that year, in 1563, early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was restored in blood.
On 5 February 1570 he was knighted, on the same day created Baron De La Warr, regarded as a new creation of the title. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Vicary Gibbs. IV. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 155–9. Retrieved 14 September 2013. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part II. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 517–22. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. II. Salt Lake City. Pp. 4–5. ISBN 1449966381. Retrieved 10 September 2013. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. IV. Salt Lake City. Pp. 320–22. ISBN 1460992709. Riordan, Michael. "West, eighth Baron West and ninth Baron de la Warr". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29099
Baron Botetourt is an abeyant title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ of summons on 19 June 1305, it became. However, it became abeyant again on his death in 1770, it was recalled a second time in 1803 for the 5th Duke of Beaufort, became a subsidiary title of the Dukes of Beaufort until the death of the 10th Duke in 1984, when it became, remains, abeyant. Known and remembered in the American state of Virginia as "Lord Botetourt", Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt was governor of the Colony of Virginia from 1768 to 1770 and a member of Board of Visitors of the College of William & Mary at the capital of the Colony in Williamsburg, Virginia. Before coming to Virginia he was Member of Parliament for Gloucestershire 1741–1763, he obtained his peerage, when it was called out of abeyance in 1764, the third holder of the title having died in 1406. As governor, Lord Botetourt resided in the Governor's Palace near Duke of Gloucester Street, now a major attraction of Colonial Williamsburg in the Historic Triangle.
Although a popular governor, Lord Botetourt served only two years. He died while still in office in 1770 and was buried in the Wren Building Chapel at William and Mary. Following his death a statue was commissioned and placed in front of the Williamsburg Capitol building, it was moved, the statue stood for many years in front of the Wren Building before being relocated once again to a more sheltered location within the basement of Earl Gregg Swem Library. A full-size facsimile stands in one of the more familiar of campus icons. Nowadays, William & Mary students dress up the statue for various occasions such as Charter Day. Botetourt County, was named in his honor, as was Berkeley County, which became part of West Virginia at the time of the American Civil War. A lifelong bachelor, he endowed an award at the College of William and Mary, still known as the Botetourt Medal; the medal was awarded to two students a year from 1772 to 1775, one in Classics and one in the Physical or Metaphysical Sciences.
The medal was not awarded again until 1941, has been awarded to one student each year since then. It is awarded to the "single undergraduate with the greatest distinction in scholarship" on Commencement Day each May. Lord Botetourt High School, located in Botetourt County, Virginia is named after him as well. Additionally, Botetourt Street and Botetourt Gardens, both located in Norfolk, Virginia are named after him. John de Botetourt, 1st Baron Botetourt John de Botetourt, 2nd Baron Botetourt Joan Burnell, 3rd Baroness Botetourt abeyant until 13 April 1764 Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt abeyant until 4 June 1803 Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, 5th Baron Botetourt Henry Charles Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort, 6th Baron Botetourt Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort, 7th Baron Botetourt Henry Charles FitzRoy Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, 8th Baron Botetourt Henry Adelbert Wellington FitzRoy Somerset, 9th Duke of Beaufort, 9th Baron Botetourt Henry Hugh Arthur Somerset, 10th Duke of Beaufort, 10th Baron Botetourt abeyant The current co-heirs to the barony are the descendants of the elder sister of the tenth baron: Descendants of Lady Rosemary Alexandra Eliot by her first and third marriages: Mrs Frederica Samantha Mary Thomas, née Cope.
Citations SourcesLeigh Rayment's Peerage Pages