A decorticator is a machine for stripping the skin, bark, or rind off nuts, plant stalks, etc. in preparation for further processing. In 1861, a farmer named Bernagozzi from Bologna manufactured a machine called a"scavezzatrice", a decorticator for hemp. A working hemp decorticator from 1890, manufactured in Germany, is preserved in a museum in Bologna. Misconceptions about early versions of the device include the suggestion that the first working hemp decorticator was invented in the United States in 1935. In 1916, there were five different kinds of "machine brakes" for hemp in use in the United States, still others in Europe. In Italy, the"scavezzatrice" faded in the 1950s because of monopolisation from fossil fuel, paper interests, synthetic materials and from other less profitable crops. Many types of decorticators have been developed since 1890. In 1919, George Schlichten received a U. S. patent on his improvements of the decorticator for treating fiber bearing plants. Schlichten failed to find investors for production of his decorticator and died in 1923, a broken man.
Newer, high-speed kinematic decorticators, use a different mechanism, enabling separation into three streams. In some decorticators, the operation is "semi-automatic", featuring several stops during operation, while more modern systems, such as high-speed kinematic decorticators, are automatic. There are companies who produce and sell decorticators for different crops
The internal capsule is a white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain. It carries information past the basal ganglia, separating the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the putamen and the globus pallidus; the internal capsule contains both ascending and descending axons, going to and coming from the cerebral cortex. It separates the caudate nucleus and the putamen in the dorsal striatum, a brain region involved in motor and reward pathways; the corticospinal tract constitutes a large part of the internal capsule, carrying motor information from the primary motor cortex to the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Above the basal ganglia the corticospinal tract is a part of the corona radiata, below the basal ganglia the tract is called cerebral crus and below the pons it is referred to as the corticospinal tract; the internal capsule consists of three parts and is V-shaped when cut horizontally, in a transverse plane. The bend in the V is called the genu the anterior limb or crus anterius is the part in front of the genu, between the head of the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus the posterior limb or crus posterius is the part behind the genu, between the thalamus and lenticular nucleus the retrolenticular portion is caudal to the lenticular nucleus and carries the optic radiation known as the geniculocalcarine tract the sublenticular portion is beneath the lenticular nucleus and are tracts involved in the auditory pathway from the medial geniculate nucleus to the primary auditory cortex The genu is the flexure of the internal capsule.
It is formed by fibers from the corticonuclear tracts. The fibers in this region are named the geniculate fibers, it contains the corticobulbar tract, which carries upper motor neurons from the motor cortex to cranial nerve nuclei that govern motion of striated muscle in the head and face. The anterior limb of internal capsule contains: fibers running from the thalamus to the frontal lobe fibers connecting the lentiform and caudate nuclei fibers connecting the cortex with the corpus striatum fibers passing from the frontal lobe through the medial fifth of the base of the cerebral peduncle to the nuclei pontis thalami pontine fibers The posterior limb of internal capsule is the portion of the internal capsule posterior to the genu; the anterior two-thirds of the occipital part of the internal capsule contains fibers of the corticospinal tract, which arise in the motor area of the cerebral cortex and, passing downward through the middle three-fifths of the base of the cerebral peduncle, are continued into the pyramids of the medulla oblongata.
The posterior third of the occipital part contains: sensory fibers derived from the thalamus, though some may be continued upward from the medial lemniscus the fibers of optic radiation, from the lower visual centers to the cortex of the occipital lobe. The inferior half of the anterior limb is supplied via the recurrent artery of Heubner, a branch of the anterior cerebral artery; the inferior half of the posterior limb is supplied by the anterior choroidal artery, a branch of the internal carotid artery. In summary, the blood supply of the internal capsule is Anterior limb: lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery and recurrent artery of Heubner of the anterior cerebral artery Genu: lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery Posterior limb: lenticulostriate branches of middle cerebral artery and anterior choroidal artery branch of the internal carotid artery As in many parts of the body, some degree of variation in the blood supply exists. For example, thalamoperforator arteries, which are branches of the basilar artery supply the inferior half of the posterior limb.
Working anterior to posterior: The anterior limb of the internal capsule contains:1) Frontopontine fibers project from frontal cortex to the pons. The genu contains corticobulbar fibers, which run between the brainstem; the posterior limb of the internal capsule contains corticospinal fibers, sensory fibers from the body and a few corticobulbar fibers. Other fibers within the internal capsule The retrolenticular part contains fibers from the optic system, coming from the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. More posteriorly, this becomes the optic radiation; some fibers from the medial geniculate nucleus pass in the retrolenticular internal capsule, but most are in the sublenticular part. The sublenticular part contains fibers connecting with the temporal lobe; these include the auditory radiations and temporopontine fibers. The lenticulostriate arteries supply a substantial amount of the internal capsule; these small vessels are vulnerable to narrowing in the setting of chronic hypertension and can result in small, punctate infarctions or intraparenchym
The cerebellum is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. Although smaller than the cerebrum, in some animals such as the mormyrid fishes it may be as large as or larger. In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control, it may be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium and motor learning in humans. Anatomically, the human cerebellum has the appearance of a separate structure attached to the bottom of the brain, tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres, its cortical surface is covered with finely spaced parallel grooves, in striking contrast to the broad irregular convolutions of the cerebral cortex.
These parallel grooves conceal the fact that the cerebellar cortex is a continuous thin layer of tissue folded in the style of an accordion. Within this thin layer are several types of neurons with a regular arrangement, the most important being Purkinje cells and granule cells; this complex neural organization gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability, but all of the output from the cerebellar cortex passes through a set of small deep nuclei lying in the white matter interior of the cerebellum. In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain sensorimotor calibration in terms of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum; these models derive from those formulated by David Marr and James Albus, based on the observation that each cerebellar Purkinje cell receives two different types of input: one comprises thousands of weak inputs from the parallel fibers of the granule cells.
The basic concept of the Marr–Albus theory is that the climbing fiber serves as a "teaching signal", which induces a long-lasting change in the strength of parallel fiber inputs. Observations of long-term depression in parallel fiber inputs have provided support for theories of this type, but their validity remains controversial. At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a folded layer of cortex, with white matter underneath and a fluid-filled ventricle at the base. Four deep cerebellar nuclei are embedded in the white matter; each part of the cortex consists of the same small set of neuronal elements, laid out in a stereotyped geometry. At an intermediate level, the cerebellum and its auxiliary structures can be separated into several hundred or thousand independently functioning modules called "microzones" or "microcompartments"; the cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa. The fourth ventricle and medulla are in front of the cerebellum, it is separated from the overlying cerebrum by a layer of leathery dura mater, the tentorium cerebelli.
Anatomists classify the cerebellum as part of the metencephalon, which includes the pons. Like the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum is divided into two hemispheres. A set of large folds is, by convention, used to divide the overall structure into 10 smaller "lobules"; because of its large number of tiny granule cells, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the total from the rest of the brain, but takes up only 10% of the total brain volume. The number of neurons in the cerebellum is related to the number of neurons in the neocortex. There are about 3.6 times as many neurons in the cerebellum as in the neocortex, a ratio, conserved across many different mammalian species. The unusual surface appearance of the cerebellum conceals the fact that most of its volume is made up of a tightly folded layer of gray matter: the cerebellar cortex; each ridge or gyrus in this layer is called a folium. It is estimated that, if the human cerebellar cortex were unfolded, it would give rise to a layer of neural tissue about 1 meter long and averaging 5 centimeters wide—a total surface area of about 500 square cm, packed within a volume of dimensions 6 cm × 5 cm × 10 cm.
Underneath the gray matter of the cortex lies white matter, made up of myelinated nerve fibers running to and from the cortex. Embedded within the white matter—which is sometimes called the arbor vitae because of its branched, tree-like appearance in cross-section—are four deep cerebellar nuclei, composed of gray matter. Connecting the cerebellum to different parts of the nervous system are three paired cerebellar peduncles; these are the superior cerebellar peduncle, the middle cerebellar peduncle and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, named by their position relative to the vermis. The superior cerebellar peduncle is an output to the cerebral cortex, carrying efferent fibers via thalamic nuclei to upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex; the fibers arise from the deep cerebellar nuclei. The middle cerebellar peduncle is connected to the pons and receives all of its input from the pons from the pontine nuclei; the input to the pons is from the cerebral cortex and is relayed from the pontine nuclei via transverse pontine fibers to the cerebellum
A motor neuron is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, whose axon projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs muscles and glands. There are two types of motor neuron -- lower motor neurons. Axons from upper motor neurons synapse onto interneurons in the spinal cord and directly onto lower motor neurons; the axons from the lower motor neurons are efferent nerve fibers that carry signals from the spinal cord to the effectors. Types of lower motor neurons are alpha motor neurons, beta motor neurons, gamma motor neurons. A single motor neuron may innervate many muscle fibres and a muscle fibre can undergo many action potentials in the time taken for a single muscle twitch; as a result, if an action potential arrives before a twitch has completed, the twitches can superimpose on one another, either through summation or a tetanic contraction. In summation, the muscle is stimulated repetitively such that additional action potentials coming from the somatic nervous system arrive before the end of the twitch.
The twitches thus superimpose on one another, leading to a force greater than that of a single twitch. A tetanic contraction is caused by constant high frequency stimulation - the action potentials come at such a rapid rate that individual twitches are indistinguishable, tension rises smoothly reaching a plateau. Motor neurons begin to develop early in embryonic development, motor function continues to develop well into childhood. In the neural tube cells are specified to either ventral-dorsal axis; the axons of motor neurons begin to appear in the fourth week of development from the ventral region of the ventral-dorsal axis. This homeodomain is known as the motor neural progenitor domain. Transcription factors here include Pax6, OLIG2, Nkx-6.1, Nkx-6.2, which are regulated by sonic hedgehog. The OLIG2 gene being the most important due to its role in promoting Ngn2 expression, a gene that causes cell cycle exiting as well as promoting further transcription factors associated with motor neuron development.
Further specification of motor neurons occurs when retinoic acid, fibroblast growth factor, TGFb, are integrated into the various Hox transcription factors. There are 13 Hox transcription factors and along with the signals, determine whether a motor neuron will be more rostral or caudal in character. In the spinal column, Hox 4-11 sort motor neurons to one of the five motor columns. Upper motor neurons originate in the motor cortex located in the precentral gyrus; the cells that make up the primary motor cortex are Betz cells. The axons of these cells descend from the cortex to form the corticospinal tract. Corticomotorneurons are neurons in the primary cortex which project directly to motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Axons of corticomotorneurons terminate on the spinal motor neurons of multiple muscles as well as on spinal interneurons, they are unique to primates and it has been suggested that their function is the adaptive control of the distal extremities including the independent control of individual fingers.
Corticomotorneurons have so far only been found in the primary motor cortex and not in secondary motor areas. Nerve tracts are bundles of axons as white matter. In the spinal cord these descending tracts carry impulses from different regions; these tracts serve as the place of origin for lower motor neurons. There are seven major descending motor tracts to be found in the spinal cord: Lateral corticospinal tract Rubrospinal tract Lateral reticulospinal tract Vestibulospinal tract Medial reticulospinal tract Tectospinal tract Anterior corticospinal tract Lower motor neurons are those that originate in the spinal cord and directly or indirectly innervate effector targets; the target of these neurons varies, but in the somatic nervous system the target will be some sort of muscle fiber. There are three primary categories lower motor neurons, which can be further divided in sub-categories. According to their targets, motor neurons are classified into three broad categories: Somatic motor neurons Special visceral motor neurons General visceral motor neurons Somatic motor neurons originate in the central nervous system, project their axons to skeletal muscles, which are involved in locomotion.
The three types of these neurons are the alpha efferent neurons, beta efferent neurons, gamma efferent neurons. They are called efferent to indicate the flow of information from the central nervous system to the periphery. Alpha motor neurons innervate extrafusal muscle fibers, which are the main force-generating component of a muscle, their cell bodies are in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and they are sometimes called ventral horn cells. A single motor neuron may synapse with 150 muscle fibers on average; the motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers to which it connects is a motor unit. Motor units are split up into 3 categories: Main Article: Motor Unit Slow motor units stimulate small muscle fibers, which contract slowly and provide small amounts of energy but are resistant to fatigue, so they are used to sustain muscular contraction, such as keeping the body upright, they gain their energy via oxidative hence require oxygen. They are called red fibers. Fast fatiguing motor units stimulate larger muscle groups, which apply large amounts of force but fatigue quickly.
They are used for tasks that require large brief bursts on energy, such as jumping or
The vertebrate cerebrum is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres; each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter, the cerebral cortex, supported by an inner layer of white matter. In eutherian mammals, the hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a large bundle of nerve fibers. Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure and the fornix join the hemispheres and these are present in other vertebrates; these commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. There are three known poles of the cerebral hemispheres: the occipital pole, the frontal pole, the temporal pole; the central sulcus is a prominent fissure which separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. Macroscopically the hemispheres are mirror images of each other, with only subtle differences, such as the Yakovlevian torque seen in the human brain, a slight warping of the right side, bringing it just forward of the left side.
On a microscopic level, the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, shows the functions of cells, quantities of neurotransmitter levels and receptor subtypes to be markedly asymmetrical between the hemispheres. However, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species; each cerebral hemisphere has an outer layer of cerebral cortex, of grey matter and in the interior of the cerebral hemispheres is an inner layer or core of white matter known as the centrum semiovale. The interior portion of the hemispheres of the cerebrum includes the lateral ventricles, the basal nuclei, the white matter. There are three poles of the cerebrum, the occipital pole, the frontal pole, the temporal pole. If the upper part of either hemisphere be removed, at a level about 1.25 cm above the corpus callosum, the central white matter will be exposed as an oval-shaped area, the centrum ovale minus, surrounded by a narrow convoluted margin of gray substance, studded with numerous minute red dots, produced by the escape of blood from divided bloodvessels.
If the remaining portions of the hemispheres be drawn apart a broad band of white substance, the corpus callosum, will be observed, connecting them at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure. Each labium is part of the cingulate gyrus described. If the hemispheres be sliced off to a level with the upper surface of the corpus callosum, the white substance of that structure will be seen connecting the two hemispheres; the large expanse of medullary matter now exposed, surrounded by the convoluted margin of gray substance, is called the centrum ovale majus. The blood supply to the centrum ovale is from the superficial middle cerebral artery; the cortical branches of this artery descend to provide blood to the centrum ovale. The cerebral hemispheres are derived from the telencephalon, they arise five weeks after conception as bilateral invaginations of the walls. The hemispheres grow round in a C-shape and back again, pulling all structures internal to the hemispheres with them; the intraventricular foramina allows communication with the lateral ventricles.
The choroid plexus is formed from vascular mesenchyme. Broad generalizations are made in popular psychology about certain functions being lateralized, that is, located in the right or left side of the brain; these claims are inaccurate, as most brain functions are distributed across both hemispheres. Most scientific evidence for asymmetry relates to low-level perceptual functions rather than the higher-level functions popularly discussed. In addition to this lateralization of some functions, the low-level representations tend to represent the contralateral side of the body; the best example of an established lateralization is that of Broca's and Wernicke's Areas where both are found on the left hemisphere. These areas correspond to handedness however, meaning the localization of these areas is found on the hemisphere opposite to the dominant hand. Function lateralization such as semantics, intonation, prosody, etc. has since been called into question and been found to have a neuronal basis in both hemispheres.
Perceptual information is processed in both hemispheres, but is laterally partitioned: information from each side of the body is sent to the opposite hemisphere. Motor control signals sent out to the body come from the hemisphere on the opposite side. Thus, hand preference is related to hemisphere lateralization. In some aspects, the hemispheres are asymmetrical. There are higher levels of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine on the right and higher levels of dopamine on the left. There is more white matter on the more grey matter on the left. Linear reasoning functions of language such as grammar and word production are late
Acquired brain injury
Acquired brain injury is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia. ABI can result in cognitive, emotional, or behavioural impairments that lead to permanent or temporary changes in functioning; these impairments result from either traumatic brain injury or nontraumatic injury derived from either an internal or external source. ABI does not include damage to the brain resulting from neurodegenerative disorders. While research has demonstrated that thinking and behavior may be altered in all forms of ABI, brain injury is itself a complex phenomenon having varied effects. No two persons can expect resulting difficulties; the brain controls every part of human life: physical, behavioral and emotional. When the brain is damaged, some part of a person's life will be adversely affected. Consequences of ABI require a major life adjustment around the person's new circumstances, making that adjustment is a critical factor in recovery and rehabilitation.
While the outcome of a given injury depends upon the nature and severity of the injury itself, appropriate treatment plays a vital role in determining the level of recovery. ABI has been associated with a number of emotional difficulties such as depression, issues with self-control, managing anger impulses and challenges with problem-solving, these challenges contribute to psychosocial concerns involving social anxiety and lower levels of self esteem; these psychosocial problems have been found to contribute to other dilemmas such as reduced frequency of social contact and leisure activities, family problems and marital difficulties. How the patient copes with the injury has been found to influence the level at which they experience the emotional complications correlated with ABI. Three coping strategies for emotions related to ABI have presented themselves in the research, approach-oriented coping, passive coping and avoidant coping. Approach-oriented coping has been found to be the most effective strategy, as it has been negatively correlated with rates of apathy and depression in ABI patients.
Passive coping has been characterized by the person choosing not to express emotions and a lack of motivation which can lead to poor outcomes for the individual. Increased levels of depression have been correlated to avoidance coping methods in patients with ABI; these challenges and coping strategies should be kept in consideration when seeking to understand individuals suffering from ABI. Following acquired brain injury it is common for patients to experience memory loss. However, because some aspects of memory are directly linked to attention, it can be challenging to assess what components of a deficit are caused by memory and which are fundamentally attention problems. There is partial recovery of memory functioning following the initial recovery phase. In order to cope more efficiently with memory disorders many people with ABI use memory aids. Research has found that ABI patients use an increased number of memory aids after their injury than they did prior to it and these aids vary in their degree of effectiveness.
One popular aid is the use of a diary. Studies have found that the use of a diary is more effective if it is paired with self-instructional training, as training leads to more frequent use of the diary over time and thus more successful use as a memory aid. In children and youth with pediatric acquired brain injury the cognitive and emotional difficulties that stem from their injury can negatively impact their level of participation in home and other social situations, participation in structured events has been found to be hindered under these circumstances. Involvement in social situations is important for the normal development of children as a means of gaining an understanding of how to work together with others. Furthermore, young people with ABI are reported as having insufficient problem solving skills; this has the potential to hinder their performance in various social settings further. It is important for rehabilitation programs to deal with these challenges specific to children who have not developed at the time of their injury.
Rehabilitation following an acquired brain injury does not follow a set protocol, due to the variety of mechanisms of injury and structures affected. Rather, rehabilitation is an individualized process that will involve a multi-disciplinary approach; the rehabilitation team may include but is not limited to nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, music therapists, psychologists. Physical therapy and other professions may be utilized post- brain injury in order to control muscle tone, regain normal movement patterns, maximize functional independence. Rehabilitation should be patient-centered an
The fencing response is a peculiar position of the arms following a concussion. After moderate forces have been applied to the brainstem, the forearms are held flexed or extended for a period lasting up to several seconds after the impact; the fencing response is observed during athletic competition involving contact, such as American football, rugby, rugby league, Australian rules football and combat sports. It is used as an overt indicator of injury force magnitude and midbrain localization to aid in injury identification and classification for events including on-field and/or bystander observations of sports-related head injuries; the fencing response designation arises from the similarity to the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex in infants. Like the reflex, a positive fencing response resembles the en garde position that initiates a fencing bout, with the extension of one arm and the flexion of the other. Tonic posturing preceding convulsion has been observed in sports injuries at the moment of impact where extension and flexion of opposite arms occur despite body position or gravity.
The fencing response emerges from the separation of tonic posturing from convulsion and refines the tonic posturing phase as an immediate forearm motor response to indicate injury force magnitude and location. The neuromotor manifestation of the fencing response resembles reflexes initiated by vestibular stimuli. Vestibular stimuli activate primitive reflexes in human infants, such as the asymmetric tonic neck reflex, Moro reflex, parachute reflex, which are mediated by vestibular nuclei in the brainstem; the lateral vestibular nucleus has descending efferent fibers in the vestibulocochlear nerve distributed to the motor nuclei of the anterior column and exerts an excitatory influence on ipsilateral limb extensor motoneurons while suppressing flexor motoneurons. The anatomical location of the LVN, adjacent to the cerebellar peduncles, suggests that mechanical forces to the head may stretch the cerebellar peduncles and activate the LVN. LVN activity would manifest as limb extensor activation and flexor inhibition, defined as a fencing response, while flexion of the contralateral limb is mediated by crossed inhibition necessary for pattern generation.
In simpler terms, the shock of the trauma manually activates the nerves that control the muscle groups responsible for raising the arm. In a survey of documented head injuries followed by unconsciousness, most of which involved sporting activities, two thirds of head impacts demonstrated a fencing response, indicating a high incidence of fencing in head injuries leading to unconsciousness, those pertaining to athletic behavior. Animal models of diffuse brain injury have illustrated a fencing response upon injury at moderate but not mild levels of severity as well as a correlation between fencing, blood brain barrier disruption, nuclear shrinkage within the LVN, all of which indicates diagnostic utility of the response; the most challenging aspect to managing sport-related concussion is recognizing the injury. Consensus conferences have worked toward objective criteria to identify mild TBI in the context of severe TBI. However, few tools are available for distinguishing mild TBI from moderate TBI.
As a result, greater emphasis has been placed on the management of concussions in athletes than on the immediate identification and treatment of such an injury. On-field predictors of injury severity can define return-to-play guidelines and urgency of care, but past criteria have either lacked sufficient incidence for effective utility, did not directly address the severity of the injury, or have become cumbersome and fraught with interrater reliability issues. By providing a clear, discernible physiological event upon injury, the fencing response can discern moderate brain injury forces from milder forces, providing an additional criterion by which the identification and classification of concussions can be improved, with immediate application to sport-related on-field diagnoses and decisions affecting return-to-play status for athletes, thereby facilitating the transition from diagnosis to the treatment of any post-concussion symptoms; the fencing response may have the potential to indicate traumatic brain injury for soldiers in military settings with regard to blast injury and subsequent shell shock.
There are no studies or data to determine the utility of the fencing response in such an arena. Increased awareness of clinical significance on behalf of the bystander is critical to the utility of the fencing response designation. Therefore, notable fencing displays are listed below in order to aid the bystander in identifying the various physical manifestations of the fencing response as well as demonstrating the prevalence of such a response in popular sporting and social events. Dennis Milton, professional boxer: following a punch to the head by Julian Jackson on September 14, 1991. Jahvid Best, NCAA college football running back for the California Golden Bears: Oregon State vs. California, November 7, 2009 Austin Collie, professional American football wide receiver for the Indianapolis Colts: Indianapolis vs. Philadelphia, November 8, 2010 Denarius Moore, NCAA college football wide receiver for the Tennessee Volunteers: Tennessee vs. Alabama, October 23, 2010 James Rodgers, NCAA college football wide receiver for the Oregon State Beavers: Oregon State vs. Boise State, September 25, 2010 Kenny Shaw, NCAA college football wide receiver for Florida State: Oklahoma vs.
Florida State, September 17, 2011 Justin McBride, professional bull rider: 2007 Glendale PBR Ulf Samuelsson, professional hockey player: following a punch to th