Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Niğde Provinces in Turkey. According to Herodotus, in the time of the Ionian Revolt, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying a region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine. Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia, to the east by the upper Euphrates, to the north by Pontus, to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia; the name, traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history, continues in use as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders, in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century BC, when it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early Achaemenid kings, Darius I and Xerxes, as one of the countries of the Persian Empire. In these lists of countries, the Old Persian name is Haspaduya, which according to some researchers is derived from Iranian Huw-aspa-dahyu- "the land/country of beautiful horses".
Others proposed that Kat-patuka came from the Luwian language, meaning "Low Country". Subsequent research suggests that the adverb katta meaning'down, below' is Hittite, while its Luwian equivalent is zanta; therefore the recent modification of this proposal operates with the Hittite katta peda- "place below" as a starting point for the development of the toponym Cappadocia. Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks "Syrians" or "White Syrians" Leucosyri. One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions is the Moschoi, associated by Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure Meshech, son of Japheth: "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch. AotJ I:6. Cappadocia appears in the biblical account given in the book of Acts 2:9; the Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews".
See Acts of the Apostles. The region is mentioned in the Jewish Mishnah, in Ketubot 13:11. Under the kings of the Persian Empire, the Cappadocians were divided into two satrapies, or governments, with one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Pontus; this division had come about before the time of Xenophon. As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction was perpetuated, the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province, which alone will be the focus of this article; the kingdom of Cappadocia still existed in the time of Strabo as a nominally independent state. Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea, the capital of the whole country, was situated; the only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Caesarea and Tyana, not far from the foot of the Taurus. Cappadocia lies in the heartland of what is now Turkey.
The relief consists of a high plateau over 1000 m in altitude, pierced by volcanic peaks, with Mount Erciyes near Kayseri being the tallest at 3916 m. The boundaries of historical Cappadocia are vague towards the west. To the south, the Taurus Mountains form the boundary with Cilicia and separate Cappadocia from the Mediterranean Sea. To the west, Cappadocia is bounded by the historical regions of Lycaonia to the southwest, Galatia to the northwest. Due to its inland location and high altitude, Cappadocia has a markedly continental climate, with hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. Rainfall is sparse and the region is semi-arid. Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which made them apt to foreign slavery.
It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King. After ending the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great tried to rule the area through one of his military commanders, but Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, somehow became king of the Cappadocians. As Ariarathes I, he was a successful ruler, he extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as to the Black Sea; the kingdom of Cappadocia lived in peace until the death of Alexander. The previous empire was divided into many parts, Cappadocia fell to Eumenes, his claims were made good in 322 BC by the regent Perdiccas. Persian colonists in the Cappadocian kingdom, cut off from their co-religionists in Iran proper, continued to practice Zoroastrianism. Stra
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. The Ancient Greek word Hellas is the original word for Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, literature, architecture, mathematics and science, it is considered a period of transition, sometimes of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism and Epicureanism. Greek science was advanced by the works of the polymath Archimedes; the religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India.
After Alexander the Great's invasion of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC and its disintegration shortly after, the Hellenistic kingdoms were established throughout south-west Asia, north-east Africa and South Asia. The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa; this resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to these new realms, spanning as far as modern-day India. However, these new kingdoms were influenced by the indigenous cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary, or convenient. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East, Southwest Asia; this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Scholars and historians are divided as to; the Hellenistic period may be seen to end either with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC following the Achean War, with the final defeat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, or the move by Roman emperor Constantine the Great of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople in 330 AD.
"Hellenistic" is distinguished from "Hellenic" in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς. "Hellenistic" is a 19th-century concept. Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. Hellenist, have been attested since ancient times, it was Johann Gustav Droysen in the mid-19th century, who in his classic work Geschichte des Hellenismus, coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. Following Droysen and related terms, e.g. Hellenism, have been used in various contexts; the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others; the term Hellenistic implies that the Greek populations were of majority in the areas in which they settled, but in many cases, the Greek settlers were the minority among the native populations.
The Greek population and the native population did not always mix. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death; the works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos and Phylarchus which were used by surviving sources are all lost. The earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage, his Histories grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC. The most important source after Polybius is Diodorus Siculus who wrote his Bibliotheca historica between 60 and 30 BC and reproduced some important earlier sources such as Hieronymus, but his account of the Hellenistic period breaks off after the battle of Ipsus. Another important source, Plutarch's Parallel Lives although more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures.
Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms. Other sources include Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrian's Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. In the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laër
Artabazos II was a Persian general and satrap. He was the son of the Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, Pharnabazus II, younger kinsman of Ariobarzanes of Phrygia who revolted against Artaxerxes II around 356 BC, his first wife was an unnamed Greek woman from Rhodes, sister of the two mercenaries Mentor of Rhodes and Memnon of Rhodes. In 362 BC, Artabazos was sent by Artaxerxes II to capture Datames, the satrap of Cappadocia, who had joined in the Satraps' revolt to which participated Artabazus' brother, Ariobarzanes. However, Artabazos was defeated by Datames. Artaxerxes II prevailed, Ariobarzanes was crucified and Datames assassinated. Following the capture and death of his brother, Artabazos was made satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, but in 356 BC he refused obedience to the new Persian king, Artaxerxes III. Artaxerxes had ordered the disbanding of all the satrapal armies of Asia Minor, as he felt that they could no longer guarantee peace in the west and was concerned that these armies equipped the western satraps with the means to revolt.
The order was ignored by Artabazus, who asked for the help of Athens in a rebellion against the king. Artabazos became involved in a revolt against the king and against other satraps who acknowledged the authority of Artaxerxes III. Artabazos was at first supported by Chares, an Athenian general, his mercenaries, whom he rewarded generously; the gold coinage of Artabazos is thought to have been issued to reward the troops of Chares. The Satrap of Mysia, Orontes I, was on his side. Artabazos was supported by the Thebans, who sent him 5,000 men under Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazos defeated the King in two great battles. However, Artaxerxes III was able to deprive Artabazos of his Athenian and Boeotian allies by counter-bribing them, whereupon Artabazos was defeated by the king's general and was taken prisoner. Mentor and Memnon, two brothers-in-law of Artabazos, who had supported him, still continued the revolt, as they were aided by the Athenian mercenary leader, Charidemus.
Together they were able to free Artabazos. After this, Artabazos seems either to have continued his rebellious operations or at least started a fresh revolt; however he had no choice but to flee with Memnon and his family. They took refuge with Philip II of Macedonia. Artabazos, 37, his family were exiled at the court of Philip II for about ten years, from 352 to 342, during that time Artabazos became acquainted with the future Alexander the Great. Barsine, daughter of Artabazos, future wife of Alexander, grew up at the Macedonian court. During the absence of Artabazos, Mentor of Rhodes, his brother-in-law, was of great service to the king of Persia in his war against Nectanebo II of Egypt. After the close of this war, in the summer of 342 BC, Artaxerxes gave Mentor the command against the rebellious satraps of western Asia. Mentor took advantage of this opportunity to ask the king to grant a pardon to Memnon; the king agreed and both men and their families were able to return to Persia. In the subsequent reign of Darius III Codomannus, Artabazos distinguished himself by his loyalty and commitment to the new Persian king.
He took part in the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC, afterwards accompanied Darius on his flight from Alexander's Macedonian armies. After the final defeat and death of Darius III in 330 BC, Alexander recognised and rewarded Artabazos for his loyalty to the Persian king by giving him the satrapy of Bactria, a post he held until his death in 328 BC. Artabazos' daughter, may have married Alexander and may have been the mother of Heracles. Another daughter, was given in marriage to Ptolemy. For Barsine, the daughter of Artabazus, the first lady Alexander took to his bed in Asia, who brought him a son named Heracles, had two sisters. In 328 BC, Artabazos resigned his satrapy, given to Cleitus the Black. Artabazos had a son named Pharnabazus. Smith, William.
Battle of Gaugamela
The Battle of Gaugamela called the Battle of Arbela, was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. In 331 BC Alexander's army of the Hellenic League met the Persian army of Darius III near Gaugamela, close to the modern city of Dohuk in Iraqi Kurdistan. Though outnumbered, Alexander emerged victorious due to his army's superior tactics and his deft employment of light infantry, it was led to the fall of the Achaemenid Empire. In November 333 BC Darius III had lost the Battle of Issus, resulting in the capture of his wife, his mother and his two daughters, Stateira II and Drypetis. Darius had retreated to Babylon; the victory at Issus had given Alexander control of southern Asia Minor. Following a victory at the Siege of Tyre, which lasted from January to July, Alexander controlled the Levant. After his victory at Gaza Persian troop counts were low and the Persian satrap of Egypt, peacefully surrendered to Alexander. Darius tried to dissuade Alexander from further attacks on his empire by diplomacy.
Ancient historians provide different accounts of his negotiations with Alexander, which can be separated into three negotiation attempts. Justin and Curtius Rufus write that Darius sent a letter to Alexander after the Battle of Issus, it demanded that he release his prisoners. According to Curtius and Justin he offered a ransom for his prisoners, but Arrian does not mention a ransom. Curtius describes the tone of the letter as offensive. Alexander refused his demands. A second negotiation attempt took place after the capture of Tyre. Darius offered Alexander a marriage with his daughter Stateira II and all the territory west of the Halys River. Justin is less specific, not mentioning a specific daughter and speaking of a portion of Darius' kingdom. Diodorus Siculus mentions the offer of all territory west of the Halys River, a treaty of friendship and a large ransom for the captives. Diodorus is the only ancient historian who mentions that Alexander concealed this letter and presented his friends with a forged one favorable to his own interests.
Again Alexander refused. Darius started to prepare for another battle after the failure of the second negotiation attempt. So, he made a third and final effort to negotiate after Alexander's departure from Egypt. Darius' third offer was much more generous, he praised Alexander for the treatment of his mother Sisygambis and offered him all territory west of the Euphrates, co-rulership of the Achaemenid Empire, the hand of one of his daughters and 30,000 talents of silver. In the account of Diodorus, Alexander deliberated this offer with his friends. Parmenion was the only one who spoke up, saying, "If I were Alexander, I should accept what was offered and make a treaty." Alexander replied, "So should I, if I were Parmenion." Alexander again refused the offer of Darius. He called on Darius to surrender to him or to meet him in battle to decide, to be the sole king of Asia; the descriptions given by other historians of the third negotiation attempt are similar to the account of Diodorus, but differ in details.
Diodorus and Arrian write that an embassy was sent instead of a letter, claimed by Justin and Plutarch. Plutarch and Arrian mention the ransom offered for the prisoners was 10,000 talents, but Diodorus and Justin give a figure of 30,000. Arrian writes that this third attempt took place during the Siege of Tyre, but the other historians place the second negotiation attempt at that time. With the failure of diplomacy, Darius decided to prepare for another battle with Alexander. After settling affairs in Egypt, Alexander returned to Tyre during the spring of 331 BC, he reached Thapsacus in August. Arrian relates that Darius had ordered Mazaeus to guard the crossing of the Euphrates near Thapsacus with a force of 3,000 cavalry, he fled. After crossing the Euphrates, Alexander followed a northern route instead of a direct southeastern route to Babylon. While doing so he had the mountains of Armenia on his left; the northern route made it easier to forage for supplies and his troops would not suffer the extreme heat of the direct route.
Captured Persian scouts reported to the Macedonians that Darius had encamped past the Tigris River and wanted to prevent Alexander from crossing. Alexander found the Tigris succeeded in crossing it with great difficulty. In contrast, Diodorus mentions that Mazaeus was only supposed to prevent Alexander from crossing the Tigris, he would not have bothered to defend it because he considered it impassable due to the strong current and depth of the river. Furthermore and Curtius Rufus mention that Mazaeus employed scorched-earth tactics in the countryside through which Alexander's army had to pass. After the Macedonian army had crossed the Tigris a lunar eclipse occurred. Following the calculations, the date must have been October 1 in 331 BC. Alexander marched southward along the eastern bank of the Tigris. On the fourth day after the crossing of the Tigris his scouts reported that Persian cavalry had been spotted, numbering no more than 1000 men; when Alexander attacked them with his cavalry force ahead of the rest of his army, the Persian cavalry fled.
Most of them escaped. The prisoners told the Macedonians. Several researchers have criticized the Persians for their failure to harass Alexander's army and disrupt its long supply lines when it advanced through Mesopotamia. Peter Gree
Cleitus the Black
Cleitus the Black was an officer of the Macedonian army led by Alexander the Great. He saved Alexander's life at the Battle of the Granicus in 334 BC and was killed by him in a drunken quarrel six years later. Cleitus was brother of Alexander's nurse, Lanike. At the Battle of the Granicus in 334 BC, when Alexander was under attack by Rhoesaces and Spithridates, Cleitus severed Spithridates's hammer arm before the Persian satrap could bring it down on Alexander thus saving his life. In 328 BC Artabazos resigned his satrapy of Bactria, Alexander gave it to Cleitus. On the eve of the day on which he was to set out to take possessions of his government, Alexander organized a banquet in the satrapial palace at Maracanda. At this banquet an angry dispute arose, the particulars of which are disputed by various authors. Most of the members were rather drunk, Alexander announced a reorganization of commands. Cleitus was given orders to take 16,000 of the defeated Greek mercenaries who fought for the Persian King north to fight the steppe nomads in Central Asia.
