Paul Eugen Bleuler was a Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist most notable for his contributions to the understanding of mental illness. He coined many psychiatric terms, such as "schizophrenia", "schizoid", "autism", depth psychology and what Sigmund Freud called "Bleuler's chosen term ambivalence". Bleuler was born in Zollikon, a town near Zürich in Switzerland, to Johann Rudolf Bleuler, a wealthy farmer, Pauline Bleuler-Bleuler, he studied medicine in Zürich and following his graduation in 1881 he worked as a medical assistant to Gottlieb Burckhardt at the Waldau Psychiatric Clinic in Bern. Leaving this post in 1884 he spent one year on medical study trips to Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, to Bernhard von Gudden in Munich and to London. Thereafter he returned to Zürich to work as assistant to Auguste Forel at the Burghölzli, a university hospital. In 1886 Bleuler became the director of a psychiatric clinic at Rheinau, a hospital located in an old monastery on an island in the Rhine, it was noted at the time for being backward, Bleuler set about improving conditions for the patients resident there.
Bleuler returned to the Burghölzli in 1898 where he was appointed director and served at this post until 1927. Following his interest in hypnotism in its "introspective" variant, Bleuler became interested in Sigmund Freud's work, he favorably reviewed Josef Freud's Studies on Hysteria. Like Freud, Bleuler believed, he encouraged his staff at the Burghölzli to study psychotic mental phenomena. Influenced by Bleuler, Carl Jung and Franz Riklin used word association tests to integrate Freud's theory of repression with empirical psychological findings; as a series of letters demonstrates, Bleuler performed a self-analysis with Freud, beginning in 1905. He found Freud's movement to be over-dogmatic and resigned from the International Psychoanalytic Association in 1911, writing to Freud that "this'all or nothing' is in my opinion necessary for religious communities and useful for political parties...but for science I consider it harmful". Bleuler remained interested in Freud's work, citing him favourably, for example, in his reprinted Textbook of Psychiatry.
He supported the nomination of Freud for the Nobel Prize in the late twenties. Bleuler introduced the term "schizophrenia" to the world in a lecture in Berlin on 24 April 1908; however as early as 1907 he and his colleagues had been using the term in Zurich to replace Emil Kraepelin's term dementia praecox. He revised and expanded his schizophrenia concept in his seminal study of 1911, Dementia Praecox, oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien, translated into English only in 1950. Like Kraepelin, Bleuler argued that dementia praecox, or "the schizophrenias", was fundamentally a physical disease process characterized by exacerbations and remissions. No one was completely "cured" of schizophrenia—there was always some sort of lasting cognitive weakness or defect, manifest in behavior. Unlike Kraepelin, he believed that the overall prognosis was not uniformly grim, the "dementia" was a secondary symptom not directly caused by the underlying biological process, that the biological disease was much more prevalent in the population due to its "simple" and "latent" forms.
Bleuler wrote in 1911: "When the disease process flares up, it is more correct, in my view, to talk in terms of deteriorating attacks, rather than its recurrence. Of course the term recurrence is more comforting to a patient and his relatives than the notion of progressively deteriorating attacks." The eugenic sterilization of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia was advocated by Bleuler. He argued that racial deterioration would result from the propagation of mental and physical cripples in his Textbook of Psychiatry: The more burdened should not propagate themselves... If we do nothing but make mental and physical cripples capable of propagating themselves, the healthy stocks have to limit the number of their children because so much has to be done for the maintenance of others, if natural selection is suppressed unless we will get new measures our race must deteriorate, he believed the disease's central characteristics to be the product of a process of splitting between the emotional and the intellectual functions of the personality.
He favoured early discharge from hospital into a community environment to avoid institutionalisation. Bleuler explored the concept of moral idiocy, the relationship between neurosis and alcoholism, he followed Freud in seeing sexuality as a potent influence upon anxiety, pondered on the origins of the sense of guilt, studied the process of what he termed switching. Bleuler was known for his clinical observation and willingness to let symptoms speak for themselves, as well as for his skillful expository writings. Bleuler's psycho syndrome Emil Kraepelin Hermann Rorschach Pierre Janet Wilhelm Wundt Tölle R. "Eugen Bleuler und die deutsche Psychiatrie". Der Nervenarzt. 79: 90–6, 98. Doi:10.1007/s00115-007-2379-9. PMID 18058081. Noll R, American Madness: The Rise and Fall of Dementia Praecox. Cambridge, MA, London: Harvard University Press. Falzeder E. "The story of an ambivalent relationship: Sigmund Freud and Eugen Bleuler". The Journal of Analytical P
Eric Berne was a Canadian-born psychiatrist who, in the middle of the 20th century, created the theory of transactional analysis as a way of explaining human behavior. Berne's theory of transactional analysis was based on the ideas of Freud but was distinctly different. Freudian psychotherapists focused on talk therapy as a way of gaining insight to their patient's personalities. Berne believed. Berne was the first psychiatrist to apply game theory to the field of psychiatry. Eric Berne was born on May 10, 1910 in Montreal, Canada, as Eric Lennard Bernstein, he was the son of David Hillel Bernstein, MD, a general practitioner, Sarah Gordon Bernstein, a professional writer and editor. His only sibling, his sister Grace, was born five years later; the family immigrated to Canada from Russia. Both parents graduated from McGill University in Montreal. Eric was close to his father and spoke fondly of how he accompanied his father, a physician, on medical rounds. Eric recounted stories of travelling on a horse-pulled sleigh on ice in the cold Montreal winters with his father to visit patients.
Berne's father died of tuberculosis when Berne was 11. His mother supported herself and her two children working as an editor and writer, she encouraged her son to study medicine. Berne received his baccalaureate degree in 1931 and an M. D. and C. M. from McGill University Medical School in 1935. Berne came to the United States in 1935 when he began an internship at Englewood Hospital in New Jersey. After completing his one-year internship in 1936, he began his psychiatric residency at the Psychiatric Clinic of Yale University School of Medicine, where he worked for two years. In 1939, Berne became an American citizen and shortened his name from Eric Lennard Bernstein to Eric Berne. In 1949, he was admitted as a Fellow in the American Psychiatric Association. From 1938-40, Berne was an assistant physician at Arlington Heights, Massachusetts. From 1940-43 he was employed as a psychiatrist in a sanitarium in Connecticut, concurrently as a clinical assistant in psychiatry at Mt Sinai Hospital in New York.
He maintained a private practice. In 1943, during World War II, Berne joined the United States Army Medical Corps and served as a psychiatrist, he rose from the rank of Lieutenant, to Captain, to Major. His assignments included Spokane, Washington, Ft. Ord and Brigham City, Utah. After his discharge in 1946, he settled in Carmel and resumed his psychoanalytic training that he had begun in New York City, prior to the War, at the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Society and Institute. In 1947-1949 Berne studied under Erik Erikson. From 1949 and 1964, Berne had a private practices in both Carmel and San Francisco and kept up a demanding pace of research, teaching in addition, he took an appointment in 1950 as Assistant Psychiatrist at Mt. Zion Hospital, San Francisco, began serving as a Consultant to the Surgeon General of the US Army. In 1951, he accepted a position of Adjunct and Attending Psychiatrist at the Veterans Administration and Mental Hygiene Clinic, San Francisco; the years from 1964 to 1970 were restless ones for Berne.
His personal life became chaotic and he focused on his writing. Berne created the theory of transactional analysis as a way to explain human behavior. Berne's theory were distinctly different. Freudian psychotherapists focused on patient's personalities. Berne believed. Berne mapped interpersonal relationships to three ego-states of the individuals involved: the Parent and Child state, he investigated communications between individuals based on the current state of each. He called these interpersonal interactions transactions and used the label games to refer to certain patterns of transactions which popped up in everyday life; the origins of transactional analysis can be traced to the first five of Berne's six articles on intuition, which he began writing in 1949. At this early juncture and while still working to become a psychoanalyst, his writings challenged Freudian concepts of the unconscious. In 1956, after 15 years of psychoanalytic training, Berne was refused admission to the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute as a fully-fledged psychoanalyst.
He interpreted the request for several more years of training as a rejection and decided to walk away from psychoanalysis. Before the end of the year, he had written two seminal papers, both published in 1957. In the first article, Intuition V: The Ego Image, Berne referenced P. Federn, E. Kahn, H. Silberer, indicated how he arrived at the concept of ego states, including his idea of separating "adult" from "child." The second paper, Ego States in Psychotherapy, was based on material presented earlier that year at the Psychiatric Clinic, Mt. Zion Hospital, San Francisco, at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Clinic, U. C. Medical School. In that second article, he developed the tripartite scheme used today, introduced the three-circle method of diagramming it, showed how to sketch contaminations, labeled the theory, "structural analysis," and termed it "a new psychotherapeutic approach."A few months he wrote a third article, titled Transactional Analysis: A New and Effective Method of Group Therapy, presented by invitation at the 1957 Western Regional Meeting of the American Group Psychotherapy Association of Los Angeles.
With the publication of this paper in the 1958 issue of the American Journal of Psychotherapy, Berne's new method of diagnosis and t
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Totem and Taboo
Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, or Totem and Taboo: Some Points of Agreement between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, is a 1913 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author applies his work to the fields of archaeology and the study of religion. It is a collection of four essays inspired by the work of Wilhelm Wundt and Carl Jung and first published in the journal Imago: "The Horror of Incest", "Taboo and Emotional Ambivalence", "Animism and the Omnipotence of Thoughts", "The Return of Totemism in Childhood". Though Totem and Taboo has been seen as one of the classics of anthropology, comparable to Edward Burnett Tylor's Primitive Culture and Sir James George Frazer's The Golden Bough, the work is now considered discredited by anthropologists; the cultural anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber was an early critic of Totem and Taboo, publishing a critique of the work in 1920; some authors have seen redeeming value in the work.
Freud, who had a longstanding interest in social anthropology and was devoted to the study of archaeology and prehistory, wrote that the work of Wilhelm Wundt and Carl Jung provided him with his "first stimulus" to write the essays included in Totem and Taboo. The work was translated twice into English, first by Abraham Brill and by James Strachey. Freud was influenced by the work including The Golden Bough. "The Horror of Incest" concerns incest taboos adopted by societies believing in totemism. Freud examines the system of Totemism among the Australian Aborigines; every clan has a totem and people are not allowed to marry those with the same totem as themselves. Freud examines this practice as preventing against incest; the totem is passed down hereditarily, either through the mother. The relationship of father is not just his father, but every man in the clan that, could have been his father, he relates this to the idea of young children calling all of their parents' friends as aunts and uncles.
There are further marriage classes, sometimes as many as eight, that group the totems together, therefore limit a man's choice of partners. He talks about the widespread practices amongst the cultures of the Pacific Islands and Africa of avoidance. Many cultures do not allow brothers and sisters to interact in any way after puberty. Men are not allowed to say each other's names, he explains this by saying that after a certain age parents live through their children to endure their marriage and that mothers-in-law may become overly attached to their son-in-law. Similar restrictions exist between a father and daughter, but they only exist from puberty until engagement. In "Taboo and emotional ambivalence," Freud considers the relationship of taboos to totemism. Freud uses his concepts projection and ambivalence he developed during his work with neurotic patients in Vienna to discuss the relationship between taboo and totemism. Like neurotics,'primitive' people feel ambivalent about most people in their lives, but will not admit this consciously to themselves.
They will not admit. The suppressed part of this ambivalence are projected onto others. In the case of natives, the hateful parts are projected onto the totem, as in:'I did not want my mother to die. Freud expands this idea of ambivalence to include the relationship of citizens to their ruler. In ceremonies surrounding kings, which are quite violent, – such as the king starving himself in the woods for a few weeks – he considers two levels that are functioning to be the "ostensible" and the "actual", he uses examples to illustrate the taboos on rulers. He says the kings of Ireland were subject to restrictions such as not being able to go to certain towns or on certain days of the week. In "Animism and the Omnipotence of Thought," Freud examines the animism and narcissistic phase associated with a primitive understanding of the universe and early libidinal development. A belief in magic and sorcery derives from an overvaluation of psychical acts whereby the structural conditions of mind are transposed onto the world: this overvaluation survives in both primitive men and neurotics.
The animistic mode of thinking is governed by an "omnipotence of thoughts", a projection of inner mental life onto the external world. This imaginary construction of reality is discernible in obsessive thinking, delusional disorders and phobias. Freud comments; the last part of the essay concludes the relationship between magic and taboo, arguing that the practices of animism are a cover up of instinctual repression. In "The Return of Totemism in Childhood," Freud combines one of Charles Darwin's more speculative theories about the arrangements of early human societies with the theory of the sacrifice ritual taken from William Robertson Smith to conclude that the origins of totemism lie in a singular event, when a band of prehistoric brothers expelled from the alpha-male group returned to kill their father, whom they both feared and respected. In this respect, Freud located the beginnings of the Oedipus complex at the origins of human society, postulated that all religion was in effect an
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website