Malayisation is a process of assimilation and acculturation, that involves acquisition or imposition of elements of Malay culture, in particular and the Malay language, as experienced by non-Malay populations of territories controlled or influenced by historical Malay sultanates and modern Malay-speaking countries. It is described as a process of civilisational expansion, drawing a wide range of indigenous peoples into the Muslim, Malay-speaking polities of Maritime Southeast Asia. An early form of Malayisation occurred during the territorial and commercial expansion of Melaka Sultanate in the 15th century, which spread the Classical Malay language and the religion of Islam to the Maritime Southeast Asia. Following the demise of Melaka in the early 16th century, instances of this assimilation of people from different ethnic origins into Malay culture, continued under numerous Malay-Muslim sultanates that emerged in Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Malayisation could either be voluntary or forced and is most visible in the case of territories where the Malay language or culture were dominant or where their adoption could result in increased prestige or social status.
The ultimate manifestation of this cultural influence can be observed in the present dominant position of Malay language and its variants in Maritime Southeast Asia, the establishment of ethnic Malays realm within the region, the forming of new cultures such as the Peranakan, the development of many Malay trade and creole languages. In linguistics, the term Malayisation may refer to the adaptation of oral or written elements of any other language into a form, more comprehensible to a speaker of Malay. There is significant genetic, linguistic and social diversity among modern Malay subgroups attributed to centuries of migration and assimilation of various ethnic groups and tribes within Southeast Asia; the Malays are descended from the Malayic-speaking Austronesians, various Austroasiatic tribes and Funan settlers of ancient polities in coastal areas of Malay peninsula and Borneo. The coming of Islam to Southeast Asia constituted a new era in Malay history; the new religion transformed many aspects of the old Hindu-Buddhist-Animistic cultural practices and beliefs of the people and imbued it with an Islamic worldview.
Beginning 12th century, the old polities were soon superseded by Islamic kingdoms across the region. The most important of these was Melaka Sultanate, established around 1400 CE. At the zenith of its power in the 15th century, Melaka exercised its special role not only as a trading centre, but as the centre of Islamic learning, therefore promoting the development of Malay literary traditions; the blossoming of Malay literature in this era had transformed the Classical Malay dialect of Melaka, enabling it to attain the linguistic prestige. As a result, growth in trade between Melaka and the rest of the archipelago has made the dialect to spread beyond the traditional Malay speaking world, became a lingua franca of Maritime Southeast Asia, it was further evolved into Bahasa Melayu pasar or Bahasa Melayu rendah, which believed as a form of pidgin influenced by contact between Malay and Chinese traders. The most important development, has been that pidgin Malay creolised, creating several new languages such as the Ambonese Malay, Manado Malay and Betawi language.
The period of Melaka was known as the era of Malay ethnogenesis, signified by strong infusion of Islamic values into Malay identity, the flourish of various important aspects of Malay culture. The term'Melayu' to refer to a distinct group of people had been defined, to describe the cultural preferences of the Melakans as against foreigners from the same region, notably the Javanese and Thais; the cara Melayu, were the cara Melaka. The aboriginal communities from Orang Asli and Orang Laut who constituted a majority original population of Melaka were Malayised and incorporated into the hierarchical structure of Melaka. Did Melakan rulers equate the kingdom with "Melayu" that one Malay text describes how, after a defeat, the people of Melaka fled into the jungle where they became Jakun, Orang Hulu, it shows that, without the mantle of Melaka's prestige, the local inhabitants were undifferentiated from the other non-Malay elements in neighbouring areas. The Melakans were described by European travellers as "white", well-proportioned, proud.
The men wear cotton garments which cover them only from the waist down, but a few of the more distinguished wear short, silk coats, under which they carry krisses. Their women, who are olive-coloured and brunette wear fine silk garments and short shirts. Nobody but the Sultan may wear yellow colours without special permission under pain of death; the faces of the natives are broad with wide noses and round eyes. Both sexes are well-mannered and devotees of all forms of refined amusement music and poetry; the rich pass life pleasantly in their country homes at Bertam which are surrounded by bountiful orchards. Most of them maintain separate establishments in the city, they take offence and
Taiwanese indigenous peoples
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people, are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese plain indigenous peoples in the future. Recent research suggests their ancestors may have been living on Taiwan for 5,500 years in relative isolation before a major Han immigration from mainland China began in the 17th century. Taiwanese aborigines are Austronesian peoples, with linguistic and genetic ties to other Austronesian people. Related ethnic groups include Polynesians, most people of the Philippines, Indonesia and Brunei, among others. For centuries, Taiwan's aboriginal inhabitants experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonising newcomers. Centralised government policies designed to foster language shift and cultural assimilation, as well as continued contact with the colonisers through trade and other intercultural processes, have resulted in varying degrees of language death and loss of original cultural identity.
For example, of the 26 known languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are now extinct, five are moribund and several are to some degree endangered. These languages are of unique historical significance, since most historical linguists consider Taiwan to be the original homeland of the Austronesian language family. Taiwan's Austronesian speakers were distributed over much of the island's rugged Central Mountain Range and were concentrated in villages along the alluvial plains; the bulk of contemporary Taiwanese aborigines now live in cities. The indigenous peoples of Taiwan have economic and social deficiencies, including a high unemployment rate and substandard education. Since the early 1980s, many aboriginal groups have been seeking a higher degree of political self-determination and economic development; the revival of ethnic pride is expressed in many ways by aborigines, including the incorporation of elements of their culture into commercially successful pop music. Efforts are under way in indigenous communities to revive traditional cultural practices and preserve their traditional languages.
The Austronesian Cultural Festival in Taitung City is one means by which community members promote aboriginal culture. In addition, several aboriginal communities have become extensively involved in the tourism and ecotourism industries with the goal of achieving increased economic self-reliance and preserving their culture. For most of their recorded history, Taiwanese aborigines have been defined by the agents of different Confucian and Nationalist "civilizing" projects, with a variety of aims; each "civilizing" project defined the aborigines based on the "civilizer"'s cultural understandings of difference and similarity, location and prior contact with other groups of people. Taxonomies imposed by colonizing forces divided the aborigines into named subgroups, referred to as "tribes"; these divisions did not always correspond to distinctions drawn by the aborigines themselves. However, the categories have become so established in government and popular discourse over time that they have become de facto distinctions, serving to shape in part today's political discourse within the Republic of China, affecting Taiwan's policies regarding indigenous peoples.
The Han sailor, Chen Di, in his Record of the Eastern Seas, identifies the indigenous people of Taiwan as "Eastern Savages", while the Dutch referred to Taiwan's original inhabitants as "Indians" or "blacks", based on their prior colonial experience in what is Indonesia. Beginning nearly a century as the rule of the Qing Empire expanded over wider groups of people and gazetteers recast their descriptions away from reflecting degree of acculturation, toward a system that defined the aborigines relative to their submission or hostility to Qing rule. Qing used the term "raw/wild/uncivilized" to define those people who had not submitted to Qing rule, "cooked/tamed/civilized" for those who had pledged their allegiance through their payment of a head tax. According to the standards of the Qianlong Emperor and successive regimes, the epithet "cooked" was synonymous with having assimilated to Han cultural norms, living as a subject of the Empire, but it retained a pejorative designation to signify the perceived cultural lacking of the non-Han people.
This designation reflected the prevailing idea that anyone could be civilized/tamed by adopting Confucian social norms. As the Qing consolidated their power over the plains and struggled to enter the mountains in the late 19th century, the terms Pingpu and Gaoshan were used interchangeably with the epithets "civilized" and "uncivilized". During Japanese rule, anthropologists from Japan maintained the binary classification. In 1900 they incorporated it into their own colonial project by employing the term Peipo for the "civilized tribes", creating a category of "recognized tribes" for the aborigines, called "uncivilized"; the Musha incident of 1930 led to many changes in aboriginal policy, the Japanese government began referring to them as Takasago-zoku. The latter group included the Atayal, Tsou, Paiwan and Amis peoples; the Tao and Rukai were added for a total of nine recognized peoples. During the early period of Chinese Nationalist Kuomintang rule the terms Shandi Tongbao "mountain compat
The Aboriginal Tasmanians are the Aboriginal people of the Australian state of Tasmania, located south of the mainland. For much of the 20th century, the Tasmanian Aboriginal people were and erroneously, thought of as being an extinct cultural and ethnic group. Contemporary figures for the number of people of Tasmanian Aboriginal descent vary according to the criteria used to determine this identity, ranging from 6,000 to over 23,000. First arriving in Tasmania around 40,000 years ago, the ancestors of the Aboriginal Tasmanians were cut off from the Australian mainland by rising sea levels c. 6000 BC. They were isolated from the rest of the human race for 8,000 years until British contact. Before British colonisation in 1803, there were an estimated 3,000–15,000 Palawa; the Palawa population suffered a drastic drop in numbers within three decades, so that by 1835 only some 400 full-blooded Tasmanian aborigines survived, most of this remnant being incarcerated in camps where all but 47 died within the following 12 years.
No consensus exists as to the cause. The traditional view, still affirmed, held that this dramatic demographic collapse was the result of the impact of introduced diseases, rather than the consequence of policy. Geoffrey Blainey, for example, wrote that by 1830 in Tasmania: "Disease had killed most of them but warfare and private violence had been devastating." Henry Reynolds attributed the depletion to losses in the Black War. Keith Windschuttle claimed that in addition to disease, the prostitution of women in a society in decline, explained the extinction. Many specialists in the history of colonialism and genocide, such as Ben Kiernan, Colin Tatz, Benjamin Madley state that the Tasmanian decimation qualifies as genocide in terms of the definition set forth by Raphael Lemkin and adopted in the UN Genocide Convention. By 1833, Christian missionary George Augustus Robinson, sponsored by Lieutenant-Governor George Arthur, had persuaded the 200 surviving Aboriginal Tasmanians to surrender themselves with assurances that they would be protected, provided for and have their lands returned to them.
These "assurances" were false. The survivors were moved to Wybalenna Aboriginal Establishment on Flinders Island, where diseases continued to reduce their numbers further. In 1847, the last 47 living inhabitants of Wybalenna were transferred to Oyster Cove, south of Hobart. Two individuals and Fanny Cochrane Smith, are separately considered to have been the last people of Tasmanian descent; the complete Aboriginal Tasmanian languages have been lost. Today, some thousands of people living in Tasmania describe themselves as Aboriginal Tasmanians since a number of Parlevar women bore children to European men in the Furneaux Islands and mainland Tasmania. People crossed into Tasmania 40,000 years, ago via a land bridge between the island and the rest of mainland Australia, during the last glacial period. According to genetic studies, once the sea level rose, flooding the Bassian Plain, the people were left isolated for 8,000 years, until the time of European exploration, during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Until the 1980s, it was thought that Tasmania was only occupied recently, but the discovery of 19,000-year-old deposits at Kutikina Cave demonstrated the Ice Age occupation of the highlands. In 1990, archaeologists excavated material in the Warreen Cave in the Maxwell River valley of the south-west, proving Aboriginal occupation from as early as 34,000 BP, making Aboriginal Tasmanians the southern-most population in the world during the Pleistocene era. Modern digs in southwest and central Tasmania turned up abundant finds, affording "the richest archaeological evidence from Pleistocene Greater Australia" covering the period from 35,000 to 11,000 BP. Tasmania was colonised by successive waves of aboriginal people from southern Australia during glacial maxima, when the sea was at its lowest; the archeological and geographic record suggests a period of drying, with the colder glacial period, with a desert extending from southern Australia into the midlands of Tasmania - with intermittent periods of wetter, warmer weather.
People migrating from southern Australia into peninsular Tasmania would have crossed stretches of seawater and desert, found oases in the King highlands. The archeological and linguistic record suggests a pattern of successive occupation of Tasmania, coalescence of three ethnic or language groups into one broad group. Evidence for contest over territory is reflected by the presence of Nara toponymy in Mara territory. Colonial settlers found two main language groups in Tasmania upon their arrival, which correlates with the broader nation or clan divisions. Pleistocene Palawa language group - first ethnic and language group in Tasmania - absorbed or displaced by successive invasions except for remnant group on Tasman peninsula. Absorbed population in Eastern Tasmania combined with "victorian speakers" to form "Mara" language group acr
Orang Asli are the indigenous people and the oldest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia. There are 18 Orang Asli tribes, categorised under three main groups according to their different languages and customs: Semang confined to the northern portion of the peninsula. Senoi, residing in the central region. Proto-Malay, in the southern region; the Semang and Senoi groups, being Austroasiatic-speaking, are the indigenous peoples of the Malay Peninsula. The Proto-Malays, who speak Austronesian languages, migrated to the area between 2500 and 1500 BC. There is an Orang Asli museum in Melaka, in Gombak, about 25 km north of Kuala Lumpur; the Orang Asli kept to themselves until the first traders from India arrived in the first millennium CE. Living in the interior, they bartered inland products like resins, incense woods, feathers for salt and iron tools; the rise of Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic Malay kingship system during the common era forever revolutionised the dynamics of Malay Peninsular society. With the easement of mobility and contact between various groups of people, the walls that separated the myriad of historical Austroasiatic and Austronesian tribal communities who once dwelled across the peninsular were dismantled, being drawn and integrated into the Malay society, language and belief system.
These Malayised tribes and communities would constitute among the ancestors of present-day Malay people. Other smaller related tribes located further inland compared to their coastal cousins managed to be spared from the Malayisation process due to their secluded geographical location and nomadic and semi-nomadic lifestyle, hence preserving and developing their own endemic language and pagan rituals; some of these Orang Asli groups were not living in complete isolation from their Malayalised brothers, they engaged with economic dealings and trading with the Malays, jungle produce provided by the Orang Aslis was traded in exchange for vital commodities such as salt and metal axe-heads by the Malays. Historical record witnessed that the Orang Asli sent forest produce as a tribute to the Malay chiefs where they reside in. By the 18th to the 19th century, some Orang Asli groups suffered raids by the Malay and Batak forces who perceived them to be of lower in status; the Orang Asli settlement being sacked, with the adult males being systematically executed while the women and children being held captive and sold as slaves.
However, the relationship between the Malays and Orang Asli were not always hostile, many other groups enjoyed peaceful and cordial relation with their Malay neighbours. The arrival of British colonists brought further inroads in the lives of Orang Asli, they became subjects of anthropological research. During the Malayan Emergency of 1948 to 1960, the Orang Asli became a vital component of national security, as their help enabled the Malayan army to defeat the Communist insurgents. Two administrative initiatives were introduced to highlight the importance of the Orang Asli, as well to protect their identity; the Department of Aborigines was established in 1950, the Aboriginal Peoples Ordinance was enacted in 1954. After independence, development of the Orang Asli became a prime objective of the government, in 1961 a policy was adopted to integrate the Orang Asli into the wider Malaysian society. In the 1970s and 1980s, Malaysia experienced a period of sustained growth characterised by modernisation, industrialisation, land development, which resulted in encroachments on Orang Asli land.
In response to this encroachment, the Orang Asli mobilised and formed the Peninsular Malaysia Orang Asli Association, which has given them a stronger voice and greater visibility. The Orang Asli are now known as Orang Kita following the introduction of the "One Malaysia" concept by Najib Razak. Orang Asli living in remote forest areas engaged in some trading with the Malays, with jungle produce being exchanged for salt and metal axe-heads. There was evidence of trade in blowpipes and blowpipe-bamboo among certain tribes, it has been shown that the Orang Asli have played a significant role in the Malay Peninsula's economic history as collectors and primary traders as early as the 5th Century A. D. An early 19th century report tells of Negritos providing forest products as tribute to the Malay chiefs of the river basins they resided in. In 2000, the Orang Asli constitute only 0.5% of the total population in Malaysia. Their population is 148,000; the largest group are the Senois. The Proto-Malays form 43%, the Semang forming 3%.
