Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet, FRSE was a Scottish historical novelist and poet. Many of his works remain classics of both English-language literature and of Scottish literature, famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor. A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an member of the Highland Society. He survived a bout of polio in 1773 that left him lame. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live in the rural Scottish Borders at his grandparents farm at Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, and learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to Edinburgh, and that went with his aunt Jenny to take spa treatment at Bath in England. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt at a cure at Prestonpans during the following summer.
In 1778, Scott returned to Edinburgh for private education to him for school. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh and he was now well able to walk and explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, poems and travel books and he was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and writing, and learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland with emphasis on the Covenanters. Scott began studying classics at the University of Edinburgh in November 1783, at the age of 12, in March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his fathers office to become a Writer to the Signet. While at the university Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, Scott met the blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macphersons Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott saw Robert Burns at one of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting. When Burns noticed a print illustrating the poem The Justice of the Peace and asked who had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne, and was thanked by Burns.
When it was decided that he would become a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking classes in Moral Philosophy, after completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh. As a lawyers clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction and he was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792. He had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, as a boy and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral traditions of the Scottish Borders
Simeon Solomon was an English Pre-Raphaelite painter noted for his depictions of Jewish life and same-sex desire. Solomon was born into a prominent Jewish family and he was the eighth and last child born to merchant Michael Solomon and artist Catherine Levy. Solomon was a brother to fellow painters Abraham Solomon and Rebecca Solomon. Born and educated in London, Solomon started receiving lessons in painting from his brother around 1850. He started attending Careys Art Academy in 1852 and his older sister first exhibited her works at the Royal Academy during the same year. His first exhibition was at the Royal Academy in 1858 and he continued to hold exhibitions of his work at the Royal Academy between 1858 and 1872. In addition to the literary paintings favoured by the Pre-Raphaelite school, Solomons subjects often included scenes from the Hebrew Bible and genre paintings depicting Jewish life and his association with Swinburne led to his illustrating Swinburnes Lesbia Brandon in 1865. In 1873 his career was cut short when he was arrested in a urinal at Stratford Place Mews, off Oxford Street, in London and charged with attempting to commit sodomy.
He was arrested again in 1874 in Paris, after which he was sentenced to three months in prison. In 1884 he was admitted to the workhouse where he continued to work, his life. Twenty years in 1905, he died from complications brought on by his alcoholism and he was buried at the Jewish Cemetery in Willesden. Examples of his work are on permanent display at the Victoria and Albert Museum, retrospectives of his work have been held at the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery in 2005-6, and in London at the Ben Uri Gallery in 2006. Paintings and Drawings by the Late Simeon Solomon, Baillie Gallery,54 Baker St,9 Dec 1905-13 Jan 1906 Winter Exhibition of Works of the Old Masters and Deceased Masters of the British School, Royal Academy, London. 1 Jan-10 March 1906 Exhibition of Jewish Art and Antiquities, Whitechapel Art Gallery,7 Nov-16 Dec 1906 Exeter Museum and Art Gallery. April 1906 Jewish Exhibition, Gallery of Ancient and Modern Art, july–August 1908 Pre-Raphaelite Painters from Collections in Lancashire, Tate Britain, London.
17 July 1913 –28 September 1913 National Gallery of British Art, July 1923 Jewish Art, Ben Uri Gallery. May 1934 Subjects of Jewish Interest, Ben Uri Gallery, december 1946 Acquisitions of the Friends of the Art Museums of Israel, Ben Uri Gallery. In May the exhibition moved to Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, april–May 1966 Solomon, A Family of Painters, Geffrye Museum and Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, Birmingham
Tartuffe, or The Impostor, or The Hypocrite, first performed in 1664, is one of the most famous theatrical comedies by Molière. The characters of Tartuffe and Orgon are considered among the greatest classical theatre roles, while the king had little personal interest in suppressing the play, he did so because, as stated in the official account of the fête. As a result of Molières play, contemporary French and English both use the word tartuffe to designate a hypocrite who ostensibly and exaggeratedly feigns virtue, especially religious virtue, the play is written entirely in 1,962 twelve-syllable lines of rhyming couplets. Orgons family is up in arms because Orgon and his mother have fallen under the influence of Tartuffe, Tartuffe pretends to be pious and to speak with divine authority, and Orgon and his mother no longer take any action without first consulting him. Tartuffes antics do not fool the rest of the family or their friends, Orgon raises the stakes when he announces that he will marry Tartuffe to his daughter Mariane.
Mariane, of course, feels very upset at this news, in an effort to show Orgon how awful Tartuffe really is, the family devises a scheme to trap Tartuffe into confessing to Elmire his desire for her. As a pious man and a guest, he should have no feelings for the lady of the house. Tartuffe is at first shocked but recovers very well, un malheureux pécheur tout plein diniquité. Orgon is convinced that Damis was lying and banishes him from the house, Tartuffe even gets Orgon to order that, to teach Damis a lesson, Tartuffe should be around Elmire more than ever. As a gift to Tartuffe and further punishment to Damis and the rest of his family, in a scene, Elmire takes up the charge again and challenges Orgon to be witness to a meeting between herself and Tartuffe. Orgon, ever easily convinced, decides to hide under a table in the same room and he overhears, of course, Elmire resisting Tartuffes very forward advances. When Tartuffe has incriminated himself beyond all help and is close to violating Elmire, Orgon comes out from under the table.
But this wily guest means to stay, and Tartuffe finally shows his hand and it turns out that earlier, before the events of the play, Orgon had admitted to Tartuffe that he had possession of a box of incriminating letters. Tartuffe had taken charge and possession of box, and now tells Orgon that he will be the one to leave. Tartuffe takes his leave and Orgons family tries to figure out what to do. Very soon, Monsieur Loyal shows up with a message from Tartuffe, Dorine makes fun of Monsieur Loyals name, mocking his fake loyalty. Even Madame Pernelle, who had refused to believe any ill about Tartuffe even in the face of her sons actually seeing it, has become convinced by this time of Tartuffes duplicity. Before Orgon can flee, Tartuffe arrives with an officer, the entire family thanks its lucky stars that it has escaped the mortification of both Orgons potential disgrace and their dispossession
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and he approached Leslie Stephen, editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus on subjects from the UK and its present, an early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work. The first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885, in May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephens assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, by 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63, the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below.
The supplements brought the work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. The dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917, until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published and this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. Consequently, the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work, in 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, the last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986.
In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB, the new dictionary would cover British history, broadly defined, up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of nearly 10,000 contributors internationally. Following Matthews death in October 1999, he was succeeded as editor by another Oxford historian, Professor Brian Harrison, in January 2000. The new dictionary, now known as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes in print at a price of £7500, most UK holders of a current library card can access it online free of charge. In subsequent years, the print edition has been able to be obtained new for a lower price. At publication, the 2004 edition had 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives, a small permanent staff remain in Oxford to update and extend the coverage of the online edition
Bishopsgate is one of the 25 wards of the City of London and the name of a major road between Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate in the northeast corner of Londons main financial district. Bishopsgate is named one of the original eight gates in the London Wall. The site of this gate is marked by a stone bishops mitre, fixed high upon a building located at Bishopsgates junction with Wormwood Street, by the gardens there. Although tens of thousands of people commute to and work in the ward, the ward is bounded by Worship Street to the north, where the edge of the City meets the boroughs of Islington and Hackney. It neighbours Portsoken ward and the borough of Tower Hamlets in the east, the western boundary is formed by Old Broad Street and Broad Street ward itself. Bishopsgate bounds the wards of Aldgate, Coleman Street, Bishopsgate ward straddles the line of the Wall and the old gate and is often divided into Within and Without parts, with a deputy appointed for each part. Since the 1994 and 2003 boundary changes, almost all of the ward is Without, no changes to Bishopsgates ward boundaries occurred in the 2013 boundary changes.
Originally Roman, the Bishops Gate was rebuilt by the Hansa merchants in 1471 in exchange for Steelyard privileges and its final form was erected in 1735 by the City authorities and demolished in 1760. This gate often displayed the heads of criminals on spikes, London Wall divided the ward and road into an intramural portion called Bishopsgate Within and an extramural portion called Bishopsgate Without. The Bishopsgate thoroughfare forms part of the A10 and the section to the north of the site of the original Gate is the start of Roman Ermine Street, the parish church for the area of Bishopsgate Without is St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate. This is located just to the north of the original Gate on the west side of the road, Bishopsgate was originally the location of many coaching inns which accommodated passengers setting out on the Old North Road. Others included the Dolphin, the Flower Pot, the Green Dragon, the Wrestlers, the Angel, the latter was a venue for the Queens Men theatrical troupe in the 16th century.
The name of an inn called the Catherine Wheel is commemorated by Catherine Wheel Alley which leads off Bishopsgate to the east, in the 18th century this grand residence became a tavern called Sir Paul Pindars Head, another notable venue was the London Tavern. Also demolished was the old Crosby Hall, at one time the residence of Richard III, Bishopsgate is the site of Dirty Dicks, the Bishopsgate Institute, and many offices and skyscrapers. Police had received a warning, but were still evacuating the area at the time of the explosion. The area had suffered damage from the Baltic Exchange bombing one year before. The street is home to the main London offices of major banks, including the Royal Bank of Scotland. Within the ward falls the Broadgate Estate, only electors who are Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand
Royal Holloway, University of London
Royal Holloway, University of London, formally incorporated as Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, is a public research university and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It has three faculties,20 academic departments and c.9,265 undergraduate and postgraduate students from over 100 countries, the campus is located west of Egham, within the Greater London Urban Area and 19 miles from the geographic centre of London. The Egham campus was founded in 1879 by the Victorian entrepreneur, Royal Holloway College was officially opened in 1886 by Queen Victoria as an all-women college. It became a member of the University of London in 1900, in 1945, the college admitted male postgraduate students, and in 1965, around 100 of the first male undergraduates. In 1985, Royal Holloway merged with Bedford College, the merged college was named Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, this remaining the official registered name of the college by Act of Parliament. The campus is dominated by the Founders Building, a Grade I listed red-brick building modelled on the Château de Chambord in the Loire Valley, Royal Holloway is ranked 27th in the UK and 173rd in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2016–17.
Royal Holloway was ranked in 30th place in the world for 2016 in the category of International Outlook, the university failed to place in the top 150 in the world for the 2017 version. There are strong links and exchange programmes with institutions in the United States and Hong Kong, notably Yale University, the University of Toronto, Royal Holloway was a member of the 1994 Group until 2013, when the group dissolved. Royal Holloway College, originally a college, was founded by the Victorian entrepreneur Thomas Holloway in 1879 on the Mount Lee Estate in Egham. The Founders Building, which is now Grade I listed, was opened in 1886 by Queen Victoria. The college has a Chapel, completed in 1886 as one of the last parts of the university to be finished, october 1887 saw the arrival of the first 28 students at Royal Holloway College. It became a constituent of the University of London in 1900, as did Bedford College, Bedford College was founded by Elizabeth Jesser Reid in 1849 as a higher education college for the education of women.
Reid leased a house at 47 Bedford Square in the Bloomsbury area of London, the intention was to provide a liberal and non-sectarian education for women, something no other institution in the United Kingdom provided at the time. The college moved to 8 and 9 York Place in 1874, in 1900, the college became a constituent school of the University of London. Like RHC, following its membership of the University of London, in 1965, RHC and Bedford merged in 1985. The newest title remains the registered name of the college, though this was changed for day-to-day use to Royal Holloway. Since the merger with Bedford College, Royal Holloway has entered into discussions with Brunel University and St Georges. The latter project was cancelled in September 2009, Royal Holloway, St Georges and Kingston University continue to work together in the field of health and social care teaching and research
The Fair Maid of Perth
The Fair Maid of Perth is a novel by Sir Walter Scott. Inspired by the strange, but historically true, story of the Battle of the North Inch, it is set in Perth and other parts of Scotland around 1400. The book had been intended to include two other stories in the volume, My Aunt Margarets Mirror and Death of the Lairds Jock. The fair maid of the title is Catharine Glover, daughter of a glovemaker in Perth, who kisses Henry Gow/Smith, the armourer, while he is sleeping, on Valentines Day. But Catharine has caught the eye of the Duke of Rothesay, and when Gow interrupts an attempted abduction, the armourer is drawn simultaneously into royal intrigue and highland feud. Having cut off the hand of one, and seized another, however, managed to escape, he left the neighbours to pursue the rest, the citizens waited on the provost, having heard their grievance, issued a challenge of defiance to the offenders. The armourer had maimed the Princes Master of the Horse, Sir John Ramorny, whose desire for revenge was encouraged by the apothecary, an assassin named Bonthron undertook to waylay and murder Henry Gow.
On his way home in the coat and cap, as a protection against other revellers, he received a blow from behind. Her father accompanied him to the council, where he was chosen as the widows champion. Bonthron, chose the alternative of combat, but Dwining had arranged that he should merely be suspended so that he could breathe and during the night he and Sir Johns page Eviot cut him down and carried him off. Having returned from his fathers funeral, Conachar pleaded for the hand of Catharine, however, reminded him that she was betrothed to the armourer, and his foster father promised to screen him in the conflict. Catharine and Louise, discovered his fate, and communicated with The Douglas, who overpowered the garrison, and hanged the murderers. The Gilded Arbour summerhouse of the Dominican Friary, which afforded those inside an excellent view of the Inch, was adapted into a grandstand for the King and his entourage. Henry Gow, having consented to supply Eachin with a suit of armour, a terrible conflict ensued, during which Torquil and his eight sons all fell defending their chief, who at last fled from the battle-ground unwounded and dishonoured.
On hearing of Rothesays death, Robert III resigned his sceptre to his wily and ambitious brother, albany transferred the regency to his son, nineteen years afterwards, the rightful heir returned, and the usurper expiated his own and his fathers guilt on the scaffold. The warrants against Simon and his daughter, and Father Clement, were cancelled by the intervention of the Earl of Douglas, Conachar either became a hermit, or, legend has it, was spirited away by the fairies. Scotland boasts of many distinguished descendants from Henry Gow and his spouse the Fair Maid of Perth, the novel begins on 13 February, a day before Valentines Day, and events continue to Palm Sunday. In the novel, the Battle of the North Inch and the death of David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, implied to be followed in short order are first the capture of James, younger son of the king, and the death of Robert III
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Biarritz is a city on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the French Basque Country in southwestern France. It is located 35 kilometres from the border with Spain and it is a luxurious seaside tourist destination known for the Hôtel du Palais, its casinos and its surfing culture. Biarritz is located in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region and it is adjacent to Bayonne and Anglet and 35 kilometres from the border with Spain. It is in the province of Labourd in the French Basque Country. In Basque, its name is Biarritz or Miarritze and its current Occitan Gascon name is Biàrrits. The name for an inhabitant is Biarrot, Biarriztar ou Miarriztar in Basque, the suffix -itz is a Basque locative. The name appears as Bearriz in 1170, Bearids in 1186, Biarritz appears as Bearids and Bearriz in 1150, Beiarridz in 1165, Bearriz and Beariz in 1170, Bearidz and Beariz, lo port de Beiarriz and Bearridz in 1261. Other forms include Beiarid, Bearritz and Beiarrids, Bearrits, Sanctus Martinus de Biarriz, analysis of stones from the Middle Paleolithic show that the Biarritz area was inhabited at that time.
The oldest mention appears in a cartulary, Baiona’s Golden book, from 1186, the first urban town was to the south, at the top and at the interior, where the church of San Martin is located. This church is the oldest in Biarritz, in 1152, Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England, who became suzerain of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Prince Edward, oldest son of Henry III of England, was invested with the duchy, and betrothed to Eleanor of Castile, two population centers are attested in the Middle Ages. This château had a double crenulated wall two meters thick, a drawbridge and four towers, mentions of this château occur as late as 1603, in the letters patent of Henry IV. One tower remained as of 1739, when a daymark was established there, called de la Haille, most of the documents and official agreements gathered in the archives from Biarritz mention whaling. This was the local industry. Consequently, the coat of arms features the image of a whale below a rowing boat manned by five sailors wearing berets.
This inscription is written on it, sidus, Biarritz has long made its living from the sea, from the 12th century onwards, it was a whaling town. In the 18th century, doctors claimed that the ocean at Biarritz had therapeutic properties, after the 7th century, Biarritz had many confrontations with Baiona, with the Kingdom of England – Lapurdi was under its control – and with the Bishop of Baiona. Almost all of the disputes were about whale hunting, in 1284, the towns right to hunt whales was reinstated by the authorities of Lapurdi and the Duchy of Aquitaine
Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through an act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation, fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works. From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, the success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were primarily exhibiting societies, their success was marred by internal factions among the artists. The combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies.
Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect, used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support of the Academy, the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president. Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788, the instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40. William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members, among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, and two sets of brothers. The Royal Academy was initially housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House, a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the recently completed National Gallery.
These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions, in 1868,100 years after the Academys foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, and used rent-free by the Royal Academy, the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769. 136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters. The range and frequency of these exhibitions have grown enormously since that time. Britains first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, and J. M. W. Turner
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, Bloomsbury and he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, in 1890 he became joint editor, and on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary, mainly on Elizabethan authors or statesmen and his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentlemans Magazine, in 1884, he published a book about Stratford-on-Avon, with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lees article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature, there are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F.
Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester, John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Lee, Sidney. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive