Ethel Walker School
The Ethel Walker School commonly referred to as “Walker’s”, is a private, college preparatory and day school for girls in grades 6 through 12 plus postgraduate located in Simsbury, Connecticut. Ethel du Pont and socialite Ethel Walker School Website The Association of Boarding Schools profile
David Rockefeller was an American banker, chairman and chief executive of Chase Manhattan Corporation. He was the oldest living member of third generation of the Rockefeller family and family patriarch from August 2004 until his death in March 2017. Rockefeller was the youngest child of John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, a grandson of John D. Rockefeller and Laura Spelman Rockefeller, he was noted for his wide-ranging political connections and foreign travel, in which he met with many foreign leaders. His fortune was estimated at $3.3 billion at the time of his death in March 2017. Rockefeller was born in New York, he grew up in an eight-story house at 10 West 54th Street, the tallest private residence built in the city. Rockefeller was the youngest of six children born to financier John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and socialite Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. John Jr. was the only son of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman.
Abby was a daughter of Rhode Island U. S. Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich and Abigail Pearce Truman "Abby" Chapman. David's five elder siblings were Abby, John III, Nelson and Winthrop. Rockefeller attended the experimental Lincoln School at 123rd Street in Harlem. In 1936, Rockefeller graduated cum laude from Harvard University, where he worked as an editor on The Harvard Crimson, he studied economics for a year at Harvard and a year at the London School of Economics. At LSE he once dated Kennedy's sister Kathleen. During his time abroad, Rockefeller worked in the London branch of what was to become the Chase Manhattan Bank. After returning to the U. S. to complete his graduate studies, he received a Ph. D. from the University of Chicago in 1940. After completing his studies in Chicago, he became secretary to New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia for eighteen months in a "dollar a year" public service position. Although the mayor pointed out to the press that Rockefeller was only one of 60 interns in the city government, his working space was, in fact, the vacant office of the deputy mayor.
From 1941 to 1942, Rockefeller was assistant regional director of the United States Office of Defense and Welfare Services. Rockefeller enlisted in the U. S. Army and entered Officer Candidate School in 1943. During World War II he served in North Africa and France for military intelligence setting up political and economic intelligence units. For seven months he served as an assistant military attaché at the American Embassy in Paris. During this period, he called on family contacts and Standard Oil executives for assistance. In 1946, Rockefeller joined the staff of the longtime family-associated Chase National Bank; the chairman at that time was Rockefeller's uncle Winthrop W. Aldrich; the Chase Bank was a wholesale bank, dealing with other prominent financial institutions and major corporate clients such as General Electric. The bank is associated with and has financed the oil industry, having longstanding connections with its board of directors to the successor companies of Standard Oil Exxon Mobil.
Chase National became the Chase Manhattan Bank in 1955 and shifted into consumer banking. It is now called JPMorgan Chase. Rockefeller started as an assistant manager in the foreign department. There he financed international trade in a number of commodities, such as coffee and metals; this position maintained relationships with more than 1,000 correspondent banks throughout the world. He served in other positions and became president in 1960, he was both chairman and chief executive of Chase Manhattan from 1969 to 1980 and remained chairman until 1981. He was as as 1980, the single largest individual shareholder of the bank, holding 1.7% of its shares. During his term as CEO, Chase spread internationally and became a central component of the world's financial system due to its global network of correspondent banks, the largest in the world. In 1973, Chase established the first branch of an American bank in Moscow, in the Soviet Union; that year Rockefeller traveled to China, resulting in his bank becoming the National Bank of China's first correspondent bank in the U.
S. He was faulted for spending excessive amounts of time abroad, during his tenure as CEO the bank had more troubled loans than any other major bank. Chase owned more New York City securities in the mid-1970s. A scandal erupted in 1974 when an audit found that losses from bond trading had been understated, in 1975 the bank was branded a "problem bank" by the Federal Reserve. From 1974 to 1976, Chase earnings fell 36 percent while those of its biggest rivals rose 12 to 31 percent; the bank's earnings more than doubled between 1976 and 1980, far outpacing its rival Citibank in return on assets. By 1981 the bank's finances were restored to full health. In November 1979, while chairman of the Chase Bank, Rockefeller became embroiled in an international incident when he and Henry Kissinger, along with John J. McCloy and Rockefeller aides, persuaded President Jimmy Carter through the United States Department of State to admit the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, into the United States for hospital treatment for lymphoma.
This action directly precipitated what is known as the Iran hostage crisis and placed Rockefeller under intense media scrutiny for the first time in his publ
Standard Oil Co. Inc. was an American oil producing, transporting and marketing company and monopoly. Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refinery in the world of its time, its history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the U. S. Supreme Court ruled, in a landmark case. Standard Oil dominated the oil products market through horizontal integration in the refining sector in years vertical integration; the Standard Oil trust streamlined production and logistics, lowered costs, undercut competitors. "Trust-busting" critics accused Standard Oil of using aggressive pricing to destroy competitors and form a monopoly that threatened other businesses. Rockefeller ran the company as its chairman, until his retirement in 1897, he remained the major shareholder, in 1911, with the dissolution of the Standard Oil trust into 34 smaller companies, Rockefeller became the richest man in the world, as the initial income of these individual enterprises proved to be much bigger than that of a single larger company.
Its successors such as ExxonMobil or Chevron are still among the companies with the largest income worldwide. By 1882, his top aide was John Dustin Archbold. After 1896, Rockefeller disengaged from business to concentrate on his philanthropy, leaving Archbold in control. Other notable Standard Oil principals include Henry Flagler, developer of the Florida East Coast Railway and resort cities, Henry H. Rogers, who built the Virginian Railway. Standard Oil's pre-history began in 1863 as an Ohio partnership formed by industrialist John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, chemist Samuel Andrews, silent partner Stephen V. Harkness, Oliver Burr Jennings, who had married the sister of William Rockefeller's wife. In 1870, Rockefeller incorporated Standard Oil in Ohio. Of the initial 10,000 shares, John D. Rockefeller received 2,667. Rockefeller chose the "Standard Oil" name as a symbol of the reliable "standards" of quality and service that he envisioned for the nascent oil industry.
In the early years, John D. Rockefeller dominated the combine, he distributed power and the tasks of policy formation to a system of committees, but always remained the largest shareholder. Authority was centralized in the company's main office in Cleveland, but decisions in the office were made in a cooperative way; the company grew through acquisitions. After purchasing competing firms, Rockefeller shut down those he believed to be inefficient and kept the others. In a seminal deal, in 1868, the Lake Shore Railroad, a part of the New York Central, gave Rockefeller's firm a going rate of one cent a gallon or forty-two cents a barrel, an effective 71% discount from its listed rates in return for a promise to ship at least 60 carloads of oil daily and to handle load and unload on its own. Smaller companies decried such deals as unfair because they were not producing enough oil to qualify for discounts. Standard's actions and secret transport deals helped its kerosene price to drop from 58 to 26 cents from 1865 to 1870.
Rockefeller used the Erie canal as a cheap alternative form of transportation - in the summer months when it was not frozen - to ship his refined oil from Cleveland to New York City. In the winter months his only options were the three trunk lines - the Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad to New York City, the Pennsylvania Railroad to Philadelphia. Competitors disliked the company's business practices. Standard Oil, being formed well before the discovery of the Spindletop oil field and a demand for oil other than for heat and light, was well placed to control the growth of the oil business; the company was perceived to control all aspects of the trade. In 1872, Rockefeller joined the South Improvement Co. which would have allowed him to receive rebates for shipping and drawbacks on oil his competitors shipped. But when this deal became known, competitors convinced the Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke South Improvement's charter. No oil was shipped under this arrangement. Using effective tactics widely criticized, it absorbed or destroyed most of its competition in Cleveland in less than two months and throughout the northeastern United States.
A. Barton Hepburn was directed by the New York State Legislature in 1879 to investigate the railroads' practice of giving rebates within the state. Merchants without ties to the oil industry had pressed for the hearings. Prior to the committee's investigation, few knew of the size of Standard Oil's control and influence on unaffiliated oil refineries and pipelines - Hawke cites that only a dozen or so within Standard Oil knew the extent of company operations; the committee counsel, Simon Sterne, questioned representatives from the Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad and discovered that at least half of their long-haul traffic granted rebates, that much of this traffic came from Standard Oil. The committee shifted focus to Standard Oil's operations. John Dustin Archbold, as president of Acme Oil Company, denied that Acme was associated with Standard Oil, he admitted to being a director of Standard Oil. The committee's final report scolded the railroads for their rebate
James Stillman Rockefeller
James Stillman Rockefeller was a member of the prominent U. S. Rockefeller family, he won an Olympic rowing title for the United States became president of what became Citigroup. He was a trustee of the American Museum of Natural History and a member of the board of overseers of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, he was born on June 8, 1902, to William Goodsell Rockefeller and Elsie Stillman, daughter of James Stillman, in the Manhattan borough of New York City. He graduated from Yale University in 1924, where he was elected to Scroll and Key and Phi Beta Kappa, he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon. That same year Rockefeller captained a crew of Yale teammates, they won a gold medal in rowing at the 1924 Summer Olympics in France. Rockefeller appeared on the cover of Time magazine on July 7, 1924. Rockefeller returned from the Olympics and spent the next six years with the Wall Street banking firm of Brown Bros. & Co.. He joined the National City Bank in New York in 1930 and was president from 1952 to 1959 and chairman from 1959 to 1967.
He retired as chairman in 1967. During his tenure, the bank merged with the smaller First National Bank and took the name The First National City Bank of New York. Under each of his successors, the bank's name has changed: George S. Moore shortened it to "First National City Bank" and formed a holding company, First National City Corp. Under Walter B. Wriston these became "Citibank" and "Citicorp" respectively. Under John Reed the firm merged with Travelers Group to become Citigroup. During World War II, Rockefeller served in the Airborne Command. On April 15, 1925, he married grandniece of Andrew Carnegie. Nancy helped establish the Greenwich Maternal Health Center in 1935. Together, they had four children: James Stillman Rockefeller Jr., married to Liv Coucheron Torp, married to Thor Heyerdahl Nancy Sherlock Rockefeller, who married Barclay McFadden, Jr. After his death, she married Daniel Noyes Copp Andrew Carnegie Rockefeller, who married Jean Victoria Mackay Georgia Stillman Rockefeller, who married James Harden RoseRockefeller died on August 10, 2004, at the age of 102 in Greenwich, following a stroke.
He lived in Greenwich, Connecticut in a 19,000-square-foot brick Georgian mansion, built in 1929, with 11 bedrooms and 16 marble bathrooms on four levels. There are an elevator, an outdoor pool and English gardens, his house was resold again in 2009 for $23.9 million. In January 1937, he became the full owner of Long Valley Farm near Spring Lake in Cumberland County and Harnett County, North Carolina. At the time of his death, Rockefeller had four children, fourteen grandchildren, thirty-seven great-grandchildren, one great-great granddaughter. Rockefeller was America's oldest living Olympic champion, the earliest living cover subject of Time magazine. Time Magazine Cover July 7, 1924 Yale Olympic Rower Passes Away at 102
John Davison "Jay" Rockefeller IV is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from West Virginia. He was first elected to the Senate in 1984 as Governor of West Virginia. Rockefeller moved to Emmons, West Virginia, to serve as a VISTA worker in 1964 and was first elected to public office as a member of the West Virginia House of Delegates. Rockefeller was elected West Virginia Secretary of State and was president of West Virginia Wesleyan College, he became the state's senior U. S. Senator when the long-serving Sen. Robert Byrd died in June 2010; as a great-grandson of oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, he was the only serving politician of the prominent six-generation Rockefeller family during his tenure in the United States Senate and the only one to have held office as a Democrat in what has been a traditionally Republican dynasty, though he too was a Republican until he decided to run for office in what was a Democratic state. Rockefeller did not seek reelection in 2014. John Davison Rockefeller IV was born at New York Hospital in Manhattan, New York City, to John Davison Rockefeller III and Blanchette Ferry Hooker, 26 days after the death of his patrilineal great-grandfather, John Davison Rockefeller Sr..
He is a grandson of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. Jay graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1955. After his junior year at Harvard College, he spent three years studying Japanese at the International Christian University in Tokyo, he graduated from Harvard in 1961 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Far Eastern Languages and History. He attended Yale University and did graduate work in Oriental studies and studied the Chinese language. After college, Rockefeller worked for the Peace Corps in Washington, D. C. under President John F. Kennedy, where he developed a friendship with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and worked as an assistant to Peace Corps Director Sargent Shriver, he served as the Operations Director in the Philippines. He worked for a brief time in the United States Department of Far Eastern Affairs, he continued his public service in 1964–1965 in the Volunteers in Service to America, under President Lyndon B. Johnson, during which time he moved to Emmons, West Virginia. Rockefeller, along with his son Charles, is a Trustee of New York's Asia Society, established by his father in 1956.
He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit think tank chaired by his uncle, David Rockefeller. As a Senator, he voted against the 1993 North American Free Trade Agreement, backed by David Rockefeller. Rockefeller was elected to the West Virginia House of Delegates in 1966, to the office of West Virginia Secretary of State in 1968, he won the Democratic nomination for governor in 1972, but was defeated in the general election by the Republican incumbent Governor Arch A. Moore, Jr.. Rockefeller served as president of West Virginia Wesleyan College from 1973 to 1975. Rockefeller was elected Governor of West Virginia in 1976 and re-elected in 1980, he served as governor when manufacturing plants and coal mines were closing as the national recession of the early 1980s hit West Virginia hard. Between 1982 and 1984, West Virginia's unemployment rate hovered between 20 percent. In 1984, he was elected to the United States Senate, narrowly defeating businessman John Raese as Ronald Reagan carried the state in the presidential election.
As in his 1980 gubernatorial campaign against Arch Moore, Rockefeller spent over $12 million to win a Senate seat. Rockefeller was re-elected in 1996, 2002 and 2008 by substantial margins, he was chair of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. Rockefeller was the chair of the Committee on Commerce and Transportation. In April 1992, he was the Democratic Party's finance chairman and considered running for the presidency, but pulled out after consulting with friends and advisers, he went on to endorse Clinton as the Democratic candidate. He was the Chairman of the prominent Senate Intelligence Committee, from which he commented on the war in Iraq. In 1993, Rockefeller became the principal Senate supporter, with Ted Kennedy, behind Bill and Hillary Clinton's sweeping health care reform package, liaising with the First Lady, opening up his mansion next to Rock Creek Park for its first strategy meeting; the reform was subsequently defeated by an alliance between the Business Roundtable and a small-business coalition.
In 2002, Rockefeller made an official visit to several Middle Eastern countries, during which he discussed his personal views regarding United States military intentions with the leaders of those countries. In October of that year, Rockefeller expressed his concern for Saddam Hussein's alleged weapons of mass destruction program while addressing the U. S. Senate: There has been some debate over how "imminent" a threat Iraq poses. I do believe that Iraq poses an imminent threat, but I believe that after September 11, that question is outdated, it is in the nature of these weapons, the way they are targeted against civilian populations, that documented capability and demonstrated intent may be the only warning we get. To insist on further evidence could put some of our fellow Americans at risk. Can we afford to take that chance? We cannot! In November 2005 during a TV interview, Rockefeller stated, I took a trip... in January 2002 to Saudi Arabia and Syria, I told each of the heads of state that it was my view that George Bush had made up his mind to
Laurance Spelman Rockefeller was an American businessman, financier and major conservationist. He was a prominent third-generation member of the Rockefeller family, being the fourth child of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. His siblings were Abby, John III, Nelson and David. Rockefeller was born in New York City, he graduated from Princeton University and attended Harvard Law School for two years, until he decided he did not want to be a lawyer. On August 22, 1934, in Woodstock, Laurance married childhood friend Mary French, whose mother, Mary Montague Billings French, was a friend of Laurance's mother; when brother Nelson attended Dartmouth College, he shared a room with Mary's brother. Mary was granddaughter of a president of Northern Pacific Railway. Laurance and Mary had a son, they are Laura Rockefeller Chasin, Marion Rockefeller Weber, Dr. Lucy R. Waletzky, Larry Rockefeller, he had 12 great-grandchildren. In 1937, he inherited his grandfather's seat on the New York Stock Exchange.