Thailand is home to 600 orang asli, divided between Mani people with Thai citizenship, 300 others in the deep south. The poverty rate among Orang Asli is 76.9%. In addition to this high rate, the Statistics Department of Malaysia has classified 35.2% of the population as being "very poor". The majority of Orang Asli live in rural areas. In 1991, the literacy rate for the Orang Asli was 43% compared to the national rate of 86% at that time, they have an average life expectancy of 53 years. A high infant mortality rate is evident with 51.7 deaths per 1000 births. The Malaysian Government has undertaken various measures to eradicate the poverty level among the Orang Aslis, many of them have been relocated from their nomadic and semi-nomadic dwelling to a permanent housing estate under the relocation program initiated by the government; these settlements are equipped with modern ameni
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Indigenous peoples of the Philippines
The Philippines consist of a large number of upland and lowland ethnolinguistic groups living in the country. The highland ethnic nations have co-existed with the lowland Austronesian ethnic groups for thousands of years in the Philippine archipelago; the primary difference is that they were not absorbed by centuries of Spanish and United States colonization of the Philippines, in the process have retained their customs and traditions. This is due to the rugged inaccessibility of the mountains, which discouraged Spanish and American colonizers from coming into contact with the highlanders; the indigenous peoples of northern Philippines are collectively called as Igorot, while the non-Muslim indigenous groups of mainland Mindanao are collectively called as Lumad. Numerous indigenous groups live outside these two indigenous corridors. According to the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino, there are 135 recognized local languages in the Philippines, one of, known to all groups in the Philippines, each of the remaining 134 is inherent to a single ethnic group.
There are 134 ethnic groups in the Philippines, the majority of which are indigenous, though much of the overall Philippine population is constituted by only 8-10 lowland ethnic groups. In the 1990s, there were more than 100 highland tribal groups constituting 3% of the population; the upland tribal groups were a blend in ethnic origin, like those in lowland areas of the country, although the upland tribal groups do not interact nor intermingle with the latter. Because they displayed a variety of social organization, cultural expression and artistic skills, they showed a high degree of creativity employed to embellish utilitarian objects, such as bowls, clothing and spoons. The tribal groups of the Philippines are known for their carved wooden figures, weaving and weapons; these groups ranged from various Igorot tribes, a group that includes the Bontoc, Ifugao, Kalinga and Tinguian, who built the Rice Terraces. They covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and acculturation with lowland Christian and Muslim Filipinos.
Native groups such as the Bukidnon in Mindanao, had intermarried with lowlanders for a century. Other groups such as the Kalinga in Luzon have remained isolated from lowland influence. There were several upland groups living in the Cordillera Central of Luzon in 1990. At one time it was employed by lowland Filipinos in a pejorative sense, but in recent years it came to be used with pride by native groups in the mountain region as a positive expression of their ethnic identity; the Ifugao of Ifugao province, the Bontoc, Tinguian, the Kankanaey and Ibaloi were all farmers who constructed the rice terraces for many centuries. Other mountain peoples of Luzon are the Isnag of the province of Apayao, the Gaddang of the border between Kalinga and Isabela provinces and the Ilongot of Nueva Vizcaya province and Caraballo Mountains all developed hunting and gathering, farming cultivation and headhunting. Other groups such as the Negritos dominated the highlands throughout the islands for thousands of years, but have been reduced to a small population, living in scattered locations along the eastern ranges of the mountains.
In the southern Philippines and lowland tribal groups were concentrated on Mindanao and western Visayas, although there are several upland groups such as the Mangyan living in Mindoro. Among the most important groups found on Mindanao are collectively called the Lumad, includes the Manobo, a bigger ethnographic group such as the Ata-Manobo and the Matigsalug found in Davao City, Davao del Norte and Bukidnon Province. Samal is synonymous with Luwa'an. Yakan is the indigenous tribe in the hinterlands of Basilan Province. In the lowland lives the Sama Banguingui tribe while in coastal areas there leave the nomadic Luwa'an. Sulu lowland areas are home of the Sama Banguingui; the Sama or the Sinama and the Jama Mapun are the indigenous tribes in the province of Tawi-Tawi. The Philippine government succeeded in establishing a number of protected reservations for tribal groups. Highland peoples were expected to speak their native language, dress in their traditional tribal clothing, live in houses constructed of natural materials using traditional architectural designs and celebrate their traditional ceremonies of propitiation of spirits believed to be inhabiting their environment.
They are encouraged to re-establish their traditional authority structure in which, as in indigenous society were governed by chieftains known as Rajah and Datu. Contact between primitive and modern ethnic groups resulted in weakening or destroying tribal culture without assimilating the indigenous groups into modern society, it seemed doubtful that the shift of the Philippine government policy from assimilation to cultural pluralism could reverse the process. Several Fi