SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Abu Ghraib

Abu Ghraib is a city in the Baghdad Governorate of Iraq, located just west of Baghdad's city center, or northwest of Baghdad International Airport. It has a population of 189,000; the old road to Jordan passes through Abu Ghraib. The government of Iraq created the city and Abu Ghraib District in 1944; the placename has been translated as'father of little crows', but this translation has been suspected of being a folk etymology, the name may be related to gharb instead. Abu Ghraib was known for the Abu Ghraib Infant Formula Plant, which Western intelligence agencies perennially claimed to be a biological weapons production facility; the plant was painted with a dappled camouflage pattern during the Iran -- Iraq War. It was bombed during the Gulf War, the Iraqi government allowed CNN reporter Peter Arnett to film the destroyed building along with a conspicuous hand-painted sign that read, "baby milk factory". Iraq rebuilt the facility afterward, US Secretary of State Colin Powell falsely cited it again as a weapons production plant in the run-up to the Iraq War though the CIA’s own investigation had concluded that the site had been bombed “in the mistaken belief that it was a key BW facility.”

An examination of suspected weapons facilities by the Iraq Survey Group determined that the plant, in disuse for some time, housed discarded infant formula, but found no evidence of weapons production. The city is the site of Abu Ghraib prison, one of the sites where political dissidents were incarcerated under former ruler Saddam Hussein. Thousands of these dissidents were tortured and executed. After Saddam Hussein's fall, the Abu Ghraib prison was used by American forces in Iraq. In 2003, Abu Ghraib prison earned international notoriety for the torture and abuses by members of the United States Army during the post-invasion period. Discussing, Pronouncing, Abu Ghraib, National Public Radio story on Abu Ghraib pronunciation, August 26, 2004

1946–47 Liga Bet

The 1946–47 Liga Bet season was the second tier season of league football in the British Mandate for Palestine. The league covered wider areas as South; this was the last completed season under the British Mandate for Palestine. Maccabi Haifa and Hapoel HaTzafon Tel Aviv promoted to the top tier. However, due to outbreak of the Israel War of Independence, which caused the abandon of the 1947–48 season, they had to wait until the 1949–50 Israeli League season. Following the Israeli Declaration of Independence, second tier football in Israel rearranged, most of the participating clubs in the 1946–47 Liga Bet season continued to play in the new Liga Meuhedet, which became a temporary second division of Israeli football in the 1949–50 season. Beitar Jerusalem, Beitar Petah Tikva, Bnei Yehuda Tel Aviv, Degel Zion Tel Aviv, Hapoel Giv'atayim and Hapoel Jerusalem were all included in the South division before the start of the season. Beitar Jerusalem and Degel Zion Tel Aviv withdrew shortly. Previous seasons The Israel Football Association

Pine Creek Path

The Pine Creek Path was a major Native American trail in the U. S. State of Pennsylvania that ran north along Pine Creek from the West Branch Susquehanna River near Long Island to the headwaters of the Genesee River. At the southern end of the trail there was a Native American village at the site of Jersey Shore and the Great Shamokin Path ran east–west here along the West Branch Susquehanna River; the Great Shamokin Path connected the Saponi village of Shamokin on the Susquehanna River in the east, with the Great Island and villages further west and the Allegheny River. In the north another path continued north along the Genesee River and led to the Iroquois Nation in New York; the main Pine Creek Path followed switching banks until it reached the First Fork. From there it stayed on the left bank the rest of its course along Pine Creek, passing through the Pine Creek Gorge to the Second Fork and on to the Third Fork and the village of Ansonia. There it left the gorge and turned west, going past modern Galeton to West Pike, where it left the creek and headed north to the Genesee River.

The exact course of the path between West Pike and the headwaters of the Genesee River are uncertain. In the south, an alternate branch led north from the West Branch Susquehanna River along Chatham Run, past modern Woolrich to the main path near Waterville; the path was used by Iroquois warriors on their war raids to points south. One of the earliest accounts of the path is from Moses Van Campen, captured on Bald Eagle Creek in 1782, taken north as a prisoner along the path; some isolated bands of Native Americans remained in the Pine Creek Gorge until the War of 1812. When lumbering become a major industry along Pine Creek in the 19th century, the path was used by lumbermen, they would take rafts of lumber in the spring down Pine Creek from Ansonia to Jersey Shore, walk back north along the path. Attempts to convert the path into a wagon road early in the same century were unsuccessful – when John Peet tried it he said it took 18 days, crossed Pine Creek "eighty times going to and eighty times coming from", lost a wheel, broke two axles, upset the wagon twice.

In 1883, the Jersey Shore, Pine Creek and Buffalo Railway opened, following the course of the path from Jersey Shore to Ansonia. The railroad soon became a part of the Fall Brook Coal Company, it was leased by the New York Central Railroad in 1899, was consolidated into the New York Central Railroad in a 1914 corporate reorganization. The Pine Creek line was one of those taken over by Conrail in 1976, but the last train ran on the route on October 7, 1988. After the removal of the tracks, the right-of-way was converted to the Pine Creek Rail Trail, named one of "10 great places to take a bike tour" in the world in a 2001 USA Today article. Great Trail