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Abjuration is the solemn repudiation, abandonment, or renunciation by or upon oath the renunciation of citizenship or some other right or privilege. The term comes from the Latin abjurare, "to forswear". Abjuration of the realm was a type of abjuration in ancient English law; the person taking the oath swore to leave the country directly and promptly, never to return to the kingdom unless by permission of the sovereign. This was taken by fugitives who had taken sanctuary: I swear on the Holy Book that I will leave the realm of England and never return without the express permission of my Lord the King or his heirs. I will hasten by the direct road to the port allotted to me and not leave the King's highway under pain of arrest or execution. I will not stay at one place more than one night and will seek diligently for a passage across the sea as soon as I arrive, delaying only one tide if possible. If I cannot secure such passage, I will walk into the sea up to my knees every day as a token of my desire to cross.

And if I fail in all this peril shall be my lot. Near the start of the English Civil War, on 18 August 1643 Parliament passed "An Ordinance for Explanation of a former Ordinance for Sequestration of Delinquents Estates with some Enlargements." The enlargements included an oath which became known as the "Oath of Abjuration": I... So help me God. In 1656-7, it was reissued in what was for Catholics an more objectionable form. Everyone was to be "adjudged a Papist" who refused this oath, the consequent penalties began with the confiscation of two-thirds of the recusant's goods, went on to deprive him of every civic right; the Catholic Encyclopaedia makes the point that the oath and the penalties were so severe that it stopped the efforts of the Gallicanizing party among the English Catholics, ready to offer forms of submission similar to the old oath of Allegiance, condemned anew about this time by Pope Innocent X. During The Killing Time of the 1680s an Abjuration Oath could be put to suspects where they were given the option to abjure or renounce their allegiances.

The terms of the oath were deliberately designed to offend the consciences of the Presbyterian Covenanters. Those who would not swear "whether they have arms, or not" could be "immediately killed" by field trial "before two witnesses" on a charge of high treason. John Brown was included among those executed in this judicial process by John Graham on 1 May 1685; the wives and children of such men could be put out of their houses if they had spoken to the suspect or refused the oath themselves. In England the Oath of Abjuration denied the royal title of James II's heirs. In England, an Oath of Abjuration was taken by Members of Parliament and laymen, pledging to support the current British monarch and repudiated the right of the Stuarts and other claimants to the throne; this oath was imposed under William III, George I and George III. It was superseded by the oath of allegiance. In Ireland, the oath was imposed of state officeholders, lawyers, on the clergy of the established church in from 1703, the following year it was on all Irish voters and from 1709 it could be demanded of any adult male by a magistrate.

Another famous abjuration was brought about by the Plakkaat van Verlatinghe of July 26, 1581, the formal declaration of independence of the Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. This oath was the climax of the Eighty Years' War. English post-Reformation oaths Papists Act 1716

Al-Tujjar Caravansarai (Mount Tabor)

Al-Tujjar Caravansarai are the ruins of a caravanserai in the Lower Galilee, opposite the entrance to Beit Keshet. The caravanserai was established near Mount Tabor by Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha around 1581; the reason given for its establishment was that the place was insecure for merchants and people making pilgrimage, it was argued that if a khan was built, the place would become "inhabited and cultivated." The Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi visited in 1649. He reported that: "It is a square, perfect fortress, built of masonry in the midst of a large, verdant meadow, it has a circumference of six hundred paces. The garrison consists of 150 men, it has a'double' iron gate facing north. Inside the fortress are between forty and fifty rooms for the garrison.... Inside the fortress is the Mosque of Sinan Pasha, an artistically constructed work, with a lead roof, full of light, its windows have light blue glass enamel fixed symmetrically with rock crystal. It measures eighty feet each side; the sanctuary has three graceful and lofty minarets—Praise be to the Creator, as if they were three young coquettish muezzins—and seven high domes.

The wayfarers are lavishly given a loaf of bread and a tallow candle for each person, a nosebag of barley for each horse—free of charge. On either side of the fortress is a caravanserai with eight shops." In the early 18th century there was one period where the area seemed deserted, there was no weekly marked. However, Western travellers still noted two buildings, one with a mosque and bath inside, one, used for goods and cattle. In the early 1760s the Italian traveller Mariti visited the khan, wrote that: " arrive at El-Net-Tesgiar, or the Place of Merchants. I was much struck with the elegance and magnificence of its walls. Incrusted with the most beautiful marble, which the hand of art has disposed with much taste El-Net-Tesgiar is enlivened by a flourishing commerce. A fair is held here every Monday, resorted to by merchants from various countries, it is well furnished with cloth and provisions of every kind. Pierre Jacotin marked the place as Kan Ouioun el Touggar on his map from 1799.

James Silk Buckingham visited the place in around 1816, described how, on a Monday, they found four to five thousand people assembled around the Khan, in addition to numerous herds of cattle. In his Biblical Researches in Palestine, American scholar Edward Robinson described his visit in 1838, a day after the weekly Monday fair which had "drawn away from their home a large portion of the people of Nazareth"; as Buckingham, he describes two large buildings, one a Khan, one building looking more like a castle. In the mid-1850s, W. M. Thomson made a lively description of a marked day there:On Monday of each week a great fair is held at the khans, for a few hours, the scene is lively and picturesque; these gatherings afford an excellent opportunity to observe Syrian manners and costumes, to become acquainted with the character and quality of Syrian productions. Thousands of people assemble from all parts of the country, either to trade or purchase. Cotton is brought in bales from Nablus. From Gilead and Bashan, the surrounding districts, come horses and donkeys and flocks, with cheese, semen and similar articles.

There are miscellaneous matters, such as chicken and eggs, raisins, melons and all sorts of fruits and vegetables in season. The pedlars open their packages of tempting fabrics, the jeweller is there with his trinkets, and thus it is with all the arts and occupations known to this people.... But long before sunset not a soul of this busy throng remains on the spot. All return home. In 1875 Victor Guérin visited, described and measured the two buildings. In 1881, when the PEF Survey of Palestine described it, Khan al-Tujjar was no longer a working caravanserai, but a market was held there each Thursday, they noted that there was a well with a perennial supply by the Khan. Khan al-Tujjar Buckingham, J. S.. Travels in Palestine Through the Countries of Bashan and Gilead, East of the River Jordan, Including a Visit to the Cities of Geraza and Gamala in the Decapolis. London: Longman. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 200. Conder, C. R.. H.. The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography and Archaeology.

1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Egmont, van. Travels through part of Europe, Asia Minor, the islands of the archipelago, Palestine, Mount Sinai, &c. giving a particular account of the most remarkable places. 2. London: L. Davis and C. Reymers. Guérin, V.. Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine. 3: Galilee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale. Karmon, Y.. "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine". Israel Exploration Journal. 10: 155–173, 244–253. Mariti, G.. Travels Through Cyprus and Palestine. 1. Dublin: P. Byrne. Palmer, E. H.. The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener

16th Filmfare Awards

The 16th Filmfare Awards were held in 1969. Bhappi Soni's Brahmachari dominated the night, winning the Best Film Award, as well as a number of other awards. Shammi Kapoor won his only Best Actor Award for Brahmachari. Brahmachari Aankhen Neel Kamal Ramanand Sagar – Aankhen Bhappi Soni – Brahmachari Ram Maheshwari – Neel Kamal Shammi Kapoor – Brahmachari Dilip Kumar – Aadmi Dilip Kumar – Sunghursh Waheeda Rehman – Neel Kamal NargisRaat Aur Din Saira Banu – Diwana Sanjeev KumarShikar Manoj Kumar – Aadmi Raj Kumar – Neel Kamal Simi GarewalSaathi Helen – Shikar Shashikala – Neel Kamal Johnny Walker – Shikar Mehmood – Neel Kamal Mehmood – Sadhu Aur Shaitan Brahmachari – Sachin Bhowmick Aankhen – Ramanand Sagar Neel Kamal – Gulshan Nanda Majhli DidiNabendu Ghosh SaraswatichandraS. Ali Raza Brahmachari – Shankar-Jaikishen Aankhen – Ravi Diwana – Shankar-Jaikishen Brahmachari – Shailendra for Main Gaoon Tum Aankhen – Sahir Ludhianvi for Milti Hai Zindagi Main Brahmachari – Hasrat Jaipuri for Dil Ke Jharoke Main Brahmachari – Mohammad Rafi for Dil Ke Jharoke Main Brahmachari – Mohammad Rafi for Main Gaoon Tum Neel Kamal – Mohammad Rafi for Babul Ki Duaein Shikar – Asha Bhosle for Parde Main Rehne Do Aankhen – Lata Mangeshkar for Milti Hai Zindagi Main Diwana – Sharda for Tumhari Bhi Jai Hai Majhli Didi Noor Jehan Saraswatichandra Aankhen Saathi Shikar Explorer Brahmachari – 6/9 Shikar – 4/5 Saraswatichandra – 2/2 Saathi – 2/2 Aankhen – 2/7 Majhli Didi – 2/2 18th Filmfare Awards 17th Filmfare Awards Filmfare Awards

Bushwick Democratic Club House

The Bushwick Democratic Club House was a building located in Bushwick, New York City. The building, designed by Brooklyn-based architect Frank Freeman in his signature Richardsonian Romanesque style, was completed in 1892, designated a New York City Landmark in the 1970s, it was destroyed by fire. The Bushwick Democratic Club, a social club for members of the Democratic Party, was first organized in October 1890. After the 1890 election, the members decided to construct a new building for the club's activities, for an amount not exceeding $60,000. A block of land was subsequently acquired for the purpose on the corner of Bushwick Avenue and Hart Street, Brooklyn. Frank Freeman, the same architect who had designed the completed Thomas Jefferson Association Building for the Kings County Democrats, was commissioned to design the new building; the foundation stone was laid on June 30, 1891 by Brooklyn Mayor Alfred C. Chapin, with New York Lieutenant Governor Edward F. Jones and a large crowd in attendance.

After the ceremony, a sumptuous banquet for 300 Democratic Party dignitaries was held, at which were read letters from former U. S. President Grover Cleveland and Governor David B. Hill expressing their regrets at being unable to attend; the building was opened on September 23 of the following year, with Lieutenant Governor William F. Sheehan and Brooklyn Mayor David A. Boody giving the main speeches. In 1941, the building was sold to the Knights of Columbus. Thereafter it became the Bethesda Pentecostal Church. On September 15, 1970, it was designated a New York City landmark; the building was destroyed by fire. An "astounding, round-edged cube... wrap a tight skin of precise decoration around a compact mass", the building was described shortly after its construction in the following terms: It is a beautiful structure, Romanesque in style modernized. The exterior trimmings are of light terra cotta and red sandstone which, with the old gold mottled brick of which the walls are composed, produce a fine effect.

There is a court yard of twenty-five feet in front of the building, the main entrance is reached by a series of steps and landings, on which are handsomely wrought bronze lamps with incandescent electric lights. The furniture, including buffet and pool tables, is of quartered, figured oak, the carpets are of velvet; the basement is occupied by the bowling alleys. The café and billiard room are on the first floor, making one apartment with vaulted ceilings twenty-five feet high. On the mezzanine floor are the officers' rooms and the ladies' rooms. On the third floor are the banquet hall and card rooms, on the top floor is the gymnasium; the stewards apartments and the club kitchen are above the main building at the rear. The 1970 report by the Landmarks Preservation Commission emphasized the building's "superb Roman brick masonry in its use of rowlock arches and lintels above the openings." Another feature deemed of particular interest was "the use of recessed balconies, created by setting the walls and windows behind them, instead of projecting them out from the wall in the usual manner."

The report concluded that "It is features such as these, which, in addition to the masterful use of materials, signalize the unusual work of Frank Freeman." Howard, Henry Ward Beecher.

José Larralde

José Larralde is an Argentine singer-songwriter of folk music. At the early age of 7 years Larralde had written songs with social content. Throughout the years he would write various songs about crafts and people he had stumbled upon in his life. Of Iraqi and Basque descent, José Larralde has been a bricklayer, a rural worker, a solderer, a mechanic, a guitarist and songwriter; some songs by Jose were published by Jorge Cafrune in his LP Jorge Cafrune. In 1967 Larralde recorded his first LP in a series of over 30 edited in Argentina: Canta José Larralde Larralde is not as well known as other folklore argentino artists because of his shunning of promotions and massive concentrations. Notwithstanding, his singing crossed the national boundaries and triumphed in countries such as Germany, Mexico, Uruguay, Paraguay and Spain among others, his lyrics deal with social and political inequities. Larralde debuted as an actor in the Argentinian film Santos Vega, his cover of Quimey Neuquén composed by Marcelo Berbel and Napoleón Milton Aguilar, was re-edited by Chancha via Circuito and it has been showcased in the AMC television series Breaking Bad, in the episode Buried.

Canta José Larralde Permiso Herencia pa un hijo gaucho Hombre Pa que dentre Amigo Santos Vega Cimarrón y tobacco Cimbreando Macollando Y un porque sin final De hablarle a la soledad Al tranco manso nomás Si yo elegí mi destino Desde lejos Del sur pa' allá Amansando soledades Un viento de aquel lao Viento arriba El alegre canto de los pájaros tristes Como quien mira una espera Trayendo ayeres A las 11 1/4 Antología Larralde vs. Cafrune Official Website

Bernhard Havestadt

Bernhard Havestadt was a German Jesuit missionary in Chile. He entered the Lower-Rhenish province of the order on 20 October 1732, in 1746 went to Chile, he was one of the 102 German Jesuits in the Chilean mission between 1720-67. His 20 years in the country were spent among the Araucanian Indians. A gifted linguist, knowing nine languages, he took up the study of Chilidugu. In his opinion, it "towered over all other languages as the Andes over all other mountains"; the result of these studies appeared in "Chilidugu, sive Res Chilenses, vel descriptio, status tum naturalis, tum civilis, cum moralis regni populique Chilensis, inserta suis, locis perfectæ ad Chilensem linguam manuductioni etc.", written in Germany after the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Spanish colonies. It had been composed in Spanish, was now issued in Latin. Besides a grammar and dictionary, it includes copious specimens of the native Chilean tongue and valuable ethnographic notes, etc; the work was re-issued in two volumes by the well-known student of American languages Dr. Julius Platzmann, under its original title, "Chilidugu sive tractatus linguæ Chilensis".

Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Bernhard Havestadt". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton; the entry cites: Huonder, Deutsche Jesuitenmissionäre, 133. Herrn. Bernhardt Havestadt, chemaligen Missionarium aus der Gesell. Jesu, which contains some bibliographical information