He served as founding trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund for forty-two years, from its inception in 1940 to 1982. He was a founding trustee of the Rockefeller Family Fund from 1967 to 1977, he was a leading figure in the pioneering field of venture capital, which began as a joint partnership with all five brothers and their only sister, Babs, in 1946. In 1969 this became the successful Venrock Associates, which provided important early funding for Intel and Apple Computer, amongst many other start-up technology companies, including many other firms involved in healthcare. Over the years his investment interests ranged into the fields of aerospace, high temperature physics, composite materials, lasers, data processing, thermionics and nuclear power. Venrock was a limited partnership investment company financed by members of the Rockefeller family and a number of the institutions with which the family had longstanding philanthropic ties, among them the Museum of Modern Art, Rockefeller University, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Rockefeller's major interest was in aviation. Rockefeller had learned to fly, found Rickenbacker's vivid accounts of an approaching boom in commercial air travel to be persuasive. Within a decade after Rockefeller's considerable investment, Eastern Airlines had become the most profitable airline to emerge after World War II, he became its largest shareholder. He funded the pivotal post-WWII military contractor McDonnell Aircraft Corp. Rockefeller was a longtime friend and associate of DeWitt Wallace, who with his wife in 1922 co-founded Reader's Digest. Wallace, a major funder of the family's Colonial Williamsburg, appointed Laurance as an outside director in the company, he wanted to ensure that it preserved its patriotic mission of informing and educating the public, along with support for national parks, one of Rockefeller's primary interests. Through his resort management company, Inc. Rockefeller opened environmentally focused hotels at Caneel Bay on Saint John, United States Virgin Islands, some property of, turned over to the Virgin Islands National Park.
The last of these, the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, was established in 1965 on the Kohala Coast of the island of Hawaii. Its most noted general manager was Adi Kohler, who wrote the story of the construction of the famous hotel in his book "Mr. Mauna Kea" published by McKenna Publishing Group. While sailing past Virgin Gorda, Rockefeller spotted an idyllic half-mile crescent bay with what he dubbed "wilderness beach". In 1958 planning and land acquisition began for; the resort opened in 1964 and on January 18, 2014 Little Dix Bay celebrated its 50th anniversary. In 1993, the resort became part of Rosewood Hotels & Resorts but remains true to Rockefeller's vision of natural harmony and balance while offering an escape from the ordinary. Rockefeller funded the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center at a critical juncture of its early development, he funded William Irwin Thompson's Lindisfarne Association, a think tank and retreat. He had a major involvement in the New York Zoological Society, along with support from other family members and philanthropies.
In 1983, Laurance Rockefeller donated the primary funds to create The Mirror Theater Ltd, a New York-based theater company founded by Sabra Jones. The Mirror Theater Ltd is known for producing the 1983 Broadway play Alice in Wonderland at the Virginia Theatre and for the many plays performed by its Mirror Repertory Company. Rockefeller funded controversial research of the PEAR lab, dealing with consciousness-based physical phenomena. In life, Rockefeller became interested in UFOs. In 1993, along with his niece, Anne Bartley, the stepdaughter of Winthrop Rockefeller and the then-president of the Rockefeller Family Fund, he established the UFO Disclosure Initiative to the Clinton White House, they asked for all UFO information held by the government, including from the CIA and the US Air Force, to be declassified and released to the public. The first and most important test case where declassification had to ap