Collier's Encyclopedia was a United States-based general encyclopedia published by Crowell and Macmillan. Self-described in its preface as "a scholarly, continuously revised summary of the knowledge, most significant to mankind", it was long considered one of the three major contemporary English-language general encyclopedias, together with Encyclopedia Americana and Encyclopædia Britannica: the three were sometimes collectively called "the ABCs". P. F. Collier & Son Company first published Chandler's Encyclopedia: An Epitome of Human Knowledge with chemist William Henry Chandler as editor-in-chief as early as 1898; the edition of this Encyclopedia was published in only three volumes. Chandler notes in the preface that the purpose of this encyclopedia was to be manageable in size and sold for an affordable price; the goal for the encyclopedia was to provide one paragraph per subject. An example given by the author was if one was looking for an English or Italian poet, you would find them under their name and not a large article on English or Italian literature.
P. F. Collier & Son Company published Collier's New Encyclopedia from 1902–1929 in 16 volumes and in 10 volumes. Collier's 11 volume National Encyclopedia replaced Collier's New Encyclopedia. In 1949 the new 20 volume Collier's Encyclopedia replaced the National Encyclopedia. After Robert Collier's death in 1918, P. F. Collier & Son Company was bought by Crowell Publishing Company. In 1950 Collier Books published the 20-volume Collier's Encyclopedia, it was expanded to 24 volumes in 1962. Until its print edition ceased in 1998, Collier's Encyclopedia was sold exclusively door-to-door, one of the last big-ticket items of that nature in the United States. In fact in the 1930-50's one of the qualifiers for the door to door salesman to determine if one could afford the books, was if there was a telephone present in the household.. To make 24 volumes more affordable, they were purchased one or two volume's each month over one or two years. For many families they became a status symbol; the 1997 edition has 23,000 entries with few short entries, as related subjects are consolidated into longer articles.
A high percentage of the illustrations are in color, more full-color illustrations had been added in recent years resulting in pictorial matter accounting for about two-fifths of the pages. Bibliographies are found in the last volume which contains the 450,000 entry essential index. An annual Collier's Year Book was published. In 1998 Microsoft bought the rights to Collier's electronic version and incorporated it into its Encarta electronic encyclopedia. Atlas Editions retained the rights to publish the encyclopedia in book form, though since Collier's has ceased to be in print. A well-known comparison is that of Kenneth Kister, who gave a qualitative and quantitative comparison of Collier's Encyclopedia with the Encyclopædia Britannica and the Encyclopedia Americana. For the quantitative analysis, ten articles were selected at random and letter grades were awarded in four categories: coverage, accuracy and recency. In all four categories and for all three encyclopaedias, the four average grades fell between B− and B+, chiefly because not one encyclopaedia had an article on sexual harassment in 1994.
In the accuracy category, Collier's received one seven As. Encyclopedia Americana received eight As, the Britannica received one D and eight As. In the timeliness category, Collier's averaged an 85% to Americana's 90% and Britannica's 86%. After a more thorough qualitative comparison of all three encyclopedias, Kister recommended Collier's Encyclopedia on the strength of its writing and navigation. William Terry Couch Chandler, William Henry, ed.. Chandler's Encyclopedia: An Epitome of Universal Knowledge... New York: Collier
Dielectric absorption is the name given to the effect by which a capacitor, charged for a long time, discharges only incompletely when discharged. Although an ideal capacitor would remain at zero volts after being discharged, real capacitors will develop a small voltage from time-delayed dipole discharging, a phenomenon, called dielectric relaxation, "soakage", or "battery action". For some dielectrics, such as many polymer films, the resulting voltage may be less than 1–2% of the original voltage, but it can be as much as 15% for electrolytic capacitors; the voltage at the terminals generated by the dielectric absorption may cause problems in the function of an electronic circuit or can be a safety risk to personnel. In order to prevent shocks, most large capacitors are shipped with shorting wires that need to be removed before they are used and/or permanently connected bleeder resistors; when disconnected at one or both ends, DC high-voltage cables can "recharge themselves" to dangerous voltages.
Charging a capacitor causes an electric field to be applied to the dielectric between the electrodes. This field exerts a torque on the molecular dipoles, causing the directions of the dipole moments to align with the field direction; this change in the molecular dipoles is called oriented polarization and causes heat to be generated, resulting in dielectric losses. The orientation of the dipoles does not follow the electric field synchronously, but is delayed by a time constant that depends on the material; this delay corresponds to a hysteresis response of the polarization to the external field. When the capacitor is discharging, the strength of the electric field is decreasing and the common orientation of the molecular dipoles is returning to an undirected state in a process of relaxation. Due to the hysteresis, at the zero point of the electric field, a material-dependent number of molecular dipoles are still polarized along the field direction without a measurable voltage appearing at the terminals of the capacitor.
This is like an electrical version of magnetic remanence. The oriented dipoles will be discharged spontaneously over time and the voltage at the electrodes of the capacitor will decay exponentially; the complete discharge time of all dipoles can be days to weeks depending on the material. This "reloaded" voltage can be retained for months in electrolytic capacitors, caused by the high insulation resistance in common modern capacitor dielectrics; the discharge of a capacitor and the subsequent reloading can be repeated several times. Dielectric absorption is a property, long known, its value can be measured in accordance with the IEC/EN 60384-1 standard. The capacitor shall be charged at the DC voltage rating for 60 minutes; the capacitor shall be disconnected from the power source and shall be discharged for 10 s. The voltage regained on the capacitor terminals within 15 minutes is the dielectric absorption voltage; the size of the dielectric absorption voltage is specified in relation to the applied voltage in percent and depends on the dielectric material used.
It is specified by many manufacturers in the data sheets. The voltage at the terminals generated by the dielectric absorption may cause problems in the function of an electronic circuit. For sensitive analog circuits such as sample and hold circuits, charge amplifiers or high-quality audio circuits, Class-1 ceramic or polypropylene capacitors instead of Class-2 ceramic capacitors, polyester film capacitors or electrolytic capacitors are used. For most electronic circuits filtering applications, the small dielectric absorption voltage has no influence on the proper electrical function of the circuit. For aluminum electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolyte which are not built into a circuit, the dielectric absorption voltage generated can be a personnel safety risk; the voltage can be quite substantial, for example 50 V for 400 V electrolytic capacitors, can cause damages to semiconductor devices, or cause sparks during installation in the circuit. Larger aluminum electrolytic capacitors and high-voltage power capacitors are transported and delivered short-circuited to dissipate this unwanted and dangerous energy.
Another effect of dielectric absorption is sometimes described as "soakage". This manifests as a component of leakage current and it contributes to the loss factor of the capacitor; this effect has been known of only recently: it is now a proportionately greater part of leakage current due to the improved properties of modern capacitors. No figures are available from manufacturers for double-layer capacitors. Permittivity Types of capacitor#Dielectric absorption Dielectric spectroscopy Understand Capacitor Soakage to Optimize Analog Systems, Bob Pease, EDN, October 13, 1982. What's all this soakage stuff, anyhow?, Bob Pease, Electronic Design, May 12, 1998. Introduction to capacitors
Acoustic absorption refers to the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in sound energy when sound waves are encountered, as opposed to reflecting the energy. Part of the absorbed energy is transformed into heat and part is transmitted through the absorbing body; the energy transformed into heat is said to have been'lost'. When sound from a loudspeaker collides with the walls of a room part of the sound's energy is reflected, part is transmitted, part is absorbed into the walls. Just as the acoustic energy was transmitted through the air as pressure differentials, the acoustic energy travels through the material which makes up the wall in the same manner. Deformation causes mechanical losses via conversion of part of the sound energy into heat, resulting in acoustic attenuation due to the wall's viscosity. Similar attenuation mechanisms apply for any other medium through which sound travels; the fraction of sound absorbed is governed by the acoustic impedances of both media and is a function of frequency and the incident angle.
Size and shape can influence the sound wave's behavior if they interact with its wavelength, giving rise to wave phenomena such as standing waves and diffraction. Acoustic absorption is of particular interest in soundproofing. Soundproofing aims to absorb as much sound energy as possible converting it into heat or transmitting it away from a certain location. In general, pliable, or porous materials serve as good acoustic insulators - absorbing most sound, whereas dense, impenetrable materials reflect most. How well a room absorbs sound is quantified by the effective absorption area of the walls named total absorption area; this is calculated using the absorption coefficients of the walls. The total absorption is expressed in Sabins and is useful in, for instance, determining the reverberation time of auditoria. Absorption coefficients can be measured using a reverberation room, the opposite of an anechoic chamber. Acoustic absorption is critical in areas such as: Soundproofing Sound recording and reproduction Loudspeaker design Acoustic transmission lines Room acoustics Architectural acoustics Sonar Noise Barrier Walls An acoustic anechoic chamber is a room designed to absorb as much sound as possible.
The walls consist of a number of baffles with absorptive material arranged in such a way that the fraction of sound they do reflect is directed towards another baffle instead of back into the room. This makes the chamber devoid of echos, useful for measuring the sound pressure level of a source and for various other experiments and measurements. Anechoic chambers are therefore not common, they must be isolated from outside influences and they must be physically large. The first, environmental isolation, requires in most cases specially constructed, nearly always massive, thick, walls and ceilings; such chambers are built as spring supported isolated rooms within a larger building. The National Research Council in Canada has a modern anechoic chamber, has posted a video on the Web, noting these as well as other constructional details. Doors must be specially made, sealing for them must be acoustically complete, ventilation managed, lighting chosen to be silent; the second requirement follows in part from the first and from the necessity of preventing reverberation inside the room from, say, a sound source being tested.
Preventing echoes is always done with absorptive foam wedges on walls and ceilings, if they are to be effective at low frequencies, these must be physically large. An anechoic chamber must therefore be large to accommodate those absorbers and isolation schemes, but still allow for space for experimental apparatus and units under test; the energy dissipated within a medium as sound travels through it is analogous to the energy dissipated in electrical resistors or that dissipated in mechanical dampers for mechanical motion transmission systems. All three are equivalent to the resistive part of a system of reactive elements; the resistive elements dissipate the reactive elements store and release energy. The reactive parts of an acoustic medium are determined by its bulk modulus and its density, analogous to an electrical capacitor and an electrical inductor, analogous to a mechanical spring attached to a mass. Note that since dissipation relies on the resistive element it is independent of frequency.
In practice however the resistive element varies with frequency. For instance, vibrations of most materials change their physical structure and so their physical properties. Additionally, the cycle of compression and rarefaction exhibits hysteresis of pressure waves in most materials, a function of frequency, so for every compression there is a rarefaction, the total amount of energy dissipated due to hysteresis changes with frequency. Furthermore, some materials behave in a non-Newtonian way, which causes their viscosity to change with the rate of shear strain experienced during compression and rarefaction. Gasses and liquids exhibit less hysteresis than solid materials and behave in a New
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin. Along with inhalation and injection, dermal absorption is a route of exposure for toxic substances and route of administration for medication. Absorption of substances through the skin depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are concentration, duration of contact, solubility of medication, physical condition of the skin and part of the body exposed. Skin absorption is the transport of chemicals from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into circulation. Skin absorption relates to the degree of exposure to and possible effect of a substance which may enter the body through the skin. Human skin comes into contact with many agents unintentionally. Skin absorption can occur from occupational, environmental, or consumer skin exposure to chemicals, cosmetics, or pharmaceutical products; some chemicals can be absorbed in enough quantity to cause detrimental systemic effects. Skin disease is considered one of the most common occupational diseases.
In order to assess if a chemical can be a risk of either causing dermatitis or other more systemic effects and how that risk may be reduced one must know the extent to which it is absorbed, thus dermal exposure is a key aspect of human health risk assessment. Along with inhalation and injection, dermal absorption is a route of exposure for bioactive substances including medications. Absorption of substances through the skin depends on a number of factors: Concentration Molecular Weight of the molecule Duration of contact Solubility of medication Physical condition of the skin Part of the body exposed including the amount of hair on the skin. In general the rate of absorption of chemicals through skin follows the following scheme from fastest to slowest: Scrotal > Forehead > Armpit≥ Scalp > Back = Abdomen > Palm = under surface of the foot. To be absorbed through the skin, a chemical must pass through the epidermis, glands, or hair follicles. Sweat glands and hair follicles make up about 0.1 to 1.0 percent of the total skin surface.
Though small amounts of chemicals may enter the body through the glands or hair follicles, they are absorbed through the epidermis. Chemicals must pass through the seven cell layers of epidermis before entering the dermis where they can enter the blood stream or lymph and circulate to other areas of the body. Toxins and toxicants can move through the layers by passive diffusion; the stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis and the rate-limiting barrier in absorption of an agent. Thus, how something passes through this thicker outer layer determines the overall absorption; the stratum corneum is composed of lipophilic cholesterol, cholesterol esters and ceramides. Thus lipid-soluble chemicals make it through the layer and into the circulation faster, however nearly all molecules penetrate it to some minimal degree. Absorption of chemicals in municipal water and dental products such as VOC, TTHM, fluoride and disinfectants is a major exposure to environmental health hazards. Agents that injure the stratum corneum, such as strong acids, are absorbed faster than chemicals that do not.
Skin damage due to burns, abrasions and skin diseases increase absorption. Thus populations with skin damage may be more susceptible to adverse effects of agents that are absorbed through the skin. Certain solvents like dimethyl sulfoxide act as carriers and are used to transport medication through the skin. DMSO increases the permeability of the stratum corneum. Surfactants like sodium lauryl-sulfate increase the skin penetration of water-soluble substances by increasing the skin permeability of water. Dermal application of a medication or chemical allows treatment to be localized, unlike ingestion or injection; some medications seem to be more effective using the dermal route of administration. Some ingested drugs are metabolized by the liver and may be inactivated, but using a dermal application bypasses this metabolic step allowing more parent compound to enter the peripheral circulation. If a drug is absorbed well through the skin it may be used as a means of systemic medication. Dermal dosage forms include: liniments, lotions, creams, dusting powders and transdermal patches.
Specially designed patches are used to deliver fentanyl and other compounds. Slower skin absorption versus oral or injectable may allow patches to provide medication for 1 to 7 days. For instance nitroglycerin given transdermally may provide hours of protection against angina whereas the duration of effect sublingually may only be minutes; the amount of chemical, absorbed through the skin can be measured directly or indirectly. Studies have shown. Measurements in rats, rabbits or pigs may not reflect human absorption. Finding the rate at which agents penetrate the skin is important for assessing the risk from exposures. A chemical may be directly applied to the skin followed by blood and urine measurements at set time points after application to assess the amount of chemical that entered the body; the concentration in the blood or urine at particular time points can be graphed to show and area under the curve and the extent and duration of absorption and distribution to provide a measure of systemic absorption.
This can be done in humans with a dry chemical powder or a chemical in solution. Rats are used for these experiments. An area of skin is shaved; the area of chemical application is covered to prevents ingestion or rubbing off of the te
An absorption refrigerator is a refrigerator that uses a heat source to provide the energy needed to drive the cooling process. The principle can be used to air-condition buildings using the waste heat from a gas turbine or water heater. Using waste heat from a gas turbine makes the turbine efficient because it first produces electricity hot water, air-conditioning; the American National Standards Institute standard for the absorption refrigerator is given by the ANSI/AHRI standard 560–2000. In the early years of the twentieth century, the vapor absorption cycle using water-ammonia systems was popular and used, but after the development of the vapor compression cycle it lost much of its importance because of its low coefficient of performance. Absorption refrigerators are a popular alternative to regular compressor refrigerators where electricity is unreliable, costly, or unavailable, where noise from the compressor is problematic, or where surplus heat is available. Absorption cooling was invented by the French scientist Ferdinand Carré in 1858.
The original design used sulphuric acid. In 1922 Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters, while they were still students at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, enhanced the principle with a 3-fluid configuration; this "Platen-Munters" design can operate without a pump. Commercial production began in 1923 by the newly formed company AB Arctic, bought by Electrolux in 1925. In the 1960s, absorption refrigeration saw a renaissance due to the substantial demand for refrigerators for caravans. AB Electrolux established a subsidiary in the United States, named Dometic Sales Corporation; the company marketed refrigerators for recreational vehicles under the Dometic brand. In 2001, Electrolux sold most of its leisure products line to the venture-capital company EQT which created Dometic as a stand-alone company. In 1926, Albert Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd proposed an alternative design known as the Einstein refrigerator. At the 2007 TED Conference, Adam Grosser presented his research of a new small, "intermittent absorption" vaccine refrigeration unit for use in third world countries.
The refrigerator is a small unit placed over a campfire, that can be used to cool 15 liters of water to just above freezing for 24 hours in a 30 °C environment. Both absorption and compressor refrigerators use a refrigerant with a low boiling point. In both types, when this refrigerant evaporates, it takes some heat away with it, providing the cooling effect; the main difference between the two systems is the way the refrigerant is changed from a gas back into a liquid so that the cycle can repeat. An absorption refrigerator changes the gas back into a liquid using a method that needs only heat, has no moving parts other than the refrigerant itself; the absorption cooling cycle can be described in three phases: Evaporation: A liquid refrigerant evaporates in a low partial pressure environment, thus extracting heat from its surroundings. Because of the low partial pressure, the temperature needed for evaporation is low. Absorption: The now gaseous refrigerant is absorbed by another liquid. Regeneration: The refrigerant-saturated liquid is heated, causing the refrigerant to evaporate out.
The hot gaseous refrigerant passes through a heat exchanger, transferring its heat outside the system, condenses. The condensed refrigerant supplies the evaporation phase. In comparison, a compressor refrigerator uses a compressor powered by either an electric or internal combustion motor, to increase the pressure on the gaseous refrigerant; the resulting hot, high-pressure gas is condensed to a liquid form by cooling in a heat exchanger, exposed to the external environment. The condensed refrigerant, now at a temperature near to that of the external environment passes through an orifice or a throttle valve into the evaporator section; the orifice or throttle valve creates a pressure drop between the high pressure condenser section and the low pressure evaporator section. The lower pressure in the evaporator section allows the liquid refrigerant to evaporate, which absorbs heat from the refrigerator food compartment; the now-vaporized refrigerant goes back into the compressor to repeat the cycle.
Another difference between the two types is the refrigerant used. Compressor refrigerators use an HCFC or HFC, while absorption refrigerators use ammonia or water. A simple absorption refrigeration system common in large commercial plants uses a solution of lithium bromide and lithium chloride salt and water. Water under low pressure is evaporated from the coils; the water is absorbed by a lithium bromide/water solution. The system drives the water off the lithium bromide solution with heat. Another variant, uses air, a salt water solution; the intake of warm, moist air is passed through a sprayed solution of salt water. The spray lowers the humidity but does not change the temperature; the less humid, warm air is passed through an evaporative cooler, consisting of a spray of fresh water, which cools and re-humidifies the air. Humidity is removed from the cooled air with another spray of salt solution, providing the outlet of cool, dry air; the salt solution is regenerated by heating it under low pressur
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the blood stream. Digestion is a form of catabolism, divided into two processes based on how food is broken down: mechanical and chemical digestion; the term mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes. In chemical digestion, enzymes break down food into the small molecules. In the human digestive system, food enters the mouth and mechanical digestion of the food starts by the action of mastication, a form of mechanical digestion, the wetting contact of saliva. Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in the food. After undergoing mastication and starch digestion, the food will be in the form of a small, round slurry mass called a bolus.
It will travel down the esophagus and into the stomach by the action of peristalsis. Gastric juice in the stomach starts protein digestion. Gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin, it contains rennin in case of infants and toddlers. As the first two chemicals may damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by the stomach, providing a slimy layer that acts as a shield against the damaging effects of the chemicals. At the same time protein digestion is occurring, mechanical mixing occurs by peristalsis, waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall; this allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes. After some time, the resulting thick liquid is called chyme; when the pyloric sphincter valve opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile juice from the liver and passes through the small intestine, in which digestion continues. When the chyme is digested, it is absorbed into the blood. 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine.
Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon where the pH is acidic about 5.6 ~ 6.9. Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K produced by bacteria in the colon are absorbed into the blood in the colon. Waste material is eliminated from the rectum during defecation. Digestive systems take many forms. There is a fundamental distinction between external digestion. External digestion developed earlier in evolutionary history, most fungi still rely on it. In this process, enzymes are secreted into the environment surrounding the organism, where they break down an organic material, some of the products diffuse back to the organism. Animals have a tube in which internal digestion occurs, more efficient because more of the broken down products can be captured, the internal chemical environment can be more efficiently controlled; some organisms, including nearly all spiders secrete biotoxins and digestive chemicals into the extracellular environment prior to ingestion of the consequent "soup".
In others, once potential nutrients or food is inside the organism, digestion can be conducted to a vesicle or a sac-like structure, through a tube, or through several specialized organs aimed at making the absorption of nutrients more efficient. Bacteria use several systems to obtain nutrients from other organisms in the environments. In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria, it is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein, outer membrane protein. This secretion system transports various molecules, from drugs, to proteins of various sizes; the molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 900 kDa. A type III secretion system means that a molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium can inject nutrients into protist cells. One such mechanism was first discovered in Y. pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells rather than be secreted into the extracellular medium.
The conjugation machinery of some bacteria is capable of transporting proteins. It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, which develops the crown gall; the VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the prototypic system. The nitrogen fixing Rhizobia are an interesting case, wherein conjugative elements engage in inter-kingdom conjugation; such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter the plant cell nucleus and transform the plant cells into factories for the production of opines, which the bacteria use as carbon and energy sources. Infected plant cells form crown root tumors; the Ti and Ri plasmids are thus endosymbionts of the bacteria, which are in turn endosymbionts of the infected plant. The Ti and Ri plasmids are themselves conjugative. Ti and Ri transfer between bacteria uses an inde
In positive psychology, a flow state known colloquially as being in the zone, is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does, a resulting loss in one's sense of space and time. Named by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi in 1975, the concept has been referred to across a variety of fields, though the concept has existed for thousands of years under other names, notably in some Eastern religions, for example Buddhism; the flow state shares many characteristics with hyperfocus. However, hyperfocus is not always described in a positive light; some examples include spending "too much" time playing video games or spending too much time on watching tv, getting side-tracked and pleasurably absorbed by one aspect of an assignment or task to the detriment of the overall assignment. In some cases, hyperfocus can "capture" a person causing them to appear unfocused or to start several projects, but complete few.
Jeanne Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi identify the following six factors as encompassing an experience of flow: Intense and focused concentration on the present moment Merging of action and awareness A loss of reflective self-consciousness A sense of personal control or agency over the situation or activity A distortion of temporal experience, one's subjective experience of time is altered Experience of the activity as intrinsically rewarding referred to as autotelic experienceThose aspects can appear independently of each other, but only in combination do they constitute a so-called flow experience. Additionally, psychology writer Kendra Cherry has mentioned three other components that Csíkszentmihályi lists as being a part of the flow experience: "Immediate feedback" Feeling that you have the potential to succeed Feeling so engrossed in the experience, that other needs become negligibleJust as with the conditions listed above, these conditions can be independent of one another. Flow is so named because during Csíkszentmihályi's 1975 interviews several people described their "flow" experiences using the metaphor of a water current carrying them along.
Flow science dates back to the early 1900s, when researchers like Harvard’s William James began documenting the ways the brain can alter consciousness to improve performance, legendary physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon, James’ student, discovered a link between mind and body—the fight-or-flight response—that helped explain this amplified performance. Mihaly Csikszentmihályi and fellow researchers began researching flow after Csikszentmihályi became fascinated by artists who would get "lost" in their work. Artists painters, got so immersed in their work that they would disregard their need for food and sleep. Thus, the origin of research on the theory of flow came about when Csikszentmihályi tried to understand this phenomenon experienced by these artists. Flow research became prevalent in the 1980s and 1990s, with Csikszentmihályi and his colleagues in Italy still at the forefront. Researchers interested in optimal experiences and emphasizing positive experiences in places such as schools and the business world began studying the theory of flow at this time.
The theory of flow was used in the theories of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers in their development of the humanistic tradition of psychology. Ideas similar to flow have been recognized across cultures; the teachings of Buddhism and of Taoism speak of a state of mind known as the "action of inaction" or "doing without doing" that resembles the idea of flow. Hindu texts on Advaita philosophy such as Ashtavakra Gita and the Yoga of Knowledge such as Bhagavad-Gita refer to a similar state. In any given moment, there is a great deal of information made available to each individual. Psychologists have found that one's mind can attend to only a certain amount of information at a time. According to Csikszentmihályi's 2004 TED talk, that number is about "110 bits of information per second"; that may seem like a lot of information. Just decoding speech takes about 60 bits of information per second; that is. For the most part, people are able to decide. However, when one is in the flow state, they are engrossed with the one task at hand and, without making the conscious decision to do so, lose awareness of all other things: time, people and basic bodily needs.
This occurs. The flow state has been described by Csikszentmihályi as the "optimal experience" in that one gets to a level of high gratification from the experience. Achieving this experience is considered to be personal and "depends on the ability" of the individual. One's capacity and desire to overcome challenges in order to achieve their ultimate goals not only leads to the optimal experience, but to a sense of life satisfaction overall. There are three common ways to measure flow experiences: the flow questionnaire, the experience sampling method, the "standardized scales of the componential approach"; the FQ requires individuals to identify definitions of flow and situations in which they believe that they have experienced flow, followed by