Art Nouveau is an international style of art and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants. English uses the French name Art Nouveau, according to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many well-off Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, fabrics, ceramics including tableware, cigarette cases, artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects. By 1910, Art Nouveau was already out of style and it was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and by Modernism. Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de lArt Nouveau, in France, Art Nouveau was sometimes called by the British term Modern Style due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts Movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900.
It was sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art Belle Époque, in Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style nouille or Style coup de fouet. In Britain, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of the arts and crafts movement led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, as the Glasgow style. In Italy, because of the popularity in Italy of designs from Londons Liberty & Co department store, in the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was often called the Tiffany style. In Germany and Scandinavia, a style emerged at about the same time, it was called Jugendstil. In Catalonia the related style was known as Modernisme, in Spain as Modernismo, Arte joven, in Russia, it was called Modern, and Jugendstil, and Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands. Some names refer specifically to the forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists, Stile Floreal in France, Paling Stijl in the Netherlands. The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the designs of William Morris.
Early prototypes of the include the Red House of Morris. In France, the style combined several different tendencies, in architecture, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. For each function its material, for each material its form and this book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, and Antoni Gaudí. The French painters Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration, I believe that before everything a painting must decorate, Denis wrote in 1891. The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing and it is by the value of tones, the colored surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
Carl William Frederik Lendorf was a Danish architect and historicist who worked primarily in Odense. He designed Copenhagens 1898 St Thomas Church and he was born in 1839 in Copenhagen, the son of the carpenter Christian Gottfried Lendorf and Vilhelmine Nielsen. A journeyman carpenter in 1855, he attended the School of Architecture until 1863 and he was employed by Ferdinand Meldahl on the construction of Fredericia Town Hall and worked on the reconstruction of Frederiksborg Palace, under Meldahl. Lendorf managed his own firm in Odense and in Copenhagen and he was drawing teacher at Odense Technical College. Lendorf participated in the Nordic Exhibition of 1888 and he was honored as a Knight of the Dannebrog, was awarded the Dannebrogordenens Hæderstegn, and served on the board of the Foreningen for Alderdoms-Friboliger. Lendorf was married on May 12,1863 in Copenhagen to Sophie Christiane Jørgine Anchersen and he died in 1918 at Bagsvaerd and was buried at Solbjerg Parkkirkegård
Enghaveparken is a public park in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was laid out in the late 1920s to cater for the citizens of the expanding city, the park is designed in the Neoclassical style. It has grassy lawns, flower beds and contains a bandstand, in the late 19th century, the Royal Danish Horticultural Society established 478 allotments in Dronningens Enghave at the site where Enghaveparken lies today. Tredje Natur has won a competition to redesign the park, the slightly rectangular park is divided into six spaces, a water garden, a rose garden, a perennial garden, a sports section, a playground and a meeting place. Along its central axis, in front of the entrance which faces Enghavevej. It is popular with ducks and grey heron which come from a colony on an island in close-by Frederiksberg Park. At the extreme far end of the axis, opposite the main entrance. It was designed by famous Danish Modernist architect and designer Arne Jacobsen who spend his two first years after leaving architecture school working at Poul Holsøes office and it is one of his only Neoclassical works.
A year he opened his own practice and built his first Modernist building, the bandstand is decorated with figure reliefs by Aage Nielsen-Edwin, depicting Apollo and the Nine Muses. In front of the entrance stands the statue Venus med Æblet by Kai Nielsen. The tight budget only allowed for this piece of art at the time of the inauguration. Nielsen was popular with the Danish Neoclassical movement of the time, his work for instance dominates Carl Petersens Faaborg Museum, in 1933, Einar Utzon-Franks statue Ungdom was added. The park is popular with locals for sunbathing or picnicking and it has facilities for skater hockey, football and pétanque. The bandstand is used for open-air concerts. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen Enghaveparken on Google maps Enghavevej
Charlottenborg Palace is a large town mansion located on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and Nyhavn in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built as a residence for Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, it has served as the base of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts since its foundation in 1754, today it houses Kunsthal Charlottenborg, an institution for contemporary art, and Danmarks Kunstbibliotek, the Royal Art Library. The site was donated by King Christian V to his half brother Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve on 22 March 1669 in connection with the establishment of Kongens Nytorv, Gyldenløve built his new mansion from 1672 to 1683 as the first building on the new square. The main wing and two wings were built from 1672 to 1677, probably under the architect Ewert Janssen. In 1783 mansion was extended with a rear, fourth wing was designed by Lambert van Haven, the bricks used were brought from Kalø Castle in Jutland which Gyldenløve owned and had pulled down. In his old age, the mansion became too big for Gyldenløve who sold it to the dowager queen Charlotte Amalie in 1700.
After King Christian V´s death in 1699 the Queen Mother, Charlotte Amalie, purchased the Palace for 50,000 Danish crowns, in 1714, when the Queen Downer died, the place was passed to King Christian VI. Renovations began in 1736-1737, and its use and users shifted for a period of time, a small theater was constructed and used for various concerts and theatrical performances. The Palace Garden contained the Botanical Garden between 1778 -1872, in 1701, the old Academy of Arts began its activities in the Palace. The small school slowly grew and was formally inaugurated in the Charlottenborg Palace on March 31,1754. In 1787, the ownership of the Palace was transferred to The Royal Danish Academy of Art, the Academy still occupies the Palace. Charlottenborg is a four-winged, three-storey building designed in the Dutch Baroque style, the main wing towards the square has a central risalit flanked by two more pronounced, two-bay corner risalit. All three are topped by balustrades, the central risalit is decorated with Corinthian pilasters and a Tuscan/Doric portal with balcony The facade has sandstone decorations and window pediments.
The lower rear wing consists of three pavilions, the central pavilion has a Tuscan arcade below, niches with busts above, and a lantern on the copper-covered roof. The floor plan is remniscient of French castles and it has a piano nobile with a banguet hall above the main entrance, with access to the balcony, a ground floor with lower ceilings, and a second floors for servants with even lower ones. Ths arrangement became characteristic of mansions and upper-class town houses in the entire 18th century, in the rear wing, above the arcade, there is a well-preserved domed Baroque room with a splendid stucco ceiling
Vesterbros Torv is a public square located at the corner of Vesterbrogade and Gasværksvej in the heart of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is dominated by Elijahs Church, the square was established in 1850. Its triangular shape of the space was determined by a series of walks which used to be located at the site. The two buildings which flank Elijahs Church date from the establishment of the square, the church was completed as an infill in 1907. It is designed by Martin Nyrop, the theatre was inaugurated in 1908 and is built to a design which mixes Art Nouveaux with other styles. The Hercules Fountain dates from 1915 and was a gift from the society Hovedstadens forskønnelse and it was designed by the sculptor Rasmus Harboe who had previously created the reliefs on the facade of Elijahs Church. 55A commemorates the World War II resistance fighter Erik Koch Michelsen and he was shot at the site on 3 March 1945. In 1901 city architect Ludvig Fenger fitted the square with underground lavatories, similar facilities were constructed at the City Hall Square and Nyhavn
Enghave Brygge is a waterfront area in the Souterhn Docklands of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located between Teglholmen to the south and Kalvebod Brygge to the north, currently an abandoned industrial site, a plan for its redevelopment was adopted in July 2013. The most prominent landmark in the area is the H. C, the land is owned by NPV A/S, JM Danmark samt By & Havn. The plan for the area has created by Juul Frost Arkitekter, Gröning Arkitekter. The area will comprise 2,400 apartments and about 37.800 square metres of commercial and retail space. A central element in the plan is the creation of a 700 metres long canal, Enghave Canal, the buildings along the water will be located on 11 individual islands. A greenspace will mark the transition to H. C, Enghave Brygge will be a station on the planned South Harbour Line of the Copenhagen Metro. Bridges will connect Enghave Brygge to Teglholmen to the south and across the harbor to the part of Islands Brygge
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government