Prince Yamagata Aritomo known as Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a Japanese field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the political foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism. Yamagata was born in a lower-ranked samurai family from Hagi, the capital of the feudal domain of Chōshū, he went to Shokasonjuku, a private school run by Yoshida Shōin, where he devoted his energies to the growing underground movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate. He was a commander in the Kiheitai, a paramilitary organization created on semi-western lines by the Chōshū domain. During the Boshin War, the revolution of 1867 and 1868 called the Meiji Restoration, he was a staff officer. After the defeat of the Tokugawa, Yamagata together with Saigō Tsugumichi was selected by the leaders of the new government to go to Europe in 1869 to research European military systems. Yamagata like many Japanese was influenced by the striking success of Prussia in transforming itself from an agricultural state to a leading industrial and military power.
He accepted Prussian political ideas, which favored military expansion abroad and authoritarian government at home. On returning he was asked to organize a national army for Japan, he became War Minister in 1873. Yamagata energetically modernized the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army, modeled it after the Prussian Army, he began a system of military conscription in 1873. As War Minister, Yamagata pushed through the foundation of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, the main source of Yamagata's political power and that of other military officers through the end of World War I, he was Chief of the Army General Staff in 1878–1882, 1884–85 and 1904-1905. Yamagata in 1877 led the newly modernized Imperial Army against the Satsuma Rebellion led by his former comrade in revolution, Saigō Takamori of Satsuma. At the end of the war, when Saigo's severed head was brought to Yamagata, he ordered it washed, held the head in his arms as he pronounced a meditation on the fallen hero, he prompted Emperor Meiji to write the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, in 1882.
This document was considered the moral core of the Japanese Army and Naval forces until their dissolution in 1945. Yamagata was awarded the rank of field marshal in 1898, he showed his leadership on military issues as acting War Minister and Commanding General during the First Sino-Japanese War. He was the political and military ideological ancestor of the Hokushin-ron as he traced the first lines of a national defensive strategy against Russia after Russo-Japanese War. Yamagata was one of the group of seven political leaders called the genrō, who came to dominate the government of Japan; the word can be translated senior statesmen. The genrō were a subset of the revolutionary leaders who shared common objectives and who by about 1880 had forced out or isolated the other original leaders; these seven men led Japan for many years, through its great transformation from an agricultural country into a modern military and industrial state. All the genrō served at various times as cabinet ministers, most were at times prime minister.
As a body, the genrō had no official status, they were trusted advisers to the Emperor. Yet the genrō made collectively the most important decisions, such as peace and war and foreign policy, when a cabinet resigned they chose the new prime minister. In the twentieth century their power diminished because of deaths and quarrels among themselves, the growing political power of the Army and Navy, but the genrō clung to the power of naming prime ministers up to the death of the last genrō Prince Saionji in 1940. Yamagata and Itō Hirobumi were long the most prominent of the seven, after the assassination of Itō in 1909, Yamagata dominated the genrō, but Yamagata held a large and devoted power base in the officers of the army and the militarists. He became the towering leader of Japanese conservatives, he profoundly distrusted all democratic institutions, he devoted the part of his life to building and defending the power the political power, of the army. During his long and versatile career, Yamagata held numerous important governmental posts.
In 1882, he became president of the Board of Legislation and as Home Minister he worked vigorously to suppress political parties and repress agitation in the labor and agrarian movements. He organized a system of local administration, based on a prefecture-county-city structure, still in use in Japan today. In 1883 Yamagata was appointed to the post of Lord Chancellor, the highest bureaucratic position in the government system before the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Yamagata became the third Prime Minister of Japan after the creation of the Cabinet of Japan from December 24, 1889 to May 6, 1891, he became the first prime minister who had to share power with a partially-elected Imperial Diet under the Meiji Constitution that took effect in 1890. During his first term, the Imperial Rescript on Education was issued. In order to pass a budget for fiscal 1891, he had to negotiate with a liberal majority in the House of Representatives, the elected lower house of the Diet. Yamagata became Prime Minister for a second term from November 8, 1898 to October 19, 1900.
In 1900, while in his second term as Prime Minister, he ruled that only an active military officer could serve
The Iwakura Mission or Iwakura Embassy was a Japanese diplomatic voyage to the United States and Europe conducted between 1871 and 1873 by leading statesmen and scholars of the Meiji period. Although it was not the only such mission, it is the most well-known and most significant in terms of its impact on the modernization of Japan after a long period of isolation from the West; the mission was first proposed by the influential Dutch missionary and engineer Guido Verbeck, based to some degree on the model of the Grand Embassy of Peter I. The aim of the mission was threefold; the Iwakura mission followed several such missions sent by the Shogunate, such as the Japanese Embassy to the United States in 1860, the First Japanese Embassy to Europe in 1862, the Second Japanese Embassy to Europe in 1863. The mission was named after and headed by Iwakura Tomomi in the role of extraordinary and plenipotentiary ambassador, assisted by four vice-ambassadors, three of whom were ministers in the Japanese government.
The historian Kume Kunitake as private secretary to Iwakura Tomomi, was the official diarist of the journey. The log of the expedition published in 1878 in five volumes as Tokumei Zenken Taishi Bei-O Kairan Jikki, provided a detailed account of Japanese observations on the United States and industrializing Western Europe. Included in the mission were a number of administrators and scholars, totaling 48 people. In addition to the mission staff, about 53 students and attendants joined the outward voyage from Yokohama. Several of the students were left behind to complete their education in the foreign countries, including five young women who stayed in the United States to study, including the 6-year old Tsuda Umeko, who after returning to Japan, founded the Joshi Eigaku Juku in 1900, Nagai Shigeko Baroness Uryū Shigeko, as well as Yamakawa Sutematsu Princess Ōyama Sutematsu. Kaneko Kentarō was left in the U. S. too, as a student. In 1890 he was introduced to Theodore Roosevelt, they became friends and their relationship resulted in Roosevelt's mediation at the end of the Russo-Japanese War and the Treaty of Portsmouth.
Makino Nobuaki, a student member of the mission was to remark in his memoirs: Together with the abolition of the han system, dispatching the Iwakura Mission to America and Europe must be cited as the most important events that built the foundation of our state after the Restoration. Nakae Chōmin, a member of the mission staff and the Ministry of Justice, stayed in France to study the French legal system with the radical republican Emile Acollas, he became a journalist and translator and introduced French thinkers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau to Japan. On 23 December 1871 the mission sailed from Yokohama on the SS America, bound for San Francisco. Arriving in San Francisco on 15 January 1872, the group travelled by train via Salt Lake City and Chicago reaching Washington, D. C. on 29 February. The mission's stay in the United States was extended with an attempt to negotiate new treaty rights, a task that necessitated two members of the party to return to Japan to obtain necessary letters of representation.
Members of the Iwakura Mission were keenly interested in observing schools and learning more about educational policy. Tours to schools and industrial locations in Boston, New York and Washington DC were made as a result. Unsuccessful in their attempts to renegotiate the existing unequal treaties the party set sail for the United Kingdom in August 1872. On 17 August 1872 the Iwakura Mission arrived at Liverpool on the Cunard steamer Olympus. Traveling to London via Manchester the party spent much of late August and early September in and around the capital inspecting political and military institutions, visiting the British Museum, travelling on the newly constructed London Underground and attending musical concerts at the Royal Albert Hall. After visits to the Royal dockyards at Portsmouth and a day visit to Brighton, the mission split into smaller groups to visit, among other places, Blair Atholl in the Highlands of Scotland, the Yorkshire Dales and the industrial centers of Manchester, Edinburgh, Newcastle upon Tyne and Bradford.
Iwakura Tomomi led the Manchester-Liverpool delegation. A visit that culminated on 7 October in a civic reception and banquet where toasts highlighted the leading role of the region in world manufacturing and municipal administration. In Glasgow, as guests of Lord Blantyre, the delegation stayed at Erskine House and given tours of shipbuilding and steel fabrication facilities on banks of the River Clyde. In Newcastle upon Tyne the group arrived on 21 October staying in the Royal Station Hotel where they met the industrialist Sir William Armstrong, it had been ten years since the Bakufu mission had visited the town, but as a direct result of the visit significant new export orders were obtained for ships and armaments from Tyneside factories. "The gentlemen were attired in ordinary morning costume and except for their complexion and the oriental cast of their features, they could scarcely be distinguished from their English companions." They visited the Elswick Engine and Ordnance Works with Captain Andrew Noble and George Rendell, inspected the hydraulic engines and the boring and turni
Scrip of Edo period Japan
During the Edo period, feudal domains of Japan issued scrip called hansatsu for use within the domain. This paper currency supplemented the coinage of the Tokugawa shogunate. Most scrip carried a face value in silver coinage, but gold and copper scrip circulated. In addition, some scrip was marked for exchange in kind for a commodity such as rice. In addition to those issued by the domains, forms of paper money were issued by rice brokers in Osaka and Edo. Used only as a representation of amounts of rice owned by the scrip-holder and held in the Osaka or Edo merchants' storehouse, these scrips came to be used as currency. Japan's first banknotes, called Yamada Hagaki, were issued around 1600 by Shinto priests working as merchants in the Ise-Yamada, in exchange for silver; this was earlier than the first goldsmith notes issued in England around 1640. An early issue of domain scrip took place in the Fukui domain in 1661; as early as 1610, private notes had been printed for purposes such as payment of workers on construction projects.
