The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia, the newspaper is published six days a week. It is available at outlets in Sydney, regional New South Wales, the Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety of supplements, including the magazines Good Weekend, and Sunday Life. By February 2016, average circulation had fallen to 104,000, similarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspapers website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month. In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published, the original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily, in 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for almost 150 years, based his editorial policies upon principles of candour, honesty and we have no wish to mislead, no interest to gratify by unsparing abuse or indiscriminate approbation.
During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there, the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the countrys metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch, in 1949, the newspaper launched a Sunday edition, The Sunday Herald. Four years later, this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, in 1995, the company launched the newspapers web edition smh. com. au. The site has grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition. Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, the SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year, however, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013.
Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers websites. The subscription type is to be a model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. In July 2013 it was announced that the SMHs news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, on 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014. Ahead of the decommissioning of the plant at Chullora in June 2014
Indigenous Australian art
Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others. It includes works in a range of media including painting on leaves, wood carving, rock carving, ceremonial clothing. This article discusses works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary Indigenous Australian art by Aboriginal Australians and these have been studied in recent years and have gained much international recognition. There are several types of art, and ways of making art, including rock painting, dot painting, rock engravings, bark painting, sculptures. Australian Indigenous art is the oldest unbroken tradition of art in the world, dated at 28,000 years, it is one of the oldest known pieces of rock art on Earth with a confirmed date. Rock art, including painting and engraving or carving, can be found at sites throughout Australia, rock paintings appear on caves in the Kimberley region of Western Australia known as Bradshaws.
They are named after the European, Joseph Bradshaw, who first reported them in 1891, to Aboriginal people of the region they are known as Gwion Gwion or Giro Giro. Other painted rock art sites include Laura, Ubirr, in the Kakadu National Park, examples have been found that are believed to depict extinct megafauna such as Genyornis and Thylacoleo as well as more recent historical events such as the arrival of European ships. Rock engraving depends on the type of rock being used, many different methods are used to create rock engravings. The Sydney engravings, depicting carved animals and humans, have their own peculiar style not found elsewhere in Australia, the rock art at Murujuga is said to be the worlds largest collection of petroglyphs and includes images of extinct animals such as the thylacine. Activity prior to the last ice age until colonisation is recorded, Papunya art consists of various paint colours like yellow, brown and white. Papunya paintings can be painted on anything though traditionally they were painted on rocks, in caves, the paintings were mostly images of animals or lakes, and the Dreamtime.
Stories and legends were depicted on caves and rocks to represent the artists religion, on modern artwork, dots are generally applied with bamboo satay sticks. The larger flat end of bamboo sticks are more commonly used for single application of dots to paintings. To create superimposed dotting, artists may take a bunch of satay sticks, dip the pointy ends into the paint, bark paintings are regarded as fine art, and today the finest art commands high prices on the international art markets. The best artists are recognized annually in the National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Art Award, from ancient times, Australian aboriginal culture produced a genre of aerial landscape art, often titled simply country. It is a kind of maplike, birds-eye view of the desert landscape, in the distant past, the common media for such artwork were rock, sand or body painting, but the tradition continues today in the form of coloured drawings with liquid based colour on canvas. See Aboriginal stone arrangements for more details, carved shells – Riji Mimih small man-like carvings of mythological impish creatures
It is the worlds largest single exposure of limestone bedrock, and occupies an area of about 200,000 square kilometres. At its widest point, it stretches about 1,100 kilometres from east to west across the border between South Australia and Western Australia, the Nullarbor, considered by Europeans to be almost uninhabitable, was used by the semi-nomadic Aborigines, the Spinifex and Wangai peoples. The first Europeans known to have sighted and mapped it were an expedition led by Pieter Nuyts in 1626–27, while the interior remained little known to Europeans over the next two centuries, the name Nuytsland was often applied to the area adjoining the Great Australian Bight. It survives as two names in West Australia, Nuytsland Nature Reserve and Nuyts Land District. Despite the hardships created by the nature of the Nullarbor, European settlers were determined to cross the plain, Eyre departed Fowlers Bay on 17 November 1840 with John Baxter and a party of three Aboriginal men. When three of his horses died of dehydration, he returned to Fowlers Bay and he departed with a second expedition on 25 February 1841.
By 29 April, the party had reached Caiguna, lack of supplies and water led to a mutiny. Two of the Aborigines killed Baxter and took the partys supplies and they completed their crossing in June 1841. In August 1865, while travelling across the Nullarbor, E. A. Delisser in his journal named both Nullarbor and Eucla for the first time. A proposed new state of Auralia would have comprised the Goldfields, the portion of the Nullarbor Plain. Its capital would have been Kalgoorlie, during the British nuclear tests at Maralinga in the 1950s, the government forced the Wangai to abandon their homeland. Since they have been awarded compensation, and many have returned to the general area. Some agricultural interests are on the fringe of the plain including the 2.5 million acre Rawlinna Station, an older property is Madura Station, situated closer to the coast, it has a size of 1.7 million acres and is stocked with sheep. Madura was established prior to 1927, the extent of the property at that time was reported as two million acres, mr Rann said the move would double the area of land in South Australia under environmental protection, to 1.8 million hectares.
The area contains 390 species of plants and a number of habitats for rare species of animals. Crossing the Nullarbor, for many Australians, is an experience of the Australian Outback. Stickers bought from roadhouses on the highway show I have crossed the Nullarbor, the process of beating the crowds on overbooked air services at the time of special sporting events can see significant numbers of vehicles on the road. Crossings in the 1950s and earlier were significant, as most of the route was a dirt track, round-Australia car trials used the Nullarbor crossing for good photo shoots of cars negotiating poor track
Eucla, Western Australia
At the 2006 census, Eucla had a population of 86. The name Eucla is believed to originate from an Aboriginal word Yinculyer which one gives as referring to the rising of the planet Venus. It was first used by Europeans for the area at some point before 1867, in 1841, Eyre and Baxter became the first European explorers to visit the area. In 1867, the president of the Marine Board of South Australia declared a port at Eucla, in 1873, land was taken up at Moopina Station near the present townsite, and work commenced on a telegraph line from Albany to Adelaide. Land was set aside at Eucla for the establishment of a repeater station. The station was important as a point because South Australia and Victoria used American Morse code while Western Australia used the international Morse code that is familiar today. A jetty and tram line were constructed for offloading supplies brought in by sea, the original town was abandoned, and a new townsite established about 4 km to the north and higher up on the escarpment.
The ruins of the telegraph station which still stand amongst the dunes, are a local tourist attraction. In 1898, the population of the town was 96, the story subsequently turned out to be a hoax cooked up by the residents of the tiny settlement. Eucla is the largest stopping point between Norseman and Penong for travellers along the Eyre Highway and it has a hotel and restaurant, a golf club, a museum dedicated to the Old Telegraph Station, and a meteorological station. These together with fishing are the major activities. There is a Travellers Cross that commemorates deceased local people, the South Australian settlement of Border Village is located 12 kilometres east of Eucla. Primarily established as a checkpoint for agricultural produce, this small settlement comprises a licensed roadhouse. Eucla and the area, notably Mundrabilla and Madura, use the Central Western Time Zone of UTC+8,45. Although it has no official sanction, it is observed in this area. Eucla is a major point along the Eyre Highway.
In October 2005, Greyhound Australia announced the closure of their Nullarbor service due to rising fuel prices, Eucla has a mild semi-arid climate with mild winters and warm summers. However, very hot days can occur accompanied by hot northerly winds from the Great Victoria Desert, for a semi-desert climate the humidity is rather high all-year round, due to the moisture from the nearby ocean
Western Mail (Western Australia)
The Western Mail, or Western Mail, was the name of two weekly newspapers published in Perth, Western Australia. It was printed by James Gibbney at the office in St Georges Terrace. The newspaper was renamed to The Countryman on 27 January 1955, the name Western Mail was recycled for a last Christmas Annual in 1956. In 1980 the name was resurrected for a new weekly, published by Western Mail Limited, the push for a new paper was made by Robert Holmes à Court and Bell Group following his failed takeover attempt of The Times. The venture was wound up in 1988, Vol.1, no.1 – Vol.70, no.3403 Days of issues Weekly on Thursday 3 July 1919 –20 January 1955. Weekly on Friday 27 September 1912 –27 June 1919, Weekly on Saturday 16 September 1899 –21 September 1912. Weekly on Friday 21 June 1895 –8 September 1899, known as Weekend Mail – TV from 5 September 1959 to 1960. Annual supplement, Weekend Mail Annual The Western Mail, Perth, W. A,1944, Malcolm Uren Most dates are derived from the entries in the State Librarys reference catalogue, Western Mail 1980 Western Mail 1885
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. 92% of the lives in the south-west corner of the state. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, york was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831, Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890, and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today its economy relies on mining and tourism.
The state produces 46% of Australias exports, Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, the total length of the states eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km of coastline, including 7,892 km of island coastline, the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. Most of the state is a low plateau with an elevation of about 400 metres, very low relief. This descends relatively sharply to the plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile, even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, molybdenum, the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate and herbicides.
These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations, the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora, large areas of the states wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and it was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world