Cleitus would be a forgotten man. Furious at the thought of commanding what he saw as second-rate soldiers and fighting nomads in the middle of nowhere, he spoke his mind. To make matters worse, when Alexander arrogantly boasted that his accomplishments were far greater than that of his father, Phillip II, Cleitus responded by saying that Alexander was not the legitimate king of the Macedonians, that all of his achievements were due to his father. Alexander called for his guards. Alexander threw an apple at Cleitus' head and called for a dagger or spear, but the party near the two men removed the dagger, restrained Alexander, hustled Cleitus out of the room; the Hypaspists had conveniently left the vicinity of Alexander. Alexander called for his trumpeter to summon the army. Cleitus managed to return to the room to utter more grievances against Alexander, but sources agree that at this point Alexander got hold of a javelin and threw it through Cleitus' heart. In all of the four major known texts, it is shown.
Alexander may have genuinely not wanted to kill Cleitus. However, Cleitus was a member of Philip II's generation and Alexander had been removing that generation from power to keep his own peers in power; the motives of Cleitus in this quarrel have been interpreted in various ways. Cleitus may have been angered at Alexander's increasing adoption of Persian customs. After the death of King Darius III, Alexander was King of the Persian Empire. Alexander was now employing eunuchs and was tolerant of such Persian customs as proskynesis, considered degrading by many in the Macedonian army. Cleitus, as Clito, appears as a character in Handel's opera Alessandro; the American poet John Berryman recounts the tale of "Kleitos" in his thirty-third "dream song." The death of Cleitus at Alexander's hand is depicted in a scene of the film Alexander. Cleitus' death is described in Mary Butts' 1931 novel The Macedonian. Plutarch, The Life of Alexander, 16 and 50–51. Livius, Clitus by Jona Lendering
Babylon was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon was a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC. The town became part of a small independent city-state with the rise of the First Babylonian dynasty in the 19th century BC. After the Amorite king Hammurabi created a short-lived empire in the 18th century BC, he built Babylon up into a major city and declared himself its king, southern Mesopotamia became known as Babylonia and Babylon eclipsed Nippur as its holy city; the empire waned under Hammurabi's son Samsu-iluna and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian and Elamite domination. After being destroyed and rebuilt by the Assyrians, Babylon became the capital of the short lived Neo-Babylonian Empire from 609 to 539 BC; the Hanging Gardens of Babylon was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, although a number of scholars believe these were in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh.
After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the city came under the rule of the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid empires. It has been estimated that Babylon was the largest city in the world c. 1770 – c. 1670 BC, again c. 612 – c. 320 BC. It was the first city to reach a population above 200,000. Estimates for the maximum extent of its area range from 890 to 900 hectares; the remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometres south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris. The main sources of information about Babylon—excavation of the site itself, references in cuneiform texts found elsewhere in Mesopotamia, references in the Bible, descriptions in classical writing, second-hand descriptions —present an incomplete and sometimes contradictory picture of the ancient city at its peak in the sixth century BC; the English Babylon comes from a transliteration of the Akkadian Bābilim. Archibald Sayce, writing in the 1870s, considered Bab-ilu or Bab-ili to be the translation of an earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra, meaning "gate of god", based on the characters KAN4 DIĜIR.
RAKI or based on other characters. According to Professor Dietz-Otto Edzard, the city was called Babilla, but by the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur, through a process of etymological speculation, had become Bāb-ili meaning "gate of god" or "god's gate"; the "gate of god" translation is viewed as a folk etymology to explain an unknown original non-Semitic placename. Linguist I. J. Gelb suggested in 1955 that Babil/Babilla is the basis of the city name, of unknown meaning and origin, as there were other similarly-named places in Sumer, there are no other examples of Sumerian place-names being replaced with Akkadian translations, he deduced that it transformed into Akkadian Bāb-ili, that the Sumerian Ka-dig̃irra was a translation of that, rather than vice versa. In the Bible, the name appears as Babel, interpreted in the Book of Genesis to mean "confusion", from the verb bilbél; the modern English verb, to babble, is popularly thought to derive from this name, but there is no direct connection.
Ancient records in some situations use "Babylon" as a name for other cities, including cities like Borsippa within Babylon's sphere of influence, Nineveh for a short period after the Assyrian sack of Babylon. The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad, comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris; the site at Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an area of about 2 by 1 kilometer, oriented north to south, along the Euphrates to the west. The river bisected the city, but the course of the river has since shifted so that most of the remains of the former western part of the city are now inundated; some portions of the city wall to the west of the river remain. Only a small portion of the ancient city has been excavated. Known remains include: Kasr – called Palace or Castle, it is the location of the Neo-Babylonian ziggurat Etemenanki and lies in the center of the site. Amran Ibn Ali – the highest of the mounds at 25 meters, to the south.
It is the site of Esagila, a temple of Marduk which contained shrines to Ea and Nabu. Homera – a reddish-colored mound on the west side. Most of the Hellenistic remains are here. Babil – a mound about 22 meters high at the northern end of the site, its bricks have been subject to looting since ancient times. It held a palace built by Nebuchadnezzar. Archaeologists have recovered few artifacts predating the Neo-Babylonian period; the water table in the region has risen over the centuries, artifacts from the time before the Neo-Babylonian Empire are unavailable to current standard archaeological methods. Additionally, the Neo-Babylonians conducted significant rebuilding projects in the city, which destroyed or obscured much of the earlier record. Babylon was pillaged numerous times after revolting against foreign rule, most notably by t
Media is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes. During the Achaemenid period, it comprised present-day Azarbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan and western Tabaristan; as a satrapy under Achaemenid rule, it would encompass a wider region, stretching to southern Dagestan in the north. However, after the wars of Alexander the Great, the northern parts were separated due to the Partition of Babylon and became known as Atropatene, while the remaining region became known as Lesser Media. In 678 BC, Deioces made the first Iranian empire, his grandson Cyaxares managed to unite all Iranian tribes of Ancient Iran and made his empire a major power. When Cyaxares died he was succeeded by his son, the last king of the Median empire. In 553 BC, Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, rebelled against his grandfather, the Median King, Astyages son of Cyaxares. After Cyrus's victory against Astyages, the Medes were subjected to the Persians. In the new empire they retained a prominent position.
At the beginning the Greek historians referred to the Achaemenid Empire as a Median empire. After the assassination of the usurper Smerdis, a Mede Fravartish, claiming to be a scion of Cyaxares, tried to restore the Mede kingdom, but was defeated by the Persian generals and executed in Ecbatana. Another rebellion, in 409 BC, against Darius II was of short duration, but the Iranian tribes to the north the Cadusii, were always troublesome. Under Persian rule, the country was divided into two satrapies: the south, with Ecbatana and Rhagae, Media proper, or Greater Media, as it is called, formed in Darius I the Great's organization the eleventh satrapy, together with the Paricanians and Orthocorybantians. Caucasian Albania was incorporated by the Achaemenid Persians and were under the command of the satrapy of Media in the period; when the Persian empire decayed and the Cadusii and other mountainous tribes made themselves independent, eastern Armenia became a special satrapy, while Assyria seems to have been united with Media.
Following Alexander's invasion of the satrapy of Media in the summer of 330 BC, he appointed as satrap a former general of Darius III the Great named Atropates in 328 BC, according to Arrian. In the partition of his empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonian Peithon. While southern Media, with Ecbatana, passed to the rule of Antigonus, afterwards to Seleucus I, Atropates maintained himself in his own satrapy and succeeded in founding an independent kingdom, thus the partition of the country, that Persia had introduced, became lasting. The capital of Atropatene was Gazaca in the central plain, the castle Phraaspa, discovered on the Araz river by archaeologists in April 2005. Atropatene is that country of western Asia, least of all other countries influenced by Hellenism. Southern Media remained a province of the Seleucid Empire for a century and a half, Hellenism was introduced everywhere. Media was surrounded everywhere by Greek towns, in pursuance of Alexander's plan to protect it from neighboring barbarians, according to Polybius.
Only Ecbatana retained its old character. But Rhagae became the Greek town Europus. Most of them were founded by Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I. In 221 BC, the satrap Molon tried to make himself independent, together with his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, but they were defeated and killed by Antiochus the Great. In the same way, the Mede satrap Timarchus conquered Babylonia, but with Demetrius I, the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire began, brought about chiefly by the intrigues of the Romans, shortly afterwards, in about 150, the Parthian king Mithradates I conquered Media. From this time Media remained subject to the Arsacids or Parthians, who changed the name of Rhagae, or Europus, into Arsacia, divided the country into five small provinces. From the Parthians, it passed in 226 to the Sassanids, together with Atropatene; the Medes spoke Median, a Northwestern Iranian language