The Santones or Santoni or Santii were a tribe of ancient Gaul located in the modern region of Saintonge and around the city of Saintes, city to which they gave their name. The Romans occupied the territory of the Santones from the 1st century BC. Laurence Tranoy, « Mediolanum Santonum, Saintes: de la fondation à l’époque julio-claudienne », Roma. La época de la expansión exterior de Roma. Cartago. Alicante: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, 2007, p 226
The Lingones were a Celtic tribe that lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers. Some of the Lingones migrated across the Alps and settled near the mouth of the Po River in Cisalpine Gaul of northern Italy around 400 BC; these Lingones were part of a wave of Celtic tribes that included the Senones. The Lingones may have helped sack Rome in 390 BC; the Gaulish Lingones were Romanized by the 1st century, living in a rich and urbanized society in the region of Langres and Dijon and minting coins, but getting caught up in the Batavian rebellion, described by Tacitus. The strategist Sextus Julius Frontinus, author of the Strategematicon, the earliest surviving Roman military textbook, mentions the Lingones among his examples of successful military tactics: Their capital was called Andematunnum Lingones, now Langres in the Haute-Marne, France, it was built on a rocky promontory above the Marne River, still preserves some of its medieval fortifications, which afford panoramic views of the Marne Valley, the Langres plateau and the Vosges.
The Cathedral St-Mammes, built in the Burgundian Romanesque style for the ancient diocese, referred to as Lingonae and rivaled Dijon. Three of its early bishops were martyred by the invasion of the Vandals, about 407. In Roman Britain, two cohorts of Lingones subscripted from among the Lingones who had remained in the area of Langres and Dijon are attested in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, from dedicatory inscriptions and stamped tiles. Ancient peoples of Italy Celts in the Alps and Po Valley Lepontii Prehistoric Italy Livius.org: Lingones Livius.org: Lingones in the Batavian revolt Second Cohort of Lingones in Roman Britain Lingones in Italy
The Ruteni were a tribe of Gaul. They were located in the modern region of Aveyron, were known as producers of lead; the area was inhabited to this, boasting many prehistoric ruins including over 1,000 Dolmens - more than any other department in France
The Namnetes were a tribe of ancient Gaul, living in the area of the modern city of Nantes near the river Liger. They were neighbours to the Redones, the Andecavi and the Pictones. In the spring 56 BC during the Gallic wars and according to Caesar, the Namnetes allied to the Veneti to fight against the fleet made by Caesar. Decimus Brutus, leader of the Roman fleet won the battle. During Roman domination, the Namnete capital city was located at the confluence of the Loire and the Erdre. During the 3rd century AD, the city became known as Portus Namnetum Nantes in the Middle Ages. According to Strabo, quoting Poseidonios, there is an island in the Ocean near the outlet of the Loire river, inhabited by the "women of the Samnitae,", taken to be a mistake and refers to the "Namnitae" or Namnetes. No man was allowed on the island and the women themselves sailed from it to have intercourse with men on the continent before returning there again, they had the strange custom of unroofing their temple every year and roofing it again on the same day before sunset, each woman bringing her load to add to the roof.
The woman whose load would fall out of her arms was rent to pieces by the rest, they carried the pieces round the temple with the cry of "Ev-ah" in a frenetic manner. According to French archaeologist Jean-Louis Brunaux, there are three reasons to consider the story as factual. First, the wet and windy climate of Western Gaul suggest that the Gallic dwellings were re-roofed every year. Second, not to drop new material was, according to Pliny the Elder, a common religious practice of the Celts. Third, circumambulation existed as a rite among the Celts according to Poseidonios
This article is about the Cenomani in Gallia Celtica. The Cenomani or Aulerci Cenomani were a Celtic people, a branch of the Aulerci in Gallia Celtica, whose territory corresponded to Maine in the modern départment of Sarthe, west of the Carnutes between the Seine and the Loire, their chief town was Vindinum or Suindinum, afterwards Civitas Cenomanorum and Cenomani as in the Notitia Dignitatum, the original name of the town, as usual in the case of Gallic cities, being replaced by that of the people. According to Caesar, they assisted Vercingetorix in the great rising with a force of 5000 men. Under Augustus they formed a civitas stipendiaria of Gallia Lugdunensis, in the 4th century part of Gallia Lugdunensis III. There was another people called Cenomani; the orthography and the quantity of the penultimate vowel of Cenomani have given rise to discussion. According to Arbois de Jubainville, the Cenomni of Italy are not identical with the Cehomni of Gaul. In the case of the latter, the survival of the syllable man in "Le Mans" is due to the stress laid on the vowel.
In Italy, Cenomani is the name of a people. William Smith adopts the difference, placing the peoples in two separate articles in his Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. On the other hand, if the tradition recorded by Cato is true, that the Cenomani formed a settlement near Massilia, among the Volcae, this could indicate a route that the Cenomani took to Cisalpine Gaul in Italy. According to Livy, the Cenomani of Cisalpine Gaul arrived after the expedition of Bellovesus, led by Helitovius, are credited with the foundation of Brixia, or Brescia, Verona; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cenomani". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Cenomani". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray