Shire of Burke
The Shire of Burke is a local government area in North West Queensland, Australia. The shire lies on the south coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria and abuts the border with the Northern Territory, it covers an area of 40,126.8 square kilometres, has existed as a local government entity since 1885. The major town and administrative centre of the shire is Burketown; the shire and town and the Burke River passing through all are named in honour of ill-fated explorer Robert O'Hara Burke. From the months of August to November, a rare meteorological phenomenon known as "Morning Glory" – long, tubular clouds, some up to 1000 km in length – are observed in the skies above Burke Shire; the shire contains the World Heritage Site Riversleigh fossil fields. The Aboriginal Shire of Doomadgee lies inside Burke Shire to the west of Burketown, it includes Gregory Downs. The Doonmunya Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 with a population of 396.
However, the divisional board appeared to be inactive because the division was so large and was sparsely settled. Nonetheless some of the citizens were unhappy about this. On 11 January 1883, the Doonmunya Division was abolished and a new Carpentaria Division was created to replace it. However, once the Carpentaria Divisional Board became operational, the residents of the Burketown area became concerned that their rates were to be spent on the Normanton area rather than their own and began to agitate for their own division west of the Leichhardt River. On 30 January 1885, the Burke Division was created from lands within the Carpentaria Division with some adjustments to the Cloncurry Division. On 31 March 1903, Burke Division became the Shire of Burke; the Shire of Burke includes the following settlements: Burketown Gidya Gregory Lawn Hill Nicholson The Burke Shire Council operate public library in Burketown. 1927: F. T. Webber 2008–2012: Annie Clarke 2012–: Ernie Camp The populations below exclude the Aboriginal community of Doomadgee, which hovered between 800-1000 residents for most of the period under consideration.
"Burke Shire". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland
Fraser Coast Region
The Fraser Coast Region is a local government area in the Wide Bay–Burnett region of Queensland, about 250 kilometres north of Brisbane, the state capital. It is centred on the twin cities of Hervey Bay and Maryborough, contains Fraser Island, it was created in 2008 from a merger of the Cities of Maryborough and Hervey Bay and the Shires of Woocoo and most of Tiaro. The 2015-2016 budget of the Fraser Coast Regional Council is A$150 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the Fraser Coast Region existed as four distinct local government areas: the City of Hervey Bay. On 10 March 1861, the Municipal Borough of Maryborough, governed under the Municipalities Act 1858, inherited from New South Wales upon the separation of Queensland in 1859, was proclaimed, becoming the sixth municipal government in Queensland. Henry Palmer was appointed as its first Mayor. On 11 November 1879, when the Divisional Boards Act 1879 came into effect, the Antigua and Burrum Divisions were created around what is now Hervey Bay, on 15 September 1883, the Granville Division was established to serve the district surrounding Maryborough.
A division, was split away from the Division of Isis in 1900. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, all four divisions became Shires on 31 March 1903, Maryborough became a Town. On 7 January 1905 Maryborough achieved City status, a Town Hall was built on the corner of Kent and Adelaide Streets and became the administrative centre of the City. At around this time, the Shire of Degilbo renamed Biggenden, split away on 3 June 1905. On 23 December 1905, Burrum was renamed Pialba. On 17 February 1917, the Granville and Pialba shires were dissolved, split between a new Shire of Burrum and the Shire of Woocoo, gazetted three years earlier. By the 1920s the Hervey Bay area was expanding due to continuing growth in the primary industries such as sugar cane, pineapples, beef cattle and fishing, as well as investment in transport infrastructure. In the 1950s and 1960s, population and development increased, the coastal towns merged into a single urban area. On 20 December 1975, but effective from 27 March 1976 local government elections, the Shire of Burrum was renamed the Shire of Hervey Bay.
With the new focus on the coastal region, 1,086.4 km2 of its area, with an estimated population of 1,119, was annexed by the City of Maryborough, while 1,269.0 km2 with an estimated population of 2,629 was annexed by the Shire of Woocoo. In September 1977, the Shire of Hervey Bay received Town status, on 18 February 1984 it became a City; the Local Government Regulation 1993, which took effect on 31 March 1994, effected the City's annexation of about 700 km2 of the Shire of Woocoo. At this time, Maryborough was resubdivided into eight divisions each with one councillor, plus an elected mayor. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the City of Hervey Bay merged with the City of Maryborough, Shire of Woocoo and part of Tiaro to form the Fraser Coast Region; the council consists of a mayor, elected for a four-year term. Each of the councillors represent one of the ten divisions; the Fraser Coast Region includes the following settlements: 1 - split with Gympie Region The Fraser Coast Regional Council operates public libraries at Burrum Heads, Howard, Maryborough and Tiaro.
The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008. The last census, in 2011, was the first for the new Region; the current mayor of the Fraser Coast Regional Council is George Seymour elected in a by-election held in May 2018. The by-election follows the dismissal of Chris Loft as Mayor on 16 February 2018 by the Minister for Local Government, Stirling Hinchliffe who alleged Mr Loft made "serial breaches of the Local Government principles outlined in the Local Government Act."As at 2018, the councillors are: Cr James Hansen Cr Anne Maddern Cr Paul Truscott Cr Daniel Sanderson Cr Rolf Light Cr David Lewis Cr Darren Everard Cr Dennis Chapman Cr Stuart TaylorEach of the councillors holds a portfolio relevant to an area of operation of the council. 2008-2012: Mick Kruger 2012-2016: Gerard Daniel O'Connell 2016-2018: Chris Loft 2018-: George Seymour Great Sandy Biosphere Reserve Fraser Coast Regional Council Website Local Government & Municipal Knowledge Base – Fraser Coast Regional Council Page
Sunshine Coast Region
The Sunshine Coast Region is a local government area located in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. It was created by the amalgamation in 2008 of the City of Caloundra and the Shires of Maroochy and Noosa, it contains 4,194 kilometres of roads, 211 kilometres of coastline and a population of 295,000 at the 2016 Census. The first budget of the new Council for the 2008–2009 financial year totals A$673 million including $498 million operating expenditure, $168 million capital expenditure and $25.2 million for repayment of loans. On 1 January 2014, the Shire of Noosa was re-established independent of the Sunshine Coast Regional council. Prior to 2008, the new Sunshine Coast Region was an entire area of three previous and distinct local government areas: the City of Caloundra. At the establishment of regional local government in Queensland on 11 November 1879 with the Divisional Boards Act 1879, most of the area was part of the Caboolture Division, while the northernmost part around Noosa was part of the Widgee Division centred on Gympie.
The Maroochy Division split away from Caboolture on 5 July 1890. All three divisions became Shires on 31 July 1903 under the Local Authorities Act 1902. In 1910, the Shire of Noosa split from Widgee, on 22 February 1912 the Shire of Landsborough split from Caboolture; the two new entities together with Maroochy were to remain stable for 100 years. On 19 December 1987, the Shire of Landsborough was granted City status, was renamed the City of Caloundra, reflecting the population boom in the coastal section of the City. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that the three local governments amalgamate. While it noted all three were "functioning councils with moderate to strong financial performance", it argued that they covered a self-contained region in a geographic and economic sense and that the advantages of coordinated planning in a high-growth area and the avoidance of duplication of facilities were arguments in favour of amalgamation; the councils opposed the amalgamation, the Commission itself noted that the bulk of statewide individual submissions came from this region reflecting a "depth of feeling" regarding the issue.
On 15 March 2008, the City and two Shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect twelve councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council. In the 2011 census, the Sunshine Coast Region had the 4th largest population of any local government area in Australia. In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 March 2013, Noosa residents voted to de-amalgamate Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Council. On 18 March 2013, the Sunshine Coast Regional Council decided its new planning scheme should not apply to those areas that were part of the former Noosa Shire; the Shire of Noosa Shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Region is divided into 10 divisions, each represented by one councillor, plus an elected mayor who represents the entire Region; the council is elected for a four-year term. The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008; the next census, due in 2016 and will not include the Shire of Noosa's census figures.
The Sunshine Coast economy is dominated by two sectors – Healthcare and Retail, which provide 30% of the regional employment. Other significant areas are Accommodation & Food Services, Construction and Professional Services. Efforts are being made to diversify the regional economy by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council. Local educational institutions and community groups have funded a number of initiatives to encourage entrepreneurial and innovative businesses to the area; the University of the Sunshine Coast's Innovation Centre acts as an incubator startup companies, as does the Spark Bureau. The University site at Sippy Downs is designated as a'Knowledge Hub' as part of the Queensland Government's South East Queensland Regional Infrastructure Plan and is master planned as Australia's first university town based on the UK models with the potential for over 6,000 workers in knowledge-based businesses. Sippy Downs was highlighted as an'Innovation Hotspot' in July 2010, by top European Business magazine CNBC Business, with the potential to be'Australia's no-worries-answer to Silicon Valley'.