Domains issued scrip to supplement coins in times of shortage and to adjust the amount in circulation. They exchanged scrip for coins to improve the financial situation of the domain. By the end of the period, eight out of ten domains issued paper, as did a few daikan-sho and hatamoto. Accepting scrip always carried the risk of forfeiture. During the Edo period, the shogunate seized some domains, transferred others. Following the condemnation and death of the daimyō Asano Naganori, for example, Ōishi Yoshio, a house elder in the Akō Domain, ordered the redemption of scrip at 60% of face value. In addition, in times of financial difficulty, the domain might declare scrip void. Early in the period, domains printed their own scrip; the shogunate prohibited the use of scrip in 1707. In 1730, Tokugawa Yoshimune authorized domains to issue paper with time limits for redemption. Large domains could issue currency valid for 25 years, small domains for 15 years, his son Ieshige prohibited new issue of scrip, restricted the circulation of scrip other than that exchangeable for silver, in 1759.
Despite the prohibitions, domains in severe financial straits issued paper money. Each domain formulated its own rules about its scrip. While there were some that forbade the shogunate's coinage, many allowed both coins and scrip to circulate; as a rule, scrip circulated only within the domain that issued it. For example, paper issued by the Kishū domain in 1866 was used in Yamato, Kawachi and Harima Provinces. In 1871, the Government of Meiji Japan ordered the abolition of the han system and ordered the exchange of all scrip for the national currency. Exchange continued until 1879. In the interim, some scrip carried markings from the central government indicating the value in yen and the smaller sen and rin; this article incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia. Bank of Japan 新井政義（編集者）『日本史事典』。東京：旺文社1987 竹内理三（編）『日本史小辞典』。東京：角川書店1985 Hansatsu for 1 momme of silver at the British Museum with photo and explanation
Saigō Takamori was one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration. Living during the late Edo and early Meiji periods, he has been dubbed the last true samurai, he was born Saigō Kokichi, received the given name Takamori in adulthood. He wrote poetry under the name Saigō Nanshū, his younger brother was Gensui The Marquis Saigō Jūdō. He was born Saigō Kokichi in the Satsuma Domain on January 23, 1828, or Shiwasu 7 in the tenth year of the Bunsei era of the Japanese calendar. Saigō Takamori served as a low-ranking samurai official in his early career; the Saigō family's official status was Jōkashi but lived as Gōshi, part-warrior. Though they should have been able to live on a stipend from the fief and the daimyō, in practice, the Saigōs lived more like Gōshi and were quite poor, had debts Saigō Takamori needed 25 years to repay. Saigō Takamori was recruited to travel to Edo in 1854 to assist the daimyō of Satsuma, Shimazu Nariakira, in the Kōbu gattai movement.
Saigō's activity in Edo came to an abrupt end with the Ansei Purge by Tairō Ii Naosuke against anti-Shogunal activities, the sudden death of Shimazu Nariakira. Saigō fled back to Kagoshima, where he was banished to Amami Ōshima island, he was recalled in 1861, only to be banished again, to the more remote island of Okinoerabu, south of Amami Ōshima, by the new Satsuma daimyō Shimazu Hisamitsu. Hisamitsu pardoned Saigō in 1864 and sent him to Kyoto to handle the domain's interests towards the imperial court; when the Tokugawa bakufu sent a second punitive expedition against the Chōshū in June 1866, Satsuma remained neutral. In November 1867, Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned, returning power to the Emperor in what came to be known as the Meiji Restoration. However, Saigō was one of the most vocal and vehement opponents to the negotiated solution, demanding that the Tokugawa be stripped of their lands and special status, his intransigence was one of the major causes of the subsequent Boshin War.
During the Boshin War, Saigō led the imperial forces at the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, led the imperial army toward Edo, where he accepted the surrender of Edo Castle from Katsu Kaishū. Although Ōkubo Toshimichi and others were more active and influential in establishing the new Meiji government, Saigō retained a key role, his cooperation was essential in the abolition of the han system and the establishment of a conscript army. In 1871 he was left in charge of the caretaker government during the absence of the Iwakura Mission. Saigō disagreed with the modernization of Japan and the opening of commerce with the West, he famously opposed the construction of a railway network, insisting that money should rather be spent on military modernization. Saigō did insist, that Japan should go to war with Korea in the Seikanron debate of 1873 due to Korea's refusal to recognize the legitimacy of the Emperor Meiji as head of state of the Empire of Japan, insulting treatment meted out to Japanese envoys attempting to establish trade and diplomatic relations.
At one point, he offered to visit Korea in person and to provoke a casus belli by behaving in such an insulting manner that the Koreans would be forced to kill him. However, the other Japanese leaders opposed these plans from budgetary considerations, from realization of the weakness of Japan compared with the western countries from what they had witnessed during the Iwakura Mission. Saigō resigned from all of his government positions in protest and returned to his hometown of Kagoshima. Shortly thereafter, a private military academy was established in Kagoshima for the faithful samurai who had resigned their posts to follow him from Tokyo; these disaffected samurai came to dominate the Kagoshima government, fearing a rebellion, the government sent warships to Kagoshima to remove weapons from the Kagoshima arsenal. This provoked open conflict, although with the elimination of samurai rice stipends in 1877, tensions were extremely high. Although dismayed by the revolt, Saigō was reluctantly persuaded to lead the rebels against the central government.
During the battle, Saigō was badly injured in the hip. However, the exact manner of his death is unknown; the accounts of his subordinates claim that he stood up and committed seppuku after his injury or that he requested that the comrade Beppu Shinsuke assist his suicide. In debate, some scholars have suggested that neither is the case and that Saigō may have gone into shock following his wound, losing his ability to speak. Several comrades, upon seeing him in this state, would have severed his head, assisting him in the warrior's suicide that they knew he would have wished, they would have said that he committed seppuku to preserve his status as a true samurai. It is not clear what was done with Saigo's head after his death; some legends say Saigo's manservant hid the head, it was found by a government soldier. The head was somehow retrieved by the government forces and was reunited with Saigo's body, laid next to that of his deputies Kirino and Murata; that was witnessed by the American sea captain John Capen Hubbard.
A myth persists. Saigo's death brought the Satsuma Rebellion to an end. Details regarding Takamori's death are unknown to this day. There are no published reports by eyewitnesses. Three firsthand accounts of the condition of his body exist, it is said that he was shot in the femur he lured a sword into h
Satsuma Domain Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It is associated with the provinces of Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. In the han system, Satsuma was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. The domain was ruled from Kagoshima Castle, the core of what became the city of Kagoshima, its kokudaka was assessed at the second highest kokudaka after that of Kaga Domain. The Shimazu family controlled Satsuma province for four centuries prior to the beginning of the Edo period. Despite being chastised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his 1587 Kyūshū Campaign, forced back to Satsuma, they remained one of the most powerful clans in the archipelago. During the decisive battle of Sekigahara in 1600, the Shimazu fought on the losing side.
Satsuma was one of the most powerful feudal domains in Tokugawa Japan. It was controlled throughout the Edo period by the tozama daimyō of the Shimazu clan. Since the mid-15th century, Satsuma fought with the Ryukyu Kingdom for control of the Northern Ryukyu Islands, which lie southwest of Japan. In 1609, Shimazu Iehisa requested permission from the shogunate to invade Ryukyu. After a three-month war which met stiff resistance, Satsuma captured the Ryukyuan capital of Shuri and King Shō Nei. In the ensuing peace treaty, Satsuma annexed the Amami and Tokara Islands, demanded tribute, forced the King and his descendants to pledge loyalty to Satsuma's daimyō. For the remainder of the Edo period, Satsuma influenced their politics and dominated their trading policies to take advantage of Ryukyu's tributary status with China; as strict maritime prohibitions were imposed upon much of Japan beginning in the 1630s, Satsuma's ability to enjoy a trade in Chinese goods, information, via Ryukyu, provided it a distinct and important, if not unique, role in the overall economy and politics of the Tokugawa state.
The degree of economic benefits enjoyed by Satsuma, the degree of their influence in Ryukyu, are subjects debated by scholars, but the political prestige and influence gained through this relationship is not questioned. The Shimazu continually made efforts to emphasize their unique position as the only feudal domain to claim an entire foreign kingdom as its vassal, engineered repeated increases to their own official Court rank, in the name of maintaining their power and prestige in the eyes of Ryukyu. In 1871, Emperor Meiji abolished the Han system, the following year informed King Shō Tai that he was designated "Domain Head of Ryukyu Domain", transferring Satsuma's authority over the country to Tokyo. Though not the wealthiest han in terms of kokudaka, Satsuma remained among the wealthiest and most powerful domains throughout the Edo period; this derived not only from their connection to Ryukyu, but from the size and productive wealth of Satsuma province itself, from their extreme distance from Edo, thus from the shōgun's armies.
The Shimazu exercised their influence to exact from the shogunate a number of special exceptions. Satsuma was granted an exception to the shogunate's limit of one castle per domain, a policy, meant to restrict the military strength of the domains, they received special exceptions from the shogunate in regard to the policy of sankin-kōtai, another policy meant to restrict the wealth and power of the daimyō. Under this policy, every feudal lord was mandated to travel to Edo at least once a year, to spend some portion of the year there, away from his domain and his power base; the Shimazu were granted permission to make this journey only once every two years. These exceptions thus allowed Satsuma to gain more power and wealth relative to the majority of other domains. Though arguably opposed to the shogunate, Satsuma was one of the strictest domains in enforcing particular policies. Christian missionaries were seen as a serious threat to the power of the daimyō, the peace and order of the domain.
The ban on smuggling unsurprisingly, was not so enforced, as the domain gained from trade performed along its shores, some ways away from Nagasaki, where the shogunate monopolized commerce. In the 1830s, Satsuma used its illegal Okinawa trade to rebuild its finances under Zusho Hirosato; the Satsuma daimyō of the 1850s, Shimazu Nariakira, was interested in Western thought and technology, sought to open the country. At the time, contacts with Westerners increased particularly for Satsuma, as Western ships landed in the Ryukyus and sought not only trade, but formal diplomatic relations. To increase his influence in the shogunate, Nariakira engineered a marriage between Shōgun Tokugawa Iesada and his adopted daughter, Atsu-hime. In 1854, the first year of Iesada's reign, Commodore Perry landed in Japan and forced an end to the isolation policy of the shogunate. However, the treaties signed between Japan and the western powers the Harris Treaty of 1858, put Japan at a serious disadvantage. In the same year, both Iesada and Nariakira died.
Nariakira named Shimazu Tadayoshi, as his successor. As Tadayoshi was still a child, his father, Shimazu Hisamitsu
A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date. Government bonds are denominated in the country's own currency, in which case the government cannot be forced to default, although it may choose to do so. If a government is close to default on its debt the media refer to this as a sovereign debt crisis; the terms on which a government can sell bonds depend on how creditworthy the market considers it to be. International credit rating agencies will provide ratings for the bonds, but market participants will make up their own minds about this; the first general government bonds were issued in the Netherlands in 1517. Because the Netherlands did not exist at that time, the bonds issued by the city of Amsterdam are considered their predecessor which merged into Netherlands government bonds; the average interest rate at that time fluctuated around 20%. The first bond issued by a national government was issued by the Bank of England in 1694 to raise money to fund a war against France.
It was in the form of a tontine. The Bank of England and government bonds were introduced in England by William III of England, who financed England's war efforts by copying the approach of issuing bonds and raising government debt from the Seven Dutch Provinces, where he ruled as a Stadtholder. Governments in Europe started issuing perpetual bonds to fund wars and other government spending; the use of perpetual bonds ceased in the 20th century, governments issue bonds of limited term to maturity. A government bond in a country's own currency is speaking a risk-free bond, because the government can if necessary create additional currency in order to redeem the bond at maturity. There have however been instances where a government has chosen to default on its domestic currency debt rather than create additional currency, such as Russia in 1998. Currency risk is the risk that the value of the currency a bond pays out will decline compared to the holder's reference currency. For example, a German investor would consider United States bonds to have more currency risk than German bonds.
A bond paying in a currency that does not have a history of keeping its value may not be a good deal if a high interest rate is offered. Inflation risk is the risk. Investors expect some amount of inflation, so the risk is that the inflation rate will be higher than expected. Many governments issue inflation-indexed bonds, which protect investors against inflation risk by linking both interest payments and maturity payments to a consumer prices index. If a central bank purchases a government security, such as a bond or treasury bill, it increases the money supply, in effect creating money. In the UK, government bonds are called gilts. Older issues have names such as "Treasury Stock" and newer issues are called "Treasury Gilt". Inflation-indexed gilts are called Index-linked gilts. UK gilts have maturities stretching much further into the future than other European government bonds, which has influenced the development of pension and life insurance markets in the respective countries. Consol Foreign exchange reserves of the People's Republic of China Government debt List of government bonds Municipal bond Treasury War Bonds
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre