Lahore is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city after Karachi, is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, one of Pakistan's most liberal and cosmopolitan cities. Lahore's origins reach into antiquity; the city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, served as its capital city for a number of years; the city was captured by the forces of the Afsharid ruler Nader Shah in 1739, fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, regained much of its lost grandeur. Lahore was annexed to the British Empire, made capital of British Punjab.
Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence. Following independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province. Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore is a major centre for Pakistan's publishing industry, remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene; the city is a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is home to Pakistan's film industry, is a major centre of Qawwali music; the city hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the Walled City, the famous Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques and Sikh shrines. Lahore is home to the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The origins of Lahore's name are unclear. Lahore's name had been recorded by early Muslim historians as Lōhar, Lōhār, Rahwar. Al-Biruni referred to the city as Lohāwar in his 11th century work, while the poet Amir Khusrow, who lived during the Delhi Sultanate, recorded the city's name as Lāhanūr. Medieval Rajput sources recorded the city's name as Lavkot. One theory suggests that Lahore's name is a corruption of the word Ravāwar, as R to L shifts are common in languages derived from Sanskrit. Ravāwar is the simplified pronunciation of the name Iravatyāwar - a name derived from the Ravi River, known as the Iravati River in the Vedas. Another theory suggests the city's name may derive from the word Lohar, meaning "blacksmith."According to Hindu legend, Lahore's name derives from Lavpur or Lavapuri, is said to have been founded by Prince Lava, the son of Sita and Rama. The same account attributes the founding of nearby Kasur by his twin brother Prince Kusha, Historic record shows, that Kasur was founded by Pashtun migrants in 1525.
No definitive records exist to elucidate Lahore's earliest history, Lahore's ambiguous early history have given rise to various theories about its establishment and history. Hindu mythology states that Keneksen, the founder of the mythological Suryavansha dynasty, is believed to have migrated out from the city. Early records of Lahore are scant, but Alexander the Great's historians make no mention of any city near Lahore's location during his invasion in 326 BCE, suggesting the city had not been founded by that point, or was unimportant. Ptolemy mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated near the Chenab and Ravi River which may have been in reference to ancient Lahore, or an abandoned predecessor of the city. Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang gave a vivid description of a large and prosperous unnamed city when he visited the region in 630 CE, identified as Lahore; the first document that mentions Lahore by name is the Hudud al-'Alam, written in 982 C. E. in which Lahore is mentioned as a town which had "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards."Few other references to Lahore remain from before its capture by the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century.
Lahore appears to have served as the capital of Punjab during this time under Anandapala of the Kabul Shahi empire, who had moved the capital there from Waihind. The capital would be moved to Sialkot following Ghaznavid incursions. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni captured Lahore on an uncertain date, but under Ghaznavid rule, Lahore emerged as the empire's second capital. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the Throne of Lahore—a governorship of the Ghaznavid Empire; the city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Governor of Multan, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz in 1036. With the support of Sultan Ibrahim Ghaznavi, Malik Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city, devastated after the Ghaznavid invasion. Ayaz erected city walls and a masonry fort built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, demolished during the Ghaznavid invasion. A confederation of Hindu princes unsuccessfully laid siege to Lahore in 1043-44 during Ayaz' rule; the city became a academic centre, renowned for poetry under Malik Ayaz' reign.
Lahore was formally made the eastern capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1152, under the reign of Khusrau Shah. The city became the sole capital of the Ghaznavid empire in 1163 after the fall of Ghazni; the entire city of Lahore during the medieval Ghaznavid era was probably
Sylhet, is a geographical and cultural region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and comprises the Sylhet Division in Bangladesh, which includes the Surma Valley, the three districts of the Barak Valley in Assam, India. In 1947, when a plebiscite was held in Sylhet, the population decided to join to the Pakistani province of East Bengal. However, when the Radcliffe Line was drawn up, the Barak Valley was given to India by the Commission after being pleaded by a delegation led by Abdul Matlib Mazumdar. Nihar Ranjan Roy, author of Bangalir Itihash, says that "South Assam / Northeastern Bengal or Barak Valley is the extension of the Greater Surma/Meghna Valley of Bengal in every aspect from culture to geography"; the name Sylhet is a corruption from Srihatta. In Indo-Aryan languages, Sri means beauty. Hatta is a term for a marketplace; the name of the region was changed to Jalalabad during the Sultanate period, but the actual town of Srihatta kept its name. In the Mughal Empire's records, Srihatta was used as the name for the city in the Bengal Subah.
In British India, Srihatta became known as Sylhet in English and in Pakistan, the name Sylhet remained however the division was called Jalalabad district. According to historians, Sylhet was an expanded commercial centre inhabited by Brahmans under the realm of the Harikela and Kamarupa kingdoms of ancient Bengal and Assam. Buddhism was prevalent in the first millennium. In the early medieval period, the area was dominated by Hindu principalities, which were under the nominal suzerainty of the Senas and Devas; the history of the dynasties in the region is documented by their copper-plate charters. The Hindu epic known as the Mahabharata mentions the marriage of Duryodhana of the Kauravas into a family in Habiganj, Sylhet; the Purana mentions the hero Arjuna travelling to the Jaintia area of Sylhet to regain his horse held captive by a princess. The region is home to two of the fifty-one body parts of Sati, a form of Durga, that fell on Earth according to accepted legends. Shri Shail and Jayanti are where the neck and left palm of Sati are Shakti Peethas.
The region was home to many petty kingdoms such as Taraf, Gour and Ita. Evidence from inscriptions suggest there was an ancient university in Panchgaon, Rajnagar; the terrain was headquarters of the ancient Ita Kingdom. The 14th century marked the beginning of Islamic influence in Sylhet. In 1303, the Sultan of Bengal Shamsuddin Firoz Shah's army defeated the local Hindu Raja Gour Govinda; this war began when Burhanuddin Quhafa, a Muslim living in Sylhet sacrificed a cow for his newborn son's aqiqah or celebration of birth. Govinda, in a fury for what he saw as sacrilege, had the newborn killed as well as having Burhanuddin's right hand cut off; the general's army was aided by a Middle Eastern Sufi missionary, Shah Jalal, 313 of his companions. The Kingdom of Srihatta was renamed as Jalalabad under the Bengal Sultanate, it hosted a mint. Bengali Muslims were exploiting the fertile land of Sylhet for agricultural production and enjoyed relative prosperity; the region began to experience an influx of Muslim settlers, including Turks and Persians.
Many mosques were built during this period such as Goyghor Mosque and Uchail Mosque, as well as numerous dargah complexes commemorating Shah Jalal and his disciples. In addition, 1486 marked the birth of Chaitanya whose ancestral homes are in Golapganj and Baniachong. Hindus believe Chaitanya will return during the Kholi Zug. In 1499, a Persian nobleman from Isfahan known as Prince Sakhi Salamat settled in a rural village in the Sylhet district known as Prithimpassa. Being a wealthy nobleman; the Battle of Tukaroi fought on 3 March 1575 forced Daud Khan Karrani, the last Sultan, to withdraw to Orissa. The battle led to the Treaty of Cuttack in which Daud ceded the whole of Bengal and Bihar, retaining only Orissa; the treaty failed after the death of Mughal general Munim Khan who died at the age of 80 in October 1575. Daud Khan took invaded Bengal, declaring independence from Akbar; the Mughal onslaught against the Karrani sultanate ended with the Battle of Rajmahal on 12 July 1576, led by the Mughal general Khan Jahan I.
Daud Khan was executed. However, the Pashtuns and the local landlords known as Baro Bhuyans led by Isa Khan continued to resist the Mughal invasion. In 1612 during the reign of Jahangir, Bengal was integrated as a Mughal province known as the Bengal Subah; the Mughals subsequently conquered the region. This caused a further influx of Muslim settlers from Afghanistan. Sylhet became a sarkar headquarter of the Bengal Subah, its eight mahals/mahallahs included Pratapgarh, Jaintia, Sarail and Harinagar. The district generated annual revenues of 167,000 rupees; the Mughals built many masjids and eidgahs across the region. During emperor Aurangzeb's reign, the local faujdar Farhad Khan built Sylhet Shahi Eidgah in the 17th century, still remains the largest eidgah in the region. Sylhet made a part of the Bengal Presidency. Sylhet was strategically important for the British in their pursuit of conquering Northeast India and Upper Burma. In 1782, the first Bengali uprising against the British took place in Sylhet Shahi Eidgah in which Robert Lindsay, the colonial supervisor of Sylhet, killed one of the leaders of the rally, Syed Muhammad Hadi, with his own pistol.
The other leader, the brother of Hadi, Syed Muhammad Mahdi was killed in
Abdur Rahman Chughtai
Abdur Rahman Chughtai was a painter artist and intellectual from Pakistan, who created his own unique, distinctive painting style influenced by Mughal art, miniature painting, Art Nouveau and Islamic art traditions. He is considered'the first significant modern Muslim artist from South Asia', the national artist of Pakistan, he was given the title of Khan Bahadur by the British Empire in India in 1934, awarded Pakistan's Hilal-i-Imtiaz in 1960, the Presidential medal for Pride of Performance in 1958. Chughtai was born on 21 Sep 1894 in Lahore, now in Pakistan, he was born in Lahore in the area known as'Mohalla Chabuk Sawaran', the second son of Karim Bukhsh, in a family descended from generations of craftsmen and decorators. Chughtai learnt naqqashi from his uncle Baba Miran Shah Naqqash at a local mosque. After completing his education at the Railway Technical School, Lahore, in 1911, Chughtai joined the Mayo School of Arts, where Samarendranath Gupta, a pupil of Abanindranath Tagore was Vice-Principal.
After leaving the school, he made a living for a while as a drawing teacher. He became the head instructor in chromo-lithography at the Mayo School. In 1916, Chughtai's first painting in a revivalist'oriental' style appeared in the Modern Review, he had his first exhibition in 1920 at the Punjab Fine Art Society. He exhibited with the Indian School of Oriental Art during the 1920s, by which time he had become quite renowned, his work contributed to Lahore's burgeoning modern art scene. Whilst he predominantly worked with watercolors, Chughtai was a print-maker, perfecting his etching skills in London during visits in the mid-1930s, his sketches were used in many books in Punjabi poetry by Bhai Vir Singh for illustrating his famous poems like "Kambadi Kalai" and including his famous epic "Rana Surat Singh". Chughtai offered his gratitude to Bhai Vir Singh for becoming part of these illustrations as a young artist in his letter to him on 11.04.1929In his sixty years of artistic creation, Chughtai produced nearly 2000 watercolours, thousands of pencil sketches, nearly 300 etchings and aquatints.
He wrote short stories, articles on art. He designed stamps, coins and book covers, he was an avid collector of miniatures and other art. He published three books of his own work: the Muraqqai-i-Chughtai, Naqsh-i-Chughtai and Chughtai's Paintings; the Muraqqa-i-Chughtai was a sumptuously illustrated edition of Mirza Ghalib's Urdu poetry, with a foreword by Sir Muhammad Iqbal. It is regarded as the most significant work of Chughtai's career and in its time, was considered the finest achievement in book production in the country. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, Chughtai came to be regarded as one of the most famous representatives of Pakistan. Chughtai’s paintings were given to visiting heads of states. Allama Iqbal, Pablo Picasso, Elizabeth II were amongst his admirers. Chughtai's closest associate was his younger brother Abdullah Chughtai, a scholar and researcher of Islamic art. Chughtai married twice, had two children, a son and daughter, he died in Lahore on 17 January 1975. Chughtai's early watercolours take off from the revivalism of the Bengal School of Art – his Jahanara and the Taj, for instance, shows the influence of Abanindranath's The Last Moments of Shah Jahan.
By the 1940s, he had created his own style influenced by Islamic art traditions, but retaining a feel of Art Nouveau. His subject matter was drawn from the legends and history of the Indo-Islamic world, as well as Punjab and the world of the Mughals. Abdur Rahman Chughtai designed the logo for the Pakistan Television Corporation at the behest of its first general manager, Ubaidur Rahman; the logo has been tweaked and modified over the years since its inception but remains fundamentally the same. On Pakistan's independence day in 1951, he produced a set of 9 stamps, better known as'Chughtai Art set'. At that time, this set was considered as the most beautiful stamps of the world. Artist and gallery owner Salima Hashmi deems Chughtai one of South Asia’s foremost painters. “He was part of the movement that started in the early part of the 20th century to establish an identity indigenous to the subcontinent,” she said. “He rejected the hegemony of the British Colonial aesthetic.” Chughtai's works are displayed at the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Peace Palace, United Nations Headquarters, New York, the Kennedy Memorial in Boston, the US State Department, President's House Bonn, AP State Archaeology Museum, Queen Juliana's Palace in the Netherlands, Emperor's Palace Bangkok, President House Islamabad, Governors’ Houses in Lahore and Karachi, the National Art Gallery, Islamabad..
Many of his works are at the Chughtai Museum Trust in Pakistan. Amal-i Chughtaʾi: Poet of the East Lahore: Self-published, 1968. Chughtai’s Indian Paintings. New Delhi: Dhoomi Mal, 1951. Chughtai’s Paintings. 2nd ed. Lahore: Print Printo Press, 1970. Lahaur ka dabistan-i musavviri. Lahore: Chughtai Museum Trust, 1979. Maqalat-i Chughtaʾi. 2 vols. Islamabad: Idarah-yi Saqafat-i Pakistan, 1987. Muraqqaʿ-i Chughtaʾi. Lahore: Jahangir Book Club, 1928. Naqsh-i Chughtaʾi: Divan-i Ghalib Musavvir. Lahore: Ahsan Bradarz, 1962. Among Chughtai's popularly known works are the logos of Pakistan Television and Radio Pakistan and his painting of Anarkali for the cover of a 1992 drama. Additionally, one of the most successful UNICEF cards features a Chughtai piece, he was known for his designs of postage stamps. United Nations Organization art correspondent Jacob-Baal Teshuva wrote that Chughtai’s paintings are the largest set released in 1948. Anarkali http://www.caroun.com/Painting/Pakistan/Painters
Bengal is a geopolitical and historical region in South Asia in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world. Politically, Bengal is divided between Bangladesh and the Indian territories of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley. In 2011, the population of Bengal was estimated to be 250 million, making it one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Among them, an estimated 160 million people live in Bangladesh and 91.3 million people live in West Bengal. The predominant ethnolinguistic group is the Bengali people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Bengali Muslims are the majority in Bangladesh and Bengali Hindus are the majority in West Bengal and Tripura, while Barak Valley contains equal proportions of Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims. Outside Bengal proper, the Indian territories of Jharkhand and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are home to significant communities of Bengalis.
Dense woodlands, including hilly rainforests, cover Bengal's eastern areas. In the littoral southwest are the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal tiger. In the coastal southeast lies Cox's Bazar, the longest beach in the world at 125 km; the region has a monsoon climate. At times an independent regional empire, Bengal was a leading power in Southeast Asia and the Islamic East, with extensive trade networks. In antiquity, its kingdoms were known as seafaring nations. Bengal was known to the Greeks as Gangaridai, notable for mighty military power, it was described by Greek historians that Alexander the Great withdrew from India anticipating a counterattack from an alliance of Gangaridai. Writers noted merchant shipping links between Bengal and Roman Egypt; the Bengali Pala Empire was the last major Buddhist imperial power in the subcontinent, founded in 750 and becoming the dominant power in the northern Indian subcontinent by the 9th century, before being replaced by the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 12th century.
Islam was introduced through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate. The Islamic Bengal Sultanate, founded in 1352, was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576; the Mughal Bengal Subah province became a major global exporter, a center of worldwide industries such as cotton textiles, shipbuilding, 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. Bengal was conquered by the British East India Company in 1757 by Battle of Plassey and became the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj, which experienced deindustrialization under British rule; the Company increased agriculture tax rates from 10 percent to up to 50 causing the Great Bengal famine of 1770 and the deaths of 10 million Bengalis. Bengal played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups were dominant. Armed attempts to overthrow the British Raj began with the rebellion of Titumir, reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army allied with Japan to fight against the British.
A large number of Bengalis died in the independence struggle and many were exiled in Cellular Jail, located in Andaman. The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946, split the region into India and Pakistan, popularly known as partition of Bengal, opposed by the Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and nationalist leader Sarat Chandra Bose, they campaigned for a independent nation-state of Bengal. The initiative failed owing to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Hindus. Pakistan ruled East Bengal becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh by Bangladesh War of Independence in 1971. Bengali culture has been influential in the fields of literature, shipbuilding, architecture, currency, commerce and cuisine; the name of Bengal is derived from the ancient kingdom of Banga, the earliest records of which date back to the Mahabharata epic in the first millennium BCE. Theories on the origin of the term Banga point to the Proto-Dravidian Bong tribe that settled in the area circa 1000 BCE and the Austric word Bong.
The term Vangaladesa is used to describe the region in 11th-century South Indian records. The modern term Bangla is prominent from the 14th century, which saw the establishment of the Sultanate of Bengal, whose first ruler Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was known as the Shah of Bangala; the Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the Age of Discovery. The modern English name Bengal is an exonym derived from the Bengal Sultanate period. Most of the Bengal region lies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, but there are highlands in its north and southeast; the Ganges Delta arises from the confluence of the rivers Ganges and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The total area of Bengal is 232,752 km2—West Bengal is 88,752 km2 and Bangladesh 147,570 km2; the flat and fertile Bangladesh Plain dominates the geography of Bangladesh. The Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet regions are home to most of the mountains in Bangladesh. Most parts of Bangladesh are within 10 metres above the sea level, it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 metre.
Because of this l
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Malika Pukhraj was a popular Ghazal and folk singer of Pakistan. She was known as "Malika", meaning "The Queen", publicly, she is popular for her rendition of Hafeez Jalandhri's nazm song, Abhi tau main jawan hoon, enjoyed by millions not only in Pakistan, but in India. Others among her popular numbers were Lo phir basant aaii, Quli Qutub's Piya baaj piyala piya jaey na, Faiz Ahmed Faiz's Mere qatil mere dildar mere paas raho. Malika Pukhraj was born in Hamirpur Sidhar to a Kanjar family of professional musicians, she was given the name "Malika" at birth by Baba Roti Ram'Majzoob', a spiritualist, in the Akhnoor area, named Pukhraj by her aunt who herself was a professional singer-dancer. Malika Pukhraj received her traditional musical training from Ustad Ali Baksh Kasuri, the father of legendary singer Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan. At the age of nine, she visited Jammu and performed at the coronation ceremony of Maharaja Hari Singh, so impressed by her voice that he appointed her as a court singer in his Durbar.
She stayed there as a singer for another nine years. She was among the well-known professional singers of India in the 1940s and after Partition of India in 1947, she migrated to Lahore, where she received much more fame, through her radio performances with composer Kale Khan at Radio Pakistan, Lahore, her voice is most suitable for'folk songs of the hills'. In 1980, she received the Pride of Performance Award from the President of Pakistan. In 1977, when All India Radio, for which she sang until the Partition in 1947, was celebrating its Golden Jubilee, she was invited to India and awarded with the'legend of Voice' award. Malika Pukhraj recorded her memoirs in the novel Song Sung True. Malika Pukhraj died in Lahore, Pakistan on 4 February 2004, her funeral procession started from her residence at West Canal bank, the ceremony was held in the house of her eldest son. She was buried at Shah Jamal graveyard in Lahore. Malika Pukhraj was married to Shabbir Hussain, a junior government official in the Punjab, had six children including Tahira Syed a singer in Pakistan