Wesley Wales Wes Anderson is an American film director, film producer and actor. His films are known for their visual and narrative style. He received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Director and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy for The Grand Budapest Hotel in 2014 and he received the BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay in 2015. His films are produced under his American Empirical Pictures banner, Anderson is regarded by many as a modern-day example of the auteur. Wesley Wales Anderson was born on May 1,1969, in Houston, the son of Texas Ann, a realtor and archaeologist, and Melver Leonard Anderson and he is the second of three boys, his parents divorced when he was eight. His elder brother, Mel, is a physician, and his brother, Eric Chase Anderson, is a writer and artist whose paintings. Anderson is of Swedish and Norwegian ancestry and he graduated from St. Johns School in Houston in 1987, which he used as a prominent location throughout Rushmore.
As a child, Anderson made silent films on his fathers Super 8 camera, starring his brothers and friends, Anderson attended college while working part-time as a cinema projectionist. He graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with a degree in philosophy in 1990, Andersons first film was Bottle Rocket, based on a short film that he made with Luke and Owen Wilson. It was a crime caper about a group of young Texans aspiring to achieve major heists and it was well reviewed but performed poorly at the box office. Andersons next film was Rushmore, a comedy about a high school students crush on an elementary school teacher starring Bill Murray. Murray has since appeared in every Anderson film to date, in 2000, filmmaker Martin Scorsese praised Bottle Rocket and Rushmore. The Royal Tenenbaums was Andersons next comedy-drama film, about a successful artistic New York City family and it represented his greatest success until Moonrise Kingdom in 2012, earning more than $50 million in domestic box office receipts.
The Royal Tenenbaums was nominated for an Academy Award and ranked by an Empire poll as the 159th greatest film ever made, Andersons next feature was The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou about a Jacques Cousteau-esque documentary filmmaker played by Bill Murray. It serves as a example of Andersons style, but its critical reception was less favorable than his previous films. They offered Anderson their soundtrack services for his The Darjeeling Limited, the Darjeeling Limited was about three emotionally distant brothers traveling together on a train in India. It reflected the dramatic tone of The Royal Tenenbaums but faced criticisms similar to The Life Aquatic. Anderson has acknowledged that he went to India to film the 2007 movie, the film starred Anderson staples Jason Schwartzman and Owen Wilson in addition to Adrien Brody, and the script was co-written by Anderson and Roman Coppola
Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdoms national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art. It is a network of four art museums, Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate St Ives and Tate Modern, Tate is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Culture and Sport. The name Tate is used as the name for the corporate body. The gallery was founded in 1897, as the National Gallery of British Art, the Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, which is situated in Millbank, London. Tate Liverpool has the purpose as Tate Modern but on a smaller scale. All four museums share the Tate Collection, one of the Tates most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain. The original Tate was called the National Gallery of British Art, situated on Millbank, the idea of a National Gallery of British Art was first proposed in the 1820s by Sir John Leicester, Baron de Tabley.
It took a step nearer when Robert Vernon gave his collection to the National Gallery in 1847, a decade John Sheepshanks gave his collection to the South Kensington Museum, known for years as the National Gallery of Art. Henry Tate donated his own collection to the gallery and it was initially a collection solely of modern British art, concentrating on the works of modern—that is Victorian era—painters. It was controlled by the National Gallery until 1954, in 1926 and 1937, the art dealer and patron Joseph Duveen paid for two major expansions of the gallery building. His father had paid for an extension to house the major part of the Turner Bequest. Henry Courtauld endowed Tate with a purchase fund, by the mid 20th century, it was fulfilling a dual function of showing the history of British art as well as international modern art. In 1954, the Tate Gallery was finally separated from the National Gallery, the Tate began organising its own temporary exhibition programme. In 1979 with funding from a Japanese bank a large extension was opened that would house larger income generating exhibitions.
In 1987, the Clore Wing opened to house the major part of the Turner bequest, in 1988, an outpost in north west England opened as Tate Liverpool. This shows various works of art from the Tate collection as well as mounting its own temporary exhibitions. In 2007, Tate Liverpool hosted the Turner Prize, the first time this has been held outside London and this was an overture to Liverpools being the European Capital of Culture 2008. In 1993, another offshoot opened, Tate St Ives and it exhibits work by modern British artists, particularly those of the St Ives School
Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the owner themselves, or by professionals of varying levels of experience. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the prescribed budget, a gardens location can have a substantial influence on its design. The soils of the site will affect what types of plant may be grown, as will the gardens climate zone, the locational context of the garden can influence its design, for example an urban setting may require a different design style to a rural one. Similarly, a coastal location may necessitate a different treatment compared to a sheltered inland site. The quality of a soil can have a significant influence on a gardens design. However soils may be replaced or improved in order to them more suitable. Traditionally, garden soil is improved by amendment, the process of adding beneficial materials to the native subsoil and particularly the topsoil.
The added materials, which may consist of compost, sand, mineral dust, or manure, among others, are mixed with the soil to the preferred depth. The amount and type of amendment may depend on many factors, including the amount of existing soil humus, the structure, the soil acidity/alkalinity. One source states that, conditioning the soil thoroughly before planting enables the plants to establish themselves quickly, not all gardens are, or should be, amended in this manner, since many plants prefer an impoverished soil. In this case, poor soil is better than a soil that has been artificially enriched. The design of a garden can be affected by the nature of its boundaries, planting can be used to modify an existing boundary line by softening or widening it. Introducing internal boundaries can help divide or break up a garden into smaller areas, the main types of boundary within a garden are hedges and fences. A hedge may be evergreen or deciduous, formal or informal, short or tall, depending on the style of the garden and purpose of the boundary. A wall has a strong foundation beneath it at all points, a fence differs from a wall in that it is anchored only at intervals, and is usually constructed using wood or metal.
In temperate western gardens, an expanse of lawn is often considered essential to a garden. However garden designers may use other surfaces, for example those made up of gravel, small pebbles, or wood chips in order to create a different appearance
A craft is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. The traditional terms craftsman and craftswoman are nowadays often replaced by artisan, the beginning of crafts in areas like the Ottoman empire involved the governing bodies requiring members of the city who were skilled at creating goods to open shops in the center of town. These people slowly stopped acting as subsistence farmers and began to represent what we think of a craftsman today, craftsmen tended to concentrate in urban centers and formed guilds. The households of craftsmen were not as self-sufficient as those of people engaged in agricultural work, once an apprentice of a craft had finished his apprenticeship, he would become a journeyman searching for a place to set up his own shop and make a living. After he set up his own shop, he could call himself a master of his craft. But crafts have undergone deep structural changes during and since the era of the Industrial Revolution, they participate in a certain division of labour between industry and craft.
There are three aspects to human creativity - Art and Science, roughly determinated, art relies upon intuitive sensing and expression, crafts upon sophisticated technique and science upon knowledge. Handicraft is the main sector of the crafts, it is a type of work where useful. Usually the term is applied to traditional means of making goods, the individual artisanship of the items is a paramount criterion, such items often have cultural and/or religious significance. Items made by mass production or machines are not handicraft goods, handicraft goods are made with craft production processes. Crafts practiced by independent artists working alone or in groups are often referred to as studio craft. Studio craft includes studio pottery, metal work, wood turning and other forms of working, glass blowing. A craft fair is an event to display and sell crafts. There are craft shops where such goods are sold and craft communities, such as Craftster, a tradesperson is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft.
Economically and socially, a status is considered between a laborer and a professional, with a high degree of both practical and theoretical knowledge of their trade. In cultures where professional careers are highly prized there can be a shortage of skilled manual workers, media related to Crafts at Wikimedia Commons
Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the worlds largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and these include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. The museum is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. Like other national British museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001, the V&A covers 12.5 acres and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America and North Africa. The museum owns the worlds largest collection of sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan, the East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world.
Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world, New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015. These restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815, at this stage the collections covered both applied art and science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection, by February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive. The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting, in these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of High Art at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum.
George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of art education through the museum collections. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the Science Museum had effectively come into existence when a director was appointed. The laying of the stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria, the exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, A Grand Design, first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999
Michael Carl Ruhlman is an American author, home cook and entrepreneur. He has written 21 books of mostly non-fiction, the best known of which have been in collaboration with American chefs. Michael Carl Ruhlman was born in Cleveland and was educated at University School, a boys day school in Clevelands suburbs. Ruhlman worked a series of odd jobs and traveled before returning to his hometown in 1991, to work for a local magazine. While working at the magazine, Ruhlman wrote an article about his old school and its new headmaster. The success of this book produced two follow-ups, The Soul of a Chef and The Reach of a Chef, in 2009 Ruhlman collaborated with fellow Clevelander and Iron Chef Michael Symon on Symons first cookbook Live to Cook. In 2007, he produced The Elements of Cooking based on the structure of the grammar book The Elements of Style. The book includes essays about the importance of fundamentals in cooking such as heat and stock, much of the insight in the book is based on his previous food-related experiences at the Culinary Institute of America and from working with celebrity chefs.
In 2011, he published Ruhlmans Twenty,20 Techniques,100 Recipes, a Cooks Manifesto, in tmid-2012, Ruhlman published Salumi, a follow-up to Charcuterie about Italian dry-cured Italian meats, which he wrote with Brian Polcyn. The Bouchon Bakery cookbook, another collaboration with Thomas Keller and the TKRG team, was released in the fall of 2012, schmaltz was released as an app in December 2012 and was published as a hardcover book in August 2013. In spring,2014, he published Egg, A Culinary Exploration of the World’s Most Versatile Ingredient. In late 2014, he published Ruhlmans How To Roast, Foolproof Techniques and Recipes for the Home Cook, the second, How To Braise, was published in the spring of 2015. In the fall of 2015, he published his first fiction, In Short Measures, Three Novellas, stories about love in middle age, Ruhlman has acted as a judge on the PBS reality show Cooking Under Fire and on The Next Iron Chef. He has made appearances in shows hosted by Anthony Bourdain. In Bourdains A Cooks Tour he joined Bourdain and Eric Ripert for a meal at Thomas Kellers The French Laundry restaurant, in 2014 Ruhlman appeared in the Las Vegas episode of Anthony Bourdain Parts Unknown.
Ruhlman co-founded a small company in 2011 that manufactures and finds unique and he teamed up with a childhood friend, Mac Dalton to form Dalton-Ruhlman LLC. The company designs and self-manufactures unique tools that have emerged from brainstorming in the kitchen, the focus is on high quality products that enhance the craft of cooking in the home. While the lure of retail distribution in box stores around America is ever present the company has chosen to build its customer base directly from its own online store Dalton-Ruhlman Store
Babar the Elephant
Babar the Elephant is a fictional character who first appeared in 1931 in the French childrens book Histoire de Babar by Jean de Brunhoff. The book is based on a tale that Brunhoffs wife, had invented for their children and it tells of a young elephant Babar whose mother is killed by a hunter. Babar escapes, and in the leaves the jungle, visits a big city. Just as he returns to his community of elephants, their king dies from eating a bad mushroom, because of his travels and civilization, Babar is appointed king of the elephant kingdom. He marries his cousin, and they subsequently have children and teach them valuable lessons, the book series show the successful civilization of someone by the Western World. After Babars mother is shot by a hunter, he flees the jungle and he is befriended by The Old Lady, who buys him clothes and hires him a tutor. Babars cousins Celeste and Arthur find him in the big city, Babar is crowned King of the Elephants and marries his cousin Celeste. In Jean de Brunhoffs second Babar book, The Travels of Babar, and when they escape and return home, what awaits them but war with the rhinoceroses.
Babar wins the war by having the elephants paint monster faces on their backsides, after the victory celebrations, the book ends with Babar and The Old Lady sitting together and discussing how Babar can rule wisely and make all the elephants happy. In the third book, Babar the King, he founds the city of Celesteville, later, a second daughter, was introduced. The Old Lady comes to live in the Kingdom as an honoured guest, besides his Westernizing policies, Babar engages in warfare with the warlike rhinoceroses of a hostile bordering nation, who are led by Lord Rataxes. Much later, in Babar and the Adventures of Badou, Pom grew up, in 1931, Jean de Brunhoff introduced Babar in Histoire de Babar, and Babar enjoyed immediate success. Milne introduced an English-language version, The Story of Babar, in Britain, before his death in 1937, Jean de Brunhoff published six more stories. His son Laurent de Brunhoff, a writer and illustrator, carried on the series from 1946, an animated TV series Babar was produced in Canada by Nelvana Limited and Clifford Ross Company, originally running from 3 January 1989 to 5 June 1991, with 65 episodes.
An additional 13 episodes aired in 2000, the character has appeared in a number of films. Babar, who likes to wear a green suit, introduces a very French form of Western civilization to the elephants. The attention to stylish clothing perhaps reflects the fact that the publisher of the books was Editions du Jardin des Modes. The Babar books were the first Condé-Nast publications not specifically about fashion. Jean de Brunhoff was a master of this form, between 1931 and 1937 he completed a body of work that forever changed the face of the illustrated book
An interior designer is someone who plans, researches and manages such projects. Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, in the past, interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building. The profession of design has been a consequence of the development of society. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the interior design profession. The profession of design is separate and distinct from the role of Interior Decorator. The term is common in the UK where the profession of interior design is still unregulated and therefore, strictly speaking. In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers and this can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts and events are seen in palaces built in 17th century India, in ancient Egypt, soul houses or models of houses were placed in tombs as receptacles for food offerings.
Architects would employ craftsmen or artisans to complete design for their buildings. Large furniture firms began to branch out into general interior design and management and this business model flourished from the mid-century to 1914, when this role was increasingly usurped by independent, often amateur, designers. This paved the way for the emergence of the interior design in the mid-20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, upholsterers began to expand their business remits and they framed their business more broadly and in artistic terms and began to advertise their furnishings to the public. Firms began to publish and circulate catalogs with prints for different lavish styles to attract the attention of expanding middle classes, as department stores increased in number and size, retail spaces within shops were furnished in different styles as examples for customers. One particularly effective advertising tool was to set up rooms at national and international exhibitions in showrooms for the public to see.
Some of the firms in this regard were Waring & Gillow, James Shoolbred, Mintons. This type of firm emerged in America after the Civil War, the Herter Brothers, founded by two German emigre brothers, began as an upholstery warehouse and became one of the first firms of furniture makers and interior decorators. A pivotal figure in popularizing theories of interior design to the class was the architect Owen Jones. His most significant publication was The Grammar of Ornament, in which Jones formulated 37 key principles of interior design, in 1882, the London Directory of the Post Office listed 80 interior decorators
Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel. A negative image on film is used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print. The word photography was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, light and γραφή representation by means of lines or drawing, several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung. Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public.
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566, wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694. The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, the discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley, a hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture, renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means dark chamber in Latin and it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance and he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. The shadow images eventually darkened all over, the first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825, in 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature. Because Niépces camera photographs required a long exposure, he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy, Daguerres efforts culminated in what would be named the daguerreotype process
Frida Kahlo de Rivera, born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón, was a Mexican painter, who mostly painted self-portraits. Inspired by Mexican popular culture, she employed a naïve folk art style to explore questions of identity, gender and her paintings often had strong autobiographical elements and mixed realism with fantasy. In addition to belonging to the post-revolutionary Mexicanidad movement, which sought to define a Mexican identity, born to a German father and a mestiza mother, Kahlo spent most of her childhood and adult life at her family home, La Casa Azul, in Coyoacán. She was left disabled by polio as a child, and at the age of eighteen was seriously injured in a traffic accident, prior to the accident, she had been a promising student headed for medical school, but in the aftermath had to abandon higher education. Although art had been her hobby throughout her childhood, Kahlo began to entertain the idea of becoming an artist during her long recovery and she was interested in politics and in 1927 joined the Mexican Communist Party.
Through the Party, she met the celebrated muralist Diego Rivera and they were married in 1928, and remained a couple until Kahlos death. The relationship was volatile due to both having affairs, they divorced in 1940, but remarried the following year. Kahlo spent the late 1920s and early 1930s traveling in Mexico, the exhibition was a success and was followed by another in Paris in 1939. While the French exhibition was successful, the Louvre purchased a painting from Kahlo. Throughout the 1940s, Kahlo continued to participate in exhibitions in Mexico and she began to teach at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado La Esmeralda, and became a founding member of the Seminario de Cultura Mexicana. Kahlos always fragile health began to decline in the same decade. She had her first solo exhibition in Mexico in 1953, shortly before her death the year at the age of 47. Kahlo was mainly known as Riveras wife until the late 1970s, by the 1990s, she had become not only a recognized figure in art history, but regarded as an icon for Chicanos and the LGBTQ movement.
Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón was born on July 6,1907 in Coyoacán, Kahlo stated that she was born at the family home, La Casa Azul, but according to the official birth registry, the birth took place at the nearby home of her maternal grandmother. Kahlos parents were photographer Guillermo Kahlo and Matilde Calderón y González, originally from Germany, Guillermo had immigrated to Mexico in 1891, after epilepsy caused by an accident ended his university studies. Although Kahlo claimed that her father was Jewish, he was in fact a Lutheran, Matilde was born in Oaxaca to an indigenous father and a mother of Spanish descent. In addition to Kahlo, the marriage produced daughters Matilde and she had two half-sisters from Guillermos first marriage, María Luisa and Margarita, but they were raised in a convent. Kahlo described the atmosphere in her home as often very, very sad
In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including painting, printmaking and other visual media. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature, until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, communication of emotion, during the Romantic period, art came to be seen as a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science. Though the definition of what art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency. The nature of art, and related such as creativity. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning.
English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art, Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homers great poetic art, in Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is an imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankinds advantages over animals. The second, and more recent, sense of the art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century.
The creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a drive and convey a message, mood. Art is something that stimulates an individuals thoughts, beliefs, works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are considered applied art