Absolute pitch

Absolute pitch called perfect pitch, is a rare ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of a reference tone. AP can be demonstrated via linguistic labeling, associating mental imagery with the note, or sensorimotor responses. For example, an AP possessor can reproduce a heard tone on a musical instrument without "hunting" for the correct pitch; the frequency of AP in the general population is not known. The assumed occurrence of less than 1:10,000 is reported, but it is not supported by evidence. However, a 2019 review of more recent and international studies indicates prevalence of at least 4% amongst music students. Absolute pitch implies some or all of the following abilities, achieved without a reference tone: Identify by name individual pitches played on various instruments. Name the key of a given piece of tonal music. Identify and name all the tones of a given chord or other tonal mass. Sing a named pitch. Name the pitches of common everyday sounds such as car horns and alarms.

People may have absolute pitch along with the ability of relative pitch, relative and absolute pitch work together in actual musical listening and practice, but strategies in using each skill vary. Adults who possess relative pitch but do not have absolute pitch can learn "pseudo-absolute pitch" and become able to identify notes in a way that superficially resembles absolute pitch. Certain people who train to name notes may indeed become able to identify all 12 notes of the scale with 90% accuracy or above, valproate, a medication used to treat epilepsy and severe depression, may re-open the "critical period" of learning, making the acquisition of absolute pitch, as well as languages as efficient for adults as for children. So, pitch training can require considerable motivation and effort, learning is not retained without constant practice and reinforcement. Scientific study of absolute pitch appears to have commenced in the 19th century, focusing on the phenomenon of musical pitch and methods of measuring it.

It would have been difficult for any notion of absolute pitch to have formed earlier because pitch references were not consistent. For example, the note now known as'A' varied in different local or national musical traditions between what would now be considered as G sharp and B flat before the standardisation of the late 19th century. While the term absolute pitch, or absolute ear, was in use by the late 19th century by both British and German researchers, its application was not universal; the skill is not musical, or limited to human perception. Physically and functionally, the auditory system of an absolute listener does not appear to be different from that of a non-absolute listener. Rather, "it reflects a particular ability to analyze frequency information involving high-level cortical processing." Absolute pitch is an act of cognition, needing memory of the frequency, a label for the frequency, exposure to the range of sound encompassed by that categorical label. Absolute pitch may be directly analogous to recognizing colors, phonemes, or other categorical perception of sensory stimuli.

Just as most people have learned to recognize and name the color blue by the range of frequencies of the electromagnetic radiation that are perceived as light, it is possible that those who have been exposed to musical notes together with their names early in life will be more to identify, for example, the note C. Although it was once thought that it "might be nothing more than a general human capacity whose expression is biased by the level and type of exposure to music that people experience in a given culture", absolute pitch may have contributions from genetic variations an autosomal dominant genetic trait. Absolute pitch sense appears to be influenced by cultural exposure to music in the familiarization of the equal-tempered C-major scale. Most of the absolute listeners that were tested in this respect identified the C-major tones more reliably and, except for B, more than the five "black key" tones, which corresponds to the higher prevalence of these tones in ordinary musical experience.

One study of Dutch non-musicians demonstrated a bias toward using C-major tones in ordinary speech on syllables related to emphasis. Absolute pitch is more common among speakers of tonal languages, such as most dialects of Chinese or Vietnamese, which depend on pitch variation as the means of distinguishing words that otherwise sound the same—e.g. Mandarin with four possible tonal variations, Cantonese with six, Southern Min with seven or eight, Vietnamese with six. Speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages have been reported to speak a word in the same absolute pitch on different days. However, the brains of tonal-language speakers do not process musical sound as language. Many native speakers of a tone language those with little musical training, are observed to sing a given song with regard to pitch. Among music students of East Asian ethnic heritage

2017–18 CB Miraflores season

The 2017–18 CB Miraflores season was the third in existence and their debut in the Liga ACB, the top flight of Spanish basketball, of this club, called San Pablo Burgos for sponsorship reasons. After several disappointments of different teams from the city of Burgos, that could not meet the requirements for promoting, San Pablo Burgos was admitted in the Liga ACB on 14 July 2017; as consequence of this and due to the requirement of the league to play in an arena of at least 5,000 seats, the club moved from Polideportivo El Plantío to the renovated bullring Coliseum Burgos. The club made their debut on 1 October 2017, but they were defeated 65–81 at home by Iberostar Tenerife. After a streak of seven consecutive losses, including the matches against four of the five EuroLeague teams, the first win arrived on 11 November 2017 by beating UCAM Murcia at the Coliseum by 89–86. On 3 December 2017, San Pablo Burgos won their first match away, against RETAbet Bilbao Basket by 62–78. Twenty days the team achieved the third win, the second one away, after beating direct rivals Divina Seguros Joventut by 81–88, thus allowing the club to remain at a distance of only one win for avoiding the relegation positions.

On 14 January 2018, after earning two consecutive wins at MoraBanc Andorra and against Real Betis Energía Plus, after an overtime, San Pablo Burgos left for the first time in the season the relegation positions. Deon Thompson, with a Performance Index Rating of 31 in the second of these matches, was named MVP of the week; the streak would continue with a new win at Pabellón Príncipe Felipe, by defeating Tecnyconta Zaragoza with a 9/9 of Sebas Saiz. San Pablo Burgos did not came back and ended the season with 13 wins in 34 matches, remaining in the ACB without options to be relegated since the 31st round. Source: Source: ACB Official website

Special routes of U.S. Route 52

Several special routes of U. S. Route 52 exist, from North Dakota to South Carolina. In order from northwest to southeast, separated by type, they are as follows. US 52's Welch Alternate route follows the original path of US 52 through town prior to construction of the Welch bypass around 1950; the route follows West Virginia Route 16 along with portions of other streets. U. S. Route 52 Business is a 2-mile-long business route of U. S. Route 52 in Harvey, North Dakota, it runs from U. S. Route 52 in Harvey to U. S. Route 52/North Dakota Highway 3. U. S. Route 52 Business is a special business route of U. S. Route 52 in Ironton, Ohio. U. S. Route 52 Business exits the mainline route at the village of Coal Grove, just south of Ironton follows the original pre-1962 routing of U. S. 52 through the central business district of Ironton before rejoining the mainline near Hanging Rock. U. S. 52 mainline was moved to its current alignment in 1962, a controlled-access 4-lane highway which bypasses the city itself.

The business route was established at that time but was poorly signed for many years until 1999 when an effort to improve signage was completed. Since it has been sufficiently signed as U. S. Route 52 Business. U. S. Route 52 Business was established in 1960, a renumbering of US 52A through downtown Mount Airy, via Main Street, Renfro Street, Lebanon Street. Between 1963–1967, US 52 Business was split on one-way streets: northbound via Cherry and Renfro Streets, southbound via Main Street. Sometime between 1969–1972, southbound US 52 Business was removed from Main and Cherry Streets, moved onto an extended Renfro Street. U. S. Route 52 Business was established in the mid-1990s, it goes through downtown Albemarle, via First Street. U. S. Route 52 Spur is an unsigned 2.98-mile long spur of U. S. Route 52 in Charleston, South Carolina, it extends from U. S. Route 52 to Broad Street along the northeastern side of the peninsula of downtown Charleston; the route provides access for trucks to shipping terminals of the port on the Charleston peninsula: Union Pier and Columbus Street.

The entire route is in the city of Charleston. 1.29 miles of the route is named Morrison Drive and the remaining 1.69 miles is named East Bay Street. One section of the route, Morrison Drive near Jackson Street, will flood during a spring tide; the eastern terminus is near the historic wharves of Charleston, including Adgers Wharf, now the site of a playground. It is adjacent to the old Exchange, or Customs House, of Charleston; the current Customs House, built around the time of the Civil War is on this route. The section named, it was named for William McG. Morrison, mayor of Charleston from 1953 to 1954; when Morrison Drive was constructed, there was still one private terminal operating near the Eastern terminus, the Clydeline Steamship Company. The Clydeline terminal burned down in 1955. In the late 80s, the land of the terminal was rebuilt as Charleston Waterfront Park. U. S. Route 52 Truck follows US 19 from the edge of downtown Bluefield to US 460, a 4-lane highway which it follows back to regular US 52.

The truck route bypasses a residential neighborhood. U. S. Highway 52 Alternate existed in northeastern Iowa in the 1960s; the original pavement on US 52 between Dubuque and Luxemburg was in such poor condition that the Iowa State Highway Commission rerouted the highway along US 20 and Iowa Highway 136 and the alternate route was established along the old route. Once comprehensive repairs were made to the roadway, the mainline designation was restored to the routing. U. S. Route 52A was established in 1953, replacing the old mainline US 52 through downtown Mount Airy, via Main Street, it was renumbered in 1960 as US 52 Business. U. S. Route 52A was established in 1949, replacing the old mainline US 52 through Pilot Mountain, via Main Street, it was renumbered in 1960 as US 52 Business. U. S. Route 52 Business was established in 1960, a renumbering of US 52A through Pilot Mountain, via Main Street, it was decommissioned in 1964 when the Pilot Mountain Parkway was opened, taking US 52 onto a new alignment west of town.

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