The Sunshine Coast's major university is the University of the Sunshine Coast with its main campus at Sippy Downs. Central Queensland University has a campus in Noosa. TAFE Queensland services the Sunshine Coast and Wide Bay regions through TAFE East Coast, with three Sunshine Coast campuses at Mooloolaba, Maroochydore & Nambour as well as a Noosa campus; the Sunshine Coast has many varied denomination and public primary and secondary schools. The Lexis English group, providing English classes to international students, has a campus in Maroochydore, while Lexis TESOL Training Centres provides teacher training programs such as the Cambridge CELTA and TESOL; the Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates libraries at Beerwah, Caloundra, Coolum Beach, Maleny and Nambour. It operates a mobile library service visiting Beerburrum, Bli Bli, Caloundra West, Eudlo, Glass House Mountains, Little Mountain, Mooloolah Valley, Mount Coolum, Mountain Creek, Pacific Paradise, Parklands, Pelican W
Redland City, better known as the Redlands and known as Redland Shire, is a local government area located in the southeast of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland. With a population just under 150,000, the City is spread along the southern coast of Moreton Bay, covering 537.1 square kilometres. Its mainland borders the City of Brisbane to the west and north-west, Logan City to the south-west and south, while its islands are situated north of the City of Gold Coast. Redland attained city status on 15 March 2008, having been a shire since 1949, when it was created by the merger of the former Tingalpa and Cleveland Shires. Despite this status, the City consists of suburban and coastal communities, featuring a somewhat disjointed urbanisation around major suburbs interspersed with bushland. Large mainland suburbs include Capalaba, Victoria Point, Redland Bay; the latter is the City's namesake, due to the colour of its fertile soil. North Stradbroke Island and smaller nearby islands, most notably those of Southern Moreton Bay, comprise the eastern portion of the Redlands.
The City's boundaries correspond to those of the federal division of Bowman. The area now known as the Redlands was inhabited by the Jagera and Quandamooka people. Europeans first entered the Redlands in the late 18th century while mapping Moreton Bay: James Cook made observations of the then-undivided Stradbroke Island. By the 1840s, the coastal township of Cleveland was in contention to become a major port replacing Brisbane, but was not chosen due to the region's existing sandbars and shipwrecks, an unfavourable review from Governor George Gipps during his 1842 visit. Louis Hope and other land purchasers began to develop significant infrastructure at this time. On 11 November 1879, under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, the Tingalpa Division was created to govern the area to the east of metropolitan Brisbane; the area around Cleveland split away to form the Cleveland Division on 30 May 1885. Under the Local Authorities Act 1902, both became Shires on 31 March 1903; the Tingalpa council met at Mount Cotton.
On 1 October 1925, a sizeable portion of the Shire of Tingalpa became part of the new City of Brisbane along with 20 other local governments. On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council renamed the Shire of Cleveland to be Shire of Redland and amalgamated part of Shire of Tingalpa into it; the twentieth century saw significant population growth in the Redlands, preceded by the construction of the Cleveland railway line. Peel Island became a leper colony, while North Stradbroke Island became a hub for sand mining, is associated with the Indigenous rights movement as the home of poet Oodgeroo Noonuccal and academic Aileen Moreton-Robinson. On 15 March 2008, Redlands was granted city status. In June 2018, the Redland City Council approved a marketing campaign to brand the city as "Redlands Coast" with the tagline "naturally wonderful"; the campaign seeks to attract tourists to the city's 335 kilometres of coastline. Although most of the population resides on the main urban conglomeration based around the centres of Capalaba and Victoria Point, over 6,000 people live on islands in Moreton Bay that are part of the City.
These are North Stradbroke and the Southern Moreton Bay Islands of Karragarra, Lamb and Macleay. Tingalpa Creek rises on Mount Cotton, forming Leslie Harrison Dam, marking the majority of the area's western boundary. Redland City has many recognisable animals and plants such as koalas, migratory shorebirds, flying foxes and scribbly gum forests, it is home to over 1,700 other recorded native species, many of which are under threat from population growth and its associated effects such as habitat clearing and fragmentation, road construction and expanding development. The council area is home to Venman Bushland National Park, the Eprapah Scout environment training centre. In April 2013, the Redland City Council illegally cleared vegetation from public land on the foreshores of Moreton Bay; the Council has been required by the State Government to restore the cleared vegetation and install signage about the restoration. Trees felled included many sheoaks; the city's koala population has declined in recent years.
In 2010, it was estimated that only 2,000 koalas remained, a 65% decline since 1999. Figures from a count in 2012 have not yet been released by the Queensland Government; the Redland City-based Koala Action Group has warned that: "Rampant expansion of urban areas will lead to the loss of the koala populations that are vital to the long-term survival of the species."The city boundaries include internationally significant coastal wetlands within the Moreton Bay Ramsar site. Tidal flats and seagrass beds provide important habitats for fish, and: large numbers of the nationally threatened green turtle and the loggerhead turtle the internationally vulnerable dugong, a large sea mammal from the order Sirenia which includes manatee species 43 species of shorebirds, including 30 migratory bird species listed by international migratory bird conservation agreements, such as the vulnerable eastern curlew and the grey-tailed tattler, that use this area in their journey through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway.
Freshwater systems in the Redlands catc
Shire of Hinchinbrook
The Shire of Hinchinbrook is a local government area in North Queensland, Australia. The shire, administered from the town of Ingham, covers an area of 2,810.8 square kilometres, has existed since its creation on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. The council consists of a mayor plus six councillors. Prior to 2008, the council consisted of a mayor plus eight councillors; the Hinchinbrook Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 with a population of 326. It covered a much larger area, extending well into the Tablelands Region. On 3 September 1881, the Tinaroo Division was created on 3 September 1881 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 out of parts of the Cairns and Woothakata Divisions. On 28 October 1881, part of Hinchinbrook Division was separated to create the Johnstone Division. On 18 January 1884 part of Hinchinbrook Division was separated to create the Cardwell Division.
With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Hinchinbrook Division became Shire of Hinchinbrook on 31 March 1903. Hinchinbrook was one of the few shires outside of remote areas in Queensland not to be affected by amalgamations in 2007–2008, it was considered for amalgamation into the Cassowary Coast Region with Cardwell and Johnstone, but the Local Government Commissioners accepted arguments by the council that there was no significant community of interest between the three, that amalgamation would not improve financial sustainability and that the resulting council would have a large north-south distance which would impact upon economies of scale. The first shire hall was constructed in 1883, but was destroyed by fire in May 1916. A new double-storey building was built at a different site in 1919; the present shire hall opened in 1963. Hinchinbrook Shire Council operates public libraries at Halifax; the Shire of Hinchinbrook includes the following settlements: Chairmen of the Hinchinbrook Divisional Board1880–1882: Frank Neame 1883–1886: Alfred Sandlings Cowley 1887: Henry Stone 1888: A. J. Traill 1888–1892: W. T. White 1893: Arthur Gedge 1894: W. T. White 1895–1899: Henry Stone 1900: P. J. Cochrane 1901–1902: Arthur Gedge Chairmen of the Hinchinbrook Shire Council1903: Frank Fraser 1904–1905: R.
G. Johnson 1905–1909: Francis Andrew O'Connor Cassady 1910–1913: Martin Flynn 1913–1915: Francis Andrew O'Connor Cassady 1916–1920: J. W. Cartwright 1921–1936: Francis Andrew O'Connor Cassady 1936: F. J. Heard 1936–1942: James Lawrence Kelly 1943–1945: F. N. Alston 1946–1954: James Lawrence Kelly 1955–1977: W. O. Garbutt May 1977 – 1981: S. Cavallaro 1982–1984: A. J. Andrews 1985–1987: J. J. Williams 1988–1993: R. S. BrownMayors of Hinchinbrook Shire1994–1999: Giuseppantonio Giandomenico 2000–2003: Keith Thomas Phillips 2004–2011: Giuseppantonio Giandomenico 2012–2016: Mansell Bow 2016–: Ramon Jayo Hinchinbrook Shire Council Hinchinbrook Shire Libraries at the Library of Congress Web Archives
Wide Bay–Burnett is a region of the Australian state of Queensland, located between 170 and 400 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane. The area's population growth has exceeded the state average over the past 20 years, it is forecast to grow to more than 430,000 by 2031, it is the subject of the Draft Wide Bay–Burnett Regional Plan, which aims to facilitate this growth while protecting over 90% of the region from urban development. Wide Bay was the name given by the early European explorer James Cook to a coastal indentation as he was sailing past Double Island Point; as the Port of Maryborough developed during the 19th century Wide Bay became well known as ships passed through the area before entering the Great Sandy Strait and the port. The coastal parts of the region are centered on the city of Maryborough; the inland is defined by a series of ranges. In the southeast of the region is a coastal area known as Cooloola; the Wide Bay–Burnett region consists of the following local government areas: 1 Noosa is sometimes included in the region by tourism authorities, but is formally excluded by both the ABS and the Queensland Government's Department of Infrastructure and Planning.
Fraser Island is located along the southern coast of Queensland 200 kilometres north of Brisbane. Its length is about 120 kilometres and its width is 24 kilometres and it is separated from the mainland by the Great Sandy Strait; the island is considered to be the largest sand island in the world at 1840 km². It is Queensland's largest island, Australia's sixth largest island and the largest island on the East Coast of Australia; the island has rainforests, eucalyptus woodland, mangrove forests and peat swamps, sand dunes and coastal heaths. It is made up of sand, accumulating for 750,000 years on volcanic bedrock that provides a natural catchment for the sediment, carried on a strong offshore current northwards along the coast. Fraser Island is home to a small number of mammal species, as well as a diverse range of birds and amphibians, including the occasional saltwater crocodile; the island is protected in the Great Sandy National Park. The South Burnett is a peanut growing and wine-producing region on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, north of the Darling Downs.
The Bunya Mountains mark the southern boundary of the region. 12 km from Murgon is the Bjelke-Petersen Dam. Other dams in the region include Boondooma Dam. Tarong Power Station and the Tarong National Park are both in the south of the Burnett; the area is dominated by the Cooloola sandmass. Fraser Island belong to the same sandmass, it once extended 30 km to the east. Large vegetated sand dunes have formed a varied terrain noted for its scientific importance, they contain the longest known chronosequence of coastal dunes in the world, covering 730,000 years. The area was once part of the Shire of Cooloola until 2008. James Nash reported the discovery of gold near Gympie on 16 October 1867; the railway from Maryborough completed in 1881 and the North Coast railway reached Gympie from Brisbane in 1891. Bundaberg was named and surveyed in 1870. In June 2000, a fire raged through a backpackers hostel. In January 2013, Cyclone Oswald brought severe flooding to much of eastern Queensland, its impact was most severe in the Wide Bay–Burnett region with Bundaberg hard hit by both flooding and tornadoes.
4,000 properties were damaged. Cities in the region are Bundaberg, Hervey Bay and Maryborough; some of the more notable towns include Bargara, Blackbutt, Burnett Heads, Childers, Gayndah, Gin Gin, Imbil, Kingaroy, Mundubbera, Nanango, Rainbow Beach, Tin Can Bay and Wondai. The sheltered waters of Hervey Bay provide a unique playground for migrating humpback whales; the tourist industry has grown along with the number of whales, leading to Hervey Bay being called the whale watching capital of Australia. The region includes two universities: Central Queensland University at Bundaberg, the University of Sunshine Coast's Fraser Campus at Hervey Bay; the Wide Bay Institute of TAFE operates from campuses at Bundaberg, Hervey Bay and Maryborough, with the Maryborough campus. A campus of Southern Queensland Institute of TAFE is located at Kingaroy; the Wide Bay–Burnett region contains four large airports. These are Hervey Bay, Bundaberg and Kingaroy. Hervey Bay and Bundaberg airports are serviced by regular passenger flights.
The Bruce Highway links the region to Brisbane, Rockhampton and Cairns, while the Burnett Highway and Isis Highway form part of an inland transport corridor to Toowoomba and central New South Wales. Queensland Rail operates daily high-speed Tilt Train services to Gympie and Bundaberg. Public transport operated by Wide Bay Transit, Polleys Coaches and Duffy's City Buses connect at the railway stations. Public transport options for the inland areas are more limited, with buses linking the main towns to each other and Brisbane once a day, once-weekly "shopper buses" in some towns. Wide Bay Burnett Region Regional Development Australia – Wide Bay Burnett Wide Bay Regional Organisation of Councils website Wide Bay Burnett Region
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli