Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
John I. Mitchell
John Inscho Mitchell was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Tioga County, Pennsylvania. He served in the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in both the U. S. House and Senate, he was a judge in several state courts. John Inscho Mitchell was born in Tioga Township, Tioga County, Pennsylvania on July 28, 1838, he attended common school in addition to receiving private instruction. Mitchell received his college education at the University of Lewisburg, modern-day Bucknell University. After graduating from college in 1859, Mitchell taught school until 1861, when he joined the Union Army, he served in the Civil War as a lieutenant and captain in the 166th Regiment of the Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. Mitchell subsequently pursued an education in law and was admitted to the bar in 1864, he served as District Attorney of Tioga County from 1868 to 1871. He ran for, was elected to and served in the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives between 1872 and 1876 until his election to the United States House of Representatives, where he served from 1877 to 1881.
In 1881, Mitchell was elected to the United States Senate. He served there for one six-year term and was chairman of the Committee on the Mississippi River and Its Tributaries and Committee on Pensions. After the conclusion of his congressional career, Mitchell served as judge of the court of common pleas of Pennsylvania's fourth district from 1888 to 1899, he subsequently served for one session as judge of the Superior Court of Pennsylvania. Mitchell died in Wellsboro, Pennsylvania on August 20, 1907, was interred in Wellsboro Cemetery. United States Congress. "John I. Mitchell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John I. Mitchell at Find a Grave
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin was a Genevan-American politician, diplomat and linguist. He was an important leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, serving in various federal elective and appointed positions across four decades, he represented Pennsylvania in the Senate and the House of Representatives before becoming the longest-tenured United States Secretary of the Treasury and serving as a high-ranking diplomat. Born in Geneva in present-day Switzerland, Gallatin immigrated to the United States in the 1780s, settling in western Pennsylvania, he served as a delegate to the 1789 Pennsylvania constitutional convention and won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly. An opponent of Alexander Hamilton's economic policies, Gallatin was elected to the United States Senate in 1793. However, he was removed from office on a party-line vote after a protest raised by his opponents suggested he did not meet the required nine years of citizenship. Returning to Pennsylvania, Gallatin helped calm many angry farmers during the Whiskey Rebellion.
Gallatin returned to Congress in 1795 after winning election to the House of Representatives. He became the chief spokesman on financial matters for the Democratic-Republican Party, leading opposition to the Federalist economic program. Gallatin's mastery of public finance led to his choice as Secretary of the Treasury by President Thomas Jefferson, despite Federalist attacks that he was a "foreigner" with a French accent. Under Jefferson and James Madison, Gallatin served as secretary from 1801 until February 1814. Gallatin retained much of Hamilton's financial system, though he presided over a reduction in the national debt prior to the War of 1812. Gallatin served on the American commission that agreed to the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. In the aftermath of the war, he helped. Declining another term at the Treasury, Gallatin served as Ambassador to France from 1816 to 1823, struggling with scant success to improve relations with the government during the Bourbon Restoration.
In the election of 1824, Gallatin was nominated for Vice President by the Democratic-Republican Congressional caucus. Gallatin never wanted the position and was humiliated when forced to withdraw from the race because he lacked popular support. In 1826 and 1827, he served as the ambassador to Britain and negotiated several agreements, such as a ten-year extension of the joint occupation of Oregon Country. After his tenure abroad, Gallatin settled in New York City, he became president of the National Bank's branch in New York City. In 1842, Gallatin joined with John Russell Bartlett to found the American Ethnological Society. With his studies of the languages of Native Americans, he has been called "the father of American ethnology." Gallatin was born on January 1761, in Geneva. His parents were Jean's wife, Sophie Albertine Rollaz. Gallatin's family had great influence in the Republic of Geneva, many family members held distinguished positions in the magistracy and the military. Jean Gallatin, a prosperous merchant, died in 1765, followed by Sophie in April 1770.
Now orphaned, Gallatin was taken into the care of Mademoiselle Pictet, a family friend and distant relative of Gallatin's father. In January 1773, Gallatin was sent to study at the elite Academy of Geneva. While attending the academy, Gallatin read in philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, along with the French Physiocrats. A student of the Enlightenment, he believed in human nature and that when free from social restrictions, it would display noble qualities and greater results, in both the physical and the moral world; the democratic spirit of the United States attracted he decided to emigrate. In April 1780, Gallatin secretly left Geneva with his classmate Henri Serre. Carrying letters of recommendation from eminent Americans that the Gallatin family procured, the young men left France in May, sailing on an American ship, "the Kattie", they reached Cape Ann on July 14 and arrived in Boston the next day, traveling the intervening thirty miles by horseback. Bored with monotonous Bostonian life and Serre set sail with a Swiss female companion to the settlement of Machias, located on the northeastern tip of the Maine frontier.
At Machias, Gallatin operated a bartering venture, in which he dealt with a variety of goods and supplies. He enjoyed the natural environment surrounding him. Gallatin and Serre returned to Boston in October 1781 after abandoning their bartering venture in Machias. Friends of Pictet, who had learned that Gallatin had traveled to the United States, convinced Harvard College to employ Gallatin as a French tutor. Gallatin disliked living in New England, instead preferring to become a farmer in the Trans-Appalachian West, which at that point was the frontier of American settlement, he became the interpreter and business partner of a French land speculator, Jean Savary, traveled throughout various parts of the United States in order to purchase undeveloped Western lands. In 1785, he became an American citizen. Gallatin inherited a significant sum of money the following year, he used that money to purchase a 400-acre plot of land in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, he built. Gallatin co-founded a company designed to attract Swiss settlers to the United States, but the company proved unable to attract many settlers.
In 1789, Gallatin married Sophie Allegre, the daughter of a Richmond boardinghouse owner, but Allegre died just five months i
George M. Dallas
George Mifflin Dallas was an American politician and diplomat who served as mayor of Philadelphia from 1828 to 1829 and as the 11th vice president of the United States from 1845 to 1849. The son of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas, George Dallas attended elite preparatory schools before embarking on a legal career, he served as the private secretary to Albert Gallatin and worked for the Treasury Department and the Second Bank of the United States. He emerged as a leader of the "Family party" faction of the Pennsylvania Democratic Party, Dallas developed a rivalry with James Buchanan, the leader of the "Amalgamator" faction. Between 1828 and 1835, he served as the mayor of Philadelphia, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania Attorney General, he represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate from 1831 to 1833 but declined to seek re-election. President Martin Van Buren appointed Dallas to the post of Minister to Russia, Dallas held that position from 1837 to 1839.
Dallas supported Van Buren's bid for another term in the 1844 presidential election, but James K. Polk won the party's presidential nomination; the 1844 Democratic National Convention nominated Dallas as Polk's running mate, Polk and Dallas defeated the Whig ticket in the general election. A supporter of expansion and popular sovereignty, Dallas called for the annexation of all of Mexico during the Mexican–American War, he sought to position himself for contention in the 1848 presidential election, but his vote to lower the tariff destroyed his base of support in his home state. Dallas served as the ambassador to Britain from 1856 to 1861 before retiring from public office. George Mifflin Dallas was born on July 10, 1792, to Alexander James Dallas and Arabella Maria Smith Dallas in Philadelphia, his father, born in Kingston and educated in Edinburgh, was the Secretary of the Treasury under United States President James Madison, was briefly the Secretary of War. George Dallas was given his middle name after Thomas Mifflin, another politician, good friends with his father.
Dallas was the second of six children, another of whom, would become the commander of Pensacola Navy Yard. During Dallas's childhood, the family lived in a mansion on Fourth Street, with a second home in the countryside, situated on the Schuylkill River, he was educated at Quaker-run preparatory schools, before studying at the College of New Jersey, from which he graduated with highest honors in 1810. While at College, he participated in several activities, including the American Whig–Cliosophic Society. Afterwards, he studied law, was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1813; as a new graduate, Dallas had little enthusiasm for legal practice. Just after this, Dallas accepted an offer to be the private secretary of Albert Gallatin, he went to Russia with Gallatin, sent there to try to secure its aid in peace negotiations between Great Britain and the United States. Dallas enjoyed the opportunities offered to him by being in Russia, but after six months there he was ordered to go to London to determine whether the War of 1812 could be resolved diplomatically.
In August 1814, he arrived in Washington, D. C. and delivered a preliminary draft of Britain's peace terms. There, he was appointed by James Madison to become the remitter of the treasury, considered a "convenient arrangement" because Dallas's father was serving at the time as that department's secretary. Since the job did not entail a large workload, Dallas found time to develop his grasp of politics, his major vocational interest, he became the counsel to the Second Bank of the United States. In 1817, Dallas's father died, ending Dallas's plan for a family law practice, he stopped working for the Second Bank of the United States and became the deputy attorney general of Philadelphia, a position he held until 1820. After the War of 1812 ended, Pennsylvania's political climate was chaotic, with two factions in that state's Democratic party vying for control. One, the Philadelphia-based "Family party", was led by Dallas, it espoused the beliefs that the Constitution of the United States was supreme, that an energetic national government should exist that would implement protective tariffs, a powerful central banking system, undertake internal improvements to the country in order to facilitate national commerce.
The other faction was called the "Amalgamators", headed by the future President James Buchanan. Voters elected Dallas mayor of Philadelphia as the candidate of the Family party, after the party had gained control of the city councils. However, he grew bored of that post, became the United States attorney for the eastern district of Pennsylvania in 1829, a position his father had held from 1801 to 1814, continued in that role until 1831. In December of that year, he won a five-man, eleven-ballot contest in the state legislature, that enabled him to become the Senator from Pennsylvania in order to complete the unexpired term of the previous senator who had resigned. Dallas served less than fifteen months—from December 13, 1831, to March 3, 1833, he was chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs. Dallas declined to seek re-election, in part due to a fight over the Second Bank of the United States, in part because his wife did not want to leave Philadelphia for Washington. Dallas resumed the practice of law, was attorney general of Pennsylvania from 1833 to 1835, was initiated to the Scottish Rite Freemasonry at the Franklin Lodge #134, served as the Grand Master of Freemasons in Pennsylvania in 1835.
He was appointed by Pr
15th United States Congress
The Fifteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in the Old Brick Capitol in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1817, to March 4, 1819, during the first two years of James Monroe's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Third Census of the United States in 1810. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority. March 4, 1817: James Monroe became President of the United States July 4, 1817: Construction on the Erie Canal began November 20, 1817: The first Seminole War began in Florida January 2, 1819: The Panic of 1819, the first major financial crisis in the United States, began. February 2, 1819: Dartmouth College v. Woodward: Supreme Court allowed Dartmouth to keep its charter and remain a private institution. April 4, 1818: Flag Act of 1818, Sess. 1, ch. 34, 3 Stat. 415 April 29, 1817: Rush–Bagot Treaty signed between the U.
S. and the United Kingdom October 20, 1818: Treaty of 1818 between the U. S. and the United Kingdom established the northern boundary as the 49th parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains creating the Northwest Angle. February 22, 1819: Adams-Onís Treaty: Spain ceded Florida to the United States August 15, 1817: Alabama Territory created by splitting the Mississippi Territory December 10, 1817: Mississippi admitted as the 20th state December 3, 1818: Illinois admitted as the 21st state The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. During this congress, two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Mississippi and Illinois. During this congress, one House seat was added for each of the new states of Mississippi and Illinois. President: Daniel D. Tompkins President pro tempore: John Gaillard, elected March 4, 1817 James Barbour, elected February 15, 1819 Speaker: Henry Clay This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed by class and Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1820; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Lists of committees and their party leaders. Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce and Manufactures District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Indian Title to Certain Lands Judiciary Military Affairs Militia Mississippi's Admission to the Union Naval Affairs Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Public Lands Seminole War Slave Trade Whole Accounts Alabama's Admission to the Union Arkansas Territory Bank of the United States Claims Commerce and Manufactures District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Pensions and Revolutionary War Claims Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Rules Standards of Official Conduct Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Architect of the Capitol: Benjamin H. Latrobe, resigned November 20, 1817 Charles Bulfinch, appointed January 8, 1818 Librarian of Congress: George Watterston Chaplain: Sereno Edwards Dwight, Congregationalist, elected December 16, 1816 William D. Hawley, elected December 9, 1817 John Clark, elected November 19, 1818 Secretary: Charles Cutts Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly Chaplain: Burgess Allison Clerk: Thomas Dougherty Doorkeeper: Thomas Claxton Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Thomas Dunn United States elections, 1816 United States presidential election, 1816 United States Senate elections, 1816 and 1817 United States House of Representatives elections, 1816 and 1817 United States elections, 1818 United States Senate elections, 1818 and 1819 United States House of Representatives elections, 1818 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
John Scott (Pennsylvania politician, born 1824)
John Scott was an American lawyer and Republican party politician. He served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate. Born in Alexandria, Huntingdon County, John Scott attended Marshall College in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, he practiced law in Huntingdon from 1846 to 1869. He was a prosecuting attorney from 1846 to 1849, he was a member of the revenue commission in 1851. He was a member of the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives in 1862. Scott was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate in 1869, in 1870 convened a Congressional Inquiry into the atrocities of the Ku Klux Klan, but was not a candidate for reelection in 1875, he served as Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Claims during the Forty-third Congress. He moved to Pittsburgh in 1875, served as general counsel of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1875 to 1877 and general solicitor from 1877 to 1895. John Scott's father named John Scott, served in the U.
S. House. Scott's mother Agnes is the namesake of Agnes Scott College in Decatur Georgia, he died on November 29, 1896 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and is interred at The Woodlands Cemetery. United States Congress. "John Scott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John Scott collection of letters Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania