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Abijah is a Biblical Hebrew unisex name which means "my Father is Yah". The Hebrew form Aviyahu occurs in the Bible. Abijah, who married King Ahaz of Judah, she is called Abi. Her father's name was Zechariah. A wife of Hezron, one of the grandchildren of Judah. Abijah of Judah known as Abijam, son of Rehoboam and succeeded him on the throne of Judah. A son of Becher, the son of Benjamin; the second son of Samuel. His conduct, along with that of his brother, as a judge in Beersheba, to which office his father had appointed him, led to popular discontent, provoked the people to demand a monarchy. A descendant of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, a chief of one of the twenty-four orders into which the priesthood was divided by David; the order of Abijah is listed with the priests and Levites who returned with Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel and with Joshua.. A son of Jeroboam, the first king of Israel. On account of his severe illness when a youth, his father sent his wife to consult the prophet Ahijah regarding his recovery.

The prophet, though blind with old age, knew the wife of Jeroboam as soon as she approached, under a divine impulse he announced to her that inasmuch as in Abijah alone of all the house of Jeroboam there was found "some good thing toward the Lord", he only would come to his grave in peace. As his mother crossed the threshold of the door on her return, the youth died, "all Israel mourned for him". According to the Jewish Encyclopedia the good that he did "Rabbinical Literature:The passage, I Kings, xiv. 13, in which there is a reference to "some good thing toward the Lord God of Israel," is interpreted as an allusion to Abijah's courageous and pious act in removing the sentinels placed by his father on the frontier between Israel and Judah to prevent pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Some assert that he himself undertook a pilgrimage."The head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which David divided the priests, an ancestor of Zechariah, the priest, the father of John the Baptist. The variant used in the Russian language is "А́вия", with "А́бия" or "Аби́я".

Included into various handwritten, church calendars throughout the 17th–19th centuries, it was omitted from the official Synodal Menologium at the end of the 19th century. In 1924–1930, the name was included into various Soviet calendars, which included the new and artificially created names promoting the new Soviet realities and encouraging the break with the tradition of using the names in the Synodal Menologia. In Russian it is only used as a female name. Diminutives of this name include "А́ва" and "Ви́я". Н. А. Петровский. "Словарь русских личных имён". ООО Издательство "АСТ". Москва, 2005. ISBN 5-17-002940-3 А. В. Суперанская. "Словарь русских имён". Издательство Эксмо. Москва, 2005. ISBN 5-699-14090-5 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "Abijah". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons. McCurdy, J. Frederic. "Abijahs listing in". In Singer, Isidore. Abijahs listing in; the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls

Ethnic studies

Ethnic studies, in the United States, is the interdisciplinary study of difference—chiefly race and nation, but sexuality and other such markings—and power, as expressed by the state, by civil society, by individuals. As opposed to International studies, created to focus on the relations between the United States and Third World Countries, Ethnic studies was created to challenge the existing curriculum and focus on the history of people of different minority ethnicity in the United States. Ethnic studies is an academic field that spans the social sciences, its origin comes before the civil rights era, as early as the 1900s. During this time and historian W. E. B. Du Bois expressed the need for teaching black history. However, Ethnic Studies became known as a secondary issue that arose after the civil rights era. Ethnic studies was conceived to re-frame the way that specific disciplines had told the stories, histories and triumphs of people of color on what was seen to be their own terms. In recent years, it has broadened its focus to include questions of representation, racial formation theory, more determinedly interdisciplinary topics and approaches.

In the United States, the field of ethnic studies evolved out of the Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s and early 1970s, which contributed to growing self-awareness and radicalization of people of color such as African-Americans, Asian Americans, Latino Americans, American Indians. Ethnic studies departments were established on college campuses across the country and have grown to encompass African American Studies, Asian American Studies, Raza Studies, Chicano Studies, Mexican American Studies, Native American Studies, Jewish Studies, Arab Studies; the first strike demanding the establishment of an Ethnic Studies department occurred in 1968, led by the Third World Liberation Front, a joint effort of the Black Student Union, Latin American Students Organization, Asian American Political Alliance, Pilipino American Collegiate Endeavor, Native American Students Union at San Francisco State University. This was the longest student strike in the nation's history and resulted in the establishment of a School of Ethnic Studies.

President S. I. Hayakawa ended the strike after taking a hardline approach when he appointed Dr. James Hirabayashi the first dean of the School of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State University, increased recruiting and admissions of students of color in response to the strike's demands. In 1972, The National Association for Ethnic Studies was founded to foster interdisciplinary discussions for scholars and activists concerned with the national and international dimensions of ethnicity encouraging conversations related to anthropology, Africana Studies, Native Studies and American Studies among other fields. Minority students at The University of California at Berkeley- united under their own Third World Liberation Front- the TWLF, initiated the second longest student strike in US history on January 22, 1969; the groups involved were the Mexican American Student Confederation, Asian American Political Alliance, African American Student Union, the Native American group. The four co-Chairmen of the TWLF were Ysidro Macias, Richard Aoki, Charlie Brown, LaNada Means.

This strike at Berkeley was more violent than the San Francisco State strike, in that more than five police departments, the California Highway Patrol, Alameda County Deputies, the California National Guard were ordered onto the Berkeley campus by Ronald Reagan in the effort to quash the strike. The excessive use of police force has been cited with promoting the strike by the alienation of non-striking students and faculty, who protested the continual presence of police on the Berkeley campus; the faculty union voted to join the strike on March 2, two days the Academic Senate called on the administration to grant an interim Department of Ethnic Studies. On March 7, 1969, President Hitch authorized the establishment of the first Ethnic Studies Department in the country, followed by the establishment of the nation's first College of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State University on March 20, 1969. Courses in ethnic studies address perceptions that, because of the Eurocentric bias and racial and ethnic prejudice of those in power, American historians have systematically ignored or undervalued the roles of such ethnic minorities as Asian Americans, Mexicans and Native Americans.

Ethnic studies often encompasses issues of intersectionality, where gender and sexuality come into play. There are now hundreds of African American, Asian American, Mexican American and Chicano/Latino Studies departments in the US fifty Native American Studies departments, a small number of comparative ethnic studies programs. College students on the East Coast, continue to advocate for Ethnic Studies departments; the Ethnic Studies Coalition at Wellesley College, the Taskforce for Asian and Pacific American Studies at Harvard University, CRAASH at Hunter College are among student organizations calling for increased institutional support for Ethnic Studies. Ethnic studies as an institutional discipline varies by location. For instance, whereas the Ethnic Studies Department at UC Berkeley comprises separate "core group" departments, the department at UC San Diego does not do so. In


Feodosia called Theodosia, is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia Municipality, one of the regions into which Crimea is divided. During much of its history the city was known as Kaffa. According to the most recent census, its population is 69,145; the city was founded as Theodosia by Greek colonists from Miletos in the 6th century BC. Noted for its rich agricultural lands, on which its trade depended, it was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD. Theodosia remained a minor village for much of the next nine hundred years, it was of the Byzantine Empire. Like the rest of Crimea, this place fell under the domination of the Kipchaks and was conquered by the Mongols in the 1230s. In the late 13th century, traders from the Republic of Genoa arrived and purchased the city from the ruling Golden Horde, they established a flourishing trading settlement called Kaffa, which monopolized trade in the Black Sea region and served as a major port and administrative center for the Genoese settlements around the Sea.

It came to house one of Europe's biggest slave markets. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia adds that the city of Caffa was established during the times when the area was ruled by the Khan of Golden Horde Mengu-Timur. Ibn Battuta visited the city, noting it was a "great city along the sea coast inhabited by Christians, most of them Genoese." He further stated, "We went down to its port, where we saw a wonderful harbor with about two hundred vessels in it, both ships of war and trading vessels and large, for it is one of the world's celebrated ports."In early 1318 Pope John XXII established a Latin Church diocese of Kaffa, as a suffragan of Genoa. The papal bull of appointment of the first bishop attributed to him a vast territory: "a villa de Varna in Bulgaria usque Sarey inclusive in longitudinem et a mari Pontico usque ad terram Ruthenorum in latitudinem"; the first bishop was Fra' Gerolamo, consecrated seven years before as a missionary bishop ad partes Tartarorum. The diocese ended as a residential bishopric with the capture of the city by the Ottomans in 1475.

Accordingly, Kaffa is today listed by the Catholic Church. It is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Kaffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was withering from the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants, in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease back to Italy. However, the plague appears to have spread in a stepwise fashion, taking over a year to reach Europe from Crimea. There were a number of Crimean ports under Mongol control, so it is unlikely that Kaffa was the only source of plague-infested ships heading to Europe. Additionally, there were overland caravan routes from the East that would have been carrying the disease into Europe as well. Kaffa recovered; the thriving, culturally diverse city and its thronged slave market have been described by the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, there in the 1430s.

In 1462 Caffa placed itself under the protection of King Casimir IV of Poland. However, Poland did not offer significant help due to reinforcements sent being massacred in Bar fortress by Duke Czartoryski after a quarrel with locals. Following the fall of Constantinople and lastly Trebizond, the position of Caffa had become untenable and attracted the attention of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, he was at no loss for a pretext to extinguish this last Genoese colony on the Black sea. In 1473, the tudun of the Crimean Khanate died and a fight developed over the appointment of his successor; the Genoese involved themselves in the dispute, the Tatar notables who favored the losing candidate asked Mehmed to settle the dispute. Mehmed dispatched a fleet under the Ottoman commander Gedik Ahmet Pasha, which left Constantinople 19 May 1475, it anchored before the walls of the city on 1 June, started the bombardment the next day, on 6 June the inhabitants capitulated. Over the next few days the Ottomans proceeded to extract the wealth of the inhabitants, abduct 1,500 youths for service in the Sultan's palace.

On 8 July the final blow was struck when all inhabitants of Latin origin were ordered to relocate to Istanbul, where they founded a quarter, named after the town they had been forced to leave. Renamed Kefe, Caffa became one of the most important Turkish ports on the Black Sea. In 1615 Zaporozhian Cossacks under the leadership of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny destroyed the Turkish fleet and captured Caffa. Having conquered the city, the cossacks released the men and children who were slaves. Ottoman control ceased when the expanding Russian Empire took over Crimea between 1774 and 1783, it was renamed Feodosiya, after the traditional Russian reading of the ancient Greek name. In 1900 Zibold constructed the first air well on mount Tepe-Oba near Feodosiya; the city was occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during World War II, sustaining significant damage in the p


B-lymphocyte antigen CD19 known as CD19 molecule, B-Lymphocyte Surface Antigen B4, T-Cell Surface Antigen Leu-12 and CVID3 is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the gene CD19. In humans, CD19 is expressed in all B lineage cells, except for plasma cells, in follicular dendritic cells. CD19 plays two major roles in human B cells, it acts as an adaptor protein to recruit cytoplasmic signaling proteins to the membrane and it works within the CD19/CD21 complex to decrease the threshold for B cell receptor signaling pathways. Due to its presence on all B cells, it is a biomarker for B lymphocyte development, lymphoma diagnosis and can be utilized as a target for leukemia immunotherapies. In humans, CD19 is encoded by the 7.41 kilobase CD19 gene located on the short arm of chromosome 16. It contains at least fifteen exons, four that encode extracellular domain and nine that encode cytoplasmic domains, with a total of 556 amino acids. Experiments show. CD19 is a 95 kd Type I transmembrane glycoprotein in the immunoglobulin superfamily with two extracellular C2-set Ig-like domains and a large, 240 amino acid, cytoplasmic tail, conserved among mammalian species.

The extracellular C2-type Ig-like domains are divided by a potential disulfide linked non-Ig-like domain and N-linked carbohydrate addition sites. The cytoplasmic tail contains at least nine tyrosine residues near the C-terminus. Within these residues, Y391, Y482, Y513 have been shown to be essential to the biological functions of CD19. Phenylalanine substitution for tyrosine at Y482 and Y513 leads to the inhibition of phosphorylation at the other tyrosines. CD19 is expressed during all phases of B cell development until terminal differentiation into plasma cells. During B cell lymphopoiesis, CD19 surface expression starts during immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, which coincides during B lineage commitment from hematopoietic stem cell. Throughout development, the surface density of CD19 is regulated. CD19 expression in mature B cells is threefold higher than. CD19 is expressed on all normal, mitogen-stimulated, malignant B cells, excluding plasma cells. CD19 expression is maintained in B lineage cells that undergo neoplastic transformation.

Because of its ubiquity on all B cells, it can function as a B cell marker and a target for immunotherapies targeting neoplastic lymphocytes. Decisions to live, differentiate, or die are continuously being made during B cell development; these decisions are regulated through BCR interactions and signaling. The presence of a functional BCR is necessary during antigen-dependent differentiation and for continued survival in the peripheral immune system. Essential to the functionality of a BCR is the presence of CD19. Experiments using CD19 knockout mice found that CD19 is essential for B cell differentiative events including the formation of B-1, germinal center, marginal zone B cells. Analysis of mixed bone marrow chimeras suggest that prior to an initial antigen encounter, CD19 promotes the survival of naive recirculating B cells and increases the in vivo life span of B cells in the peripheral B cell compartment. CD19 expression is integral to the propagation of BCR-induced survival signals and the maintenance of homeostasis through tonic signaling.

Paired box transcription factor 5 plays a major role in B cell differentiation from pro B cell to mature B cell, the point at which the expression of non-B-lineage genes is permanently blocked. Part of B cell differentiation is controlling c-MYC protein stability and steady-state levels through CD19, which acts as a PAX5 target and downstream effector of the PI3K-AKT-GSK3β axis. CD19 signaling, independent of BCR functions, increases c-MYC protein stability. Using a loss of function approach, researchers found reduced MYC levels in B cells of CD19 knockdown mice. CD19 signaling involves the recruitment and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and downstream, the activation of protein kinase B; the Akt-GSK3β axis is necessary for MYC activation by CD19 in BCR-negative cells, with higher levels of Akt activation corresponding to higher levels of MYC. CD19 is a crucial BCR-independent regulator of MYC-driven neoplastic growth in B cells since the CD19-MYC axis promotes cell expansion in vitro and in vivo.

On the cell surface, CD19 is the dominant signaling component of a multimolecular complex including CD21, a complement receptor, CD81, a tetraspanin membrane protein, CD225. The CD19/CD21 complex arises from C3d binding to CD21. CD81, attached to CD19, is a part of the tetraspanin web, acts as a chaperone protein, provides docking sites for molecules in various different signal transduction pathways. While colligated with the BCR, the CD19/CD21 complex bound to the antigen-complement complex can decrease the threshold for B cell activation. CD21, complement receptor 2, can bind fragments of C3 that have covalently attached to glycoconjugates by complement activation. Recognition of an antigen by the complement system enables the CD19/CD21 complex and associated intracellular signaling molecules to crosslink to the BCR; this results in phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tail of CD19 by BCR-associated tyrosine kinases, ensuing is the binding of additional Src-family kinases, augmentation of signaling through the BCR, recruitment of PI3K.

The localization of PI3K initiates another signaling pathway leading to Akt activation. Varying expression of CD19 on the cell surface modulates tyrosine phosphorylation and Akt kinase signaling and by extension, MHC class II mediated signaling. Ac

Point of Grace (album)

Point of Grace is the debut album by the Contemporary Christian group of the same name. It was released in 1993 by Word Records, it was re-released in 2003, with different cover art. "I'll Be Believing" - 3:17 "One More Broken Heart" - 4:02 "Love Enough" - 4:11 "Living The Legacy" - 3:55 "Jesus Will Still Be There" - 4:29 "I Have No Doubt" - 4:28 "Faith, Hope & Love" - 4:26 "Got To Be Time" - 3:30 "No More Pain" - 4:40 "Refuge of Love" - 3:49 "This Day" - 3:32 "I'll Be Believing" - #1 "One More Broken Heart" - #1 "Jesus Will Still Be There" - #1 "Faith, Hope & Love" - #1 "I Have No Doubt" - #1 "No More Pain" - #1 "Jesus Will Still Be There" "I'll Be Believing" was the only song on the album, a programmed track, John Mays, former A&R executive at Word Records thought it would be best if it were buried in the album. Oddly enough, it was the girls' first single, it went #1; when the song was performed live in 1996, an new sequence was designed by Michael Hodge and Mark Childers, both of whom were on the band of 4 Him.

Hodge appears in Point of Grace's video for a song, Circle of Friends, recorded on that tour. They were not going to cut "Faith, Hope & Love" because they weren't sure if the R&B sound would work for them; the vocals on "Faith, Hope & Love" were arranged by Mervyn Warren of the group Take 6. The choir on "No More Pain" was made up of many of Point of Grace's new industry friends, as well as Denise's husband, Stu; when the album was re-released in 2003 in commemoration of the group's release "24", a different cover was issued. Since Heather's departure from the group in 2008, the song "I'll Be Believing" has been performed as part of a medley with "You Are The Answer." Point of GraceShelley Breen – vocals Denise Jones – vocals Terry Jones – vocals Heather Payne – vocalsMusiciansJoe Hogue – keyboards Cheryl Rogers – keyboards Blair Masters – keyboard and bass programming Jerry McPherson – guitars Jackie Street – bass guitar Scott Williamsondrums, rhythm arrangements, vocal arrangements, drum programming, keyboard programming, bass programming Todd Collins – drum programming Eric Darkenpercussion Chris McDonald – horn arrangement Horns – Mark Douthit, Barry Green, Mike Haynes and George Tidwell Robert Sterling – rhythm arrangements, vocal arrangements Mervyn Warren – vocal arrangements Producers – Robert Sterling and Scott Williamson Executive Producer – John Mays Recorded by John Jaszcz, Wayne Morgan, Doug Sarrett and Scott Williamson.

Assistant Engineers – Barry Campbell and Wayne Morgan Recorded at John Jaszcz at Recording Arts and Quad Studios. Mixed by John Jaszcz at Recording Arts Mastered by Hank Williams at MasterMix. Art Direction – Diana Barnes Design – Franke Design Co. Photography – Matthew Barnes Design – Chuck Hargett Photography – Louise O'Brien and Daniel Scridde

Maggie Han

Maggie Han is a retired American actress. Her career began with modeling jobs in the United States and France, progressed to acting in film and television productions, she is best known for playing Yoshiko Kawashima in The Last Emperor and Cheryl the lawyer in the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. Maggie Han was born in Rhode Island, her parents were retired music professors. She grew up enthralled by feminist literature and stated that she developed an "aversion to the idea of marriage and a family." At the age of 16, Han majored in American history. Upon the suggestion of a stranger, she contacted a local modeling agency and began working part-time. After receiving an increasing number of job offers, Han decided to model full-time in Paris. Maggie Han modeled for six years in Paris and New York and described one of her more memorable experiences as being a photo-shoot in a war-torn area of Lebanon. In 1983, Han returned to Harvard to continue her degree. While there, she became an award-winning reporter for the Harvard Crimson newspaper.

During this time she got a deal to do part-time modeling for the pantyhose company L'eggs and appeared in several commercials for them. In 1985, Han received an offer to audition for the miniseries Space. To make her acting debut in that series, she again dropped out of Harvard but stated that returning for a second time was a possibility. Afterward, she moved to Los Angeles to pursue further roles; these included her film debut in The Last Emperor. Maggie Han on IMDb L'eggs Pantyhose Commercial 1989 on YouTube