Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, died when Aristotle was a child, at seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Platos Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books and he believed all peoples concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotles views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works, Aristotles views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, some of Aristotles zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as The First Teacher and his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotles philosophy continue to be the object of academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero described his style as a river of gold – it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived. Aristotle, whose means the best purpose, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus was the physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was orphaned at a young age, although there is little information on Aristotles childhood, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Platos Academy and he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC.
Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor, there, he traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermiass adoptive daughter or niece and she bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC, Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave not only to Alexander
Erhard Ratdolt was an early German printer from Augsburg. He was active as a printer in Venice from 1476 to 1486, from 1475 to 1478 he was in partnership with two other German printers. The first book the partnership produced was the Calendarium and previously published by Regiomontanus, Ratdolt is famous for having produced the first known printers type specimen book. His innovations of layout and typography, mixing type and woodcuts, have subsequently been much admired and his graphic choices and technical solutions influenced those of William Morris
Islamic Golden Age
This period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Sack of Baghdad in 1258 AD. A few contemporary scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries, the metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism. There is no definition of term, and depending on whether it is used with a focus on cultural or on military achievement. During the early 20th century, the term was used only occasionally, the Muslim government heavily patronized scholars. The money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council. The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today, the House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur.
During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the knowledge of the civilizations that had been conquered. They excelled in fields, in particular philosophy, science. For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians, among the most prominent Christian families to serve as physicians to the caliphs were the Bukhtishu dynasty. Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek, the House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur. It was led by Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq, with the support of Byzantine medicine, many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of Galen, Plato, Aristotle and Archimedes. Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background, the use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century, arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula, present-day Spain in the 10th century.
It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries. It was from countries that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen. Ibn Rushd and Ibn Sina played a role in saving the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian. Ibn Sina and other such as al-Kindi and al-Farabi combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Latin and Ladino, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy, during this period, non-Muslims were allowed to flourish relative to treatment of religious minorities in the Christian Byzantine Empire. The Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, who lived in Andalusia, is an example, in epistemology, Ibn Tufail wrote the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and in response Ibn al-Nafis wrote the novel Theologus Autodidactus
Abu Said Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Jalil al-Sijzi was an Iranian Muslim astronomer and astrologer. He is notable for his correspondence with Al-Biruni and for proposing that the Earth rotates around its axis in the 10th century and he dedicated work to Adud al-Daula, who was probably his patron, and to the prince of Balkh. He worked in Shiraz making astronomical observations from 969 to 970, Al-Sijzi studied intersections of conic sections and circles. By my life, it is a problem difficult of solution and refutation, for it is the same whether you take it that the Earth is in motion or the sky. For, in cases, it does not affect the Astronomical Science. It is just for the physicist to see if it is possible to refute it, Al-Biruni referred to Al-Sijzi as a prominent astronomer who defended the theory that the earth rotates in al-Qānūn al-Masʿūdī. OConnor, John J. Robertson, Edmund F. Abu Said Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Sijzi, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, Jan P. Al-Sijzis Treatise on Geometrical Problem Solving.
Suter, Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke, sijzī, Abū Saʿīd Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al‐Jalīl al‐Sijzī. Al-Sijzī Abū Saīd Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Abd Al-Jalīl
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī, known as the Philosopher of the Arabs, was a Muslim Arab philosopher, mathematician and musician. Al-Kindi was a descendant of the Kinda tribe and he was born in Basra and educated in Baghdad. In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals to the Islamic and he was a pioneer in cryptanalysis and devised several new methods of breaking ciphers. Using his mathematical and medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to quantify the potency of their medication, the central theme underpinning al-Kindis philosophical writings is the compatibility between philosophy and other orthodox Islamic sciences, particularly theology. And many of his works deal with subjects that theology had an immediate interest in and these include the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge. Al-Kindi was born in Kufa to a family of the Kinda tribe, descended from the chieftain al-Ashath ibn Qays.
His father Ishaq was the governor of Kufa, and al-Kindi received his education there. He went to complete his studies in Baghdad, where he was patronized by the Abbasid caliphs al-Mamun and he was well known for his beautiful calligraphy, and at one point was employed as a calligrapher by al-Mutawakkil. When al-Mamun died, his brother, al-Mutasim became Caliph, al-Kindis position would be enhanced under al-Mutasim, who appointed him as a tutor to his son. But on the accession of al-Wathiq, and especially of al-Mutawakkil, henry Corbin, an authority on Islamic studies, says that in 873, al-Kindi died a lonely man, in Baghdad during the reign of al-Mutamid. After his death, al-Kindis philosophical works quickly fell into obscurity and many of them were lost even to Islamic scholars, felix Klein-Franke suggests a number of reasons for this, aside from the militant orthodoxy of al-Mutawakkil, the Mongols destroyed countless libraries during their invasion. Al-Kindi was a master of different areas of thought and was held to be one of the greatest Islamic philosophers of his time.
The Italian Renaissance scholar Geralomo Cardano considered him one of the twelve greatest minds of the Middle Ages, according to Ibn al-Nadim, al-Kindi wrote at least two hundred and sixty books, contributing heavily to geometry and philosophy, and physics. His influence in the fields of physics, medicine and music were far-reaching and his greatest contribution to the development of Islamic philosophy was his efforts to make Greek thought both accessible and acceptable to a Muslim audience. Al-Kindi carried out this mission from the House of Wisdom, an institute of translation and learning patronized by the Abbasid Caliphs, in Baghdad. In his writings, one of al-Kindis central concerns was to demonstrate the compatibility between philosophy and natural theology on the one hand, and revealed or speculative theology on the other. Despite this, he did make clear that he believed revelation was a source of knowledge to reason because it guaranteed matters of faith that reason could not uncover.
This was an important factor in the introduction and popularization of Greek philosophy in the Muslim intellectual world
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khiljis, Hotaks, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.
The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians.
These tribes migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as Ariana
The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds, others include Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Circassians, around 95% of the countrys 36 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish, two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws, the area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Assyrian and it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. Iraqs modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres, Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932, in 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Baath Party from 1968 until 2003, after an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Husseins Baath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country, the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name, one dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for city, UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is rooted, well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran.
The term historically included the south of the Hamrin Mountains. The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In English, it is either /ɪˈrɑːk/ or /ɪˈræk/, the American Heritage Dictionary, the pronunciation /aɪˈræk/ is frequently heard in U. S. media. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture where agriculture, the following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations
The word horoscope is derived from Greek words hõra and scopos meaning time and observer. It is used as a method of divination regarding events relating to the point in time it represents, no scientific studies have shown support for the accuracy of horoscopes, and the methods used to make interpretations are pseudo-scientific. Besides, all tests done so far, keeping strict methods to include a control group, some psychological tests have shown that it is possible to construct personality descriptions and foretelling generic enough to satisfy most members of a large audience simultaneously. This is usually referred to as the Forer or Barnum effect, the horoscope serves as a stylized map of the heavens over a specific location at a particular moment in time. In most applications the perspective is geocentric, angular relationships between the planets themselves and other points, called aspects, are typically determined. The emphasis and interpretation of these varies with tradition. The Sanskrit term for horo is hora, the Latin word horoscopus, ultimately from Greek ὡρόσκοπος nativity, literally observer of the hour, from ὥρα time, hour and σκόπος observer, watcher.
In Middle English texts from the 11th century, the word appears in the Latin form and is anglicized to horoscope in Early Modern English, the noun horoscopy for casting of horoscopes has been in use since the 17th century. In Greek, ὡρόσκοπος in the sense of ascendant and ὡροσκοπία observation of the ascendant is in use since Ptolemy, the native is the subject of the event being charted at a particular time and place, and is considered to be at the centre of the celestial sphere. The celestial sphere is a sphere onto which the zodiac, constellations. The plane of the equator is the plane of the Earths equator projected into space, the plane of the ecliptic is defined by the orbits of the earth and the sun. For practical purposes the plane of the equator and the plane of the ecliptic maintain a constant inclination to each other of approximately 23. 5°, the plane of the horizon is centred on the native, and is tangential to the earth at that point. In a sphere whose radius is large, this plane may be treated as nearly equivalent to the parallel plane with its centre at the Earths center.
This greatly simplifies the geometry of the horoscope, but does not take account that the native is in motion. Some writers on astrology have thus considered the effects of parallax, there are four primary angles in the horoscope. In most systems of house division, the ascendant is the cusp of the 1st house, the placement of the planetary ruler of the ascendant, called the chart ruler is considered to be significant. In creating a horoscope the ascendant is traditionally placed at the nine position on the left-hand side of the chart wheel. During the course of a day, because of the Earths rotation and this movement provides us with the term rising sign, which is the sign of the zodiac rising over the eastern horizon at the moment of birth
A centenarian is a person who lives to or beyond the age of 100 years. Because life expectancies worldwide are less than 100, the term is associated with longevity. A supercentenarian is a person who has lived to the age of 110 or more, there has only been one known case of a person of 120 years of age or older. In 2012, the United Nations estimated that there were 316,600 living centenarians worldwide, as life expectancy is increasing across the world, and the world population has increased rapidly, the number of centenarians is expected to increase quickly in the future. According to the UK ONS, one-third of babies born in 2013 in the UK are expected to live to 100. The United States currently has the greatest number of known centenarians of any nation with 53,364 according to the 2010 Census, in 2010,82. 8% of US centenarians were female. Japan has the second-largest number of centenarians, with an estimated 51,376 as of September 2012, Japan started recording its centenarians in 1963. The number of Japanese centenarians in that year was 153, but surpassed the 10,000 mark in 1998,20,000 in 2003, and 40,000 in 2009.
According to a 1998 United Nations demographic survey, Japan is expected to have 272,000 centenarians by 2050, the incidence of centenarians in Japan was one per 3,522 people in 2008. In Japan, the number of centenarians is highly skewed towards females, Japan in fiscal year 2016 had 57,525 female centenarians, while males were 8,167, a ratio of 7,1. The increase of centenarians was even more skewed at 11.6,1, the total number of living centenarians in the world remains uncertain. It was estimated by the Population Division of the United Nations as 23,000 in 1950,110,000 in 1990,150,000 in 1995,209,000 in 2000,324,000 in 2005 and 455,000 in 2009. The following table gives estimated centenarian populations by country, including both the latest and the earliest known estimates, where available, in many countries, people receive a gift or congratulations on their 100th birthday. In the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms, the British monarch sends greetings on the 100th birthday, the practice was formalised from 1917, under the reign of King George V, who sent congratulations on the attainment of a 60th Wedding anniversary.
NBCs Today Show has named new centenarians on air since 1983, Centenarians born in Ireland receive a €2,540 Centenarians Bounty and a letter from the President of Ireland, even if they are resident abroad. Japanese centenarians receive a cup and a certificate from the Prime Minister of Japan upon their 100th birthday. Swedish centenarians receive a telegram from the King and Queen of Sweden, Centenarians born in Italy receive a letter from the President of Italy. In Japan, a National Respect for the Aged Day has been celebrated every September since 1966, an aspect of blessing in many cultures is to offer a wish that the recipient lives to 100 years old
The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq, the Tigris is 1,850 km long, rising in the Taurus Mountains of eastern Turkey about 25 km southeast of the city of Elazig and about 30 km from the headwaters of the Euphrates. The river flows for 400 km through Turkish territory before becoming the border between Syria and Turkey and this stretch of 44 km is the only part of the river that is located in Syria. Close to its confluence with the Euphrates, the Tigris splits into several channels, the artificial Shatt al-Hayy branches off, to join the Euphrates near Nasiriyah. Second, the Shatt al-Muminah and Majar-al-Kabir branch off to feed the Central Marshes, further downstream, two other distributary channels branch off, which feed the Hawizeh Marshes. The main channel continues southwards and is joined by the Al-Kassarah, the Tigris joins the Euphrates near al-Qurnah to form the Shatt-al-Arab.
According to Pliny and other ancient historians, the Euphrates originally had its outlet into the sea separate from that of the Tigris, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris. The port city of Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab, in ancient times, many of the great cities of Mesopotamia stood on or near the Tigris, drawing water from it to irrigate the civilization of the Sumerians. Notable Tigris-side cities included Nineveh and Seleucia, while the city of Lagash was irrigated by the Tigris via a canal dug around 2400 B. C, the Tigris has long been an important transport route in a largely desert country. Shallow-draft vessels can go as far as Baghdad, but rafts are needed for transport upstream to Mosul, General Francis Rawdon Chesney hauled two steamers overland through Syria in 1836 to explore the possibility of an overland and river route to India. One steamer, the Tigris, was wrecked in a storm which sank, Chesney proved the river navigable to powered craft. Later, the Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company was established in 1861 by the Lynch Brothers trading company and they had 2 steamers in service.
By 1908 ten steamers were on the river, tourists boarded steam yachts to venture inland as this was the first age of archaeological tourism, and the sites of Ur and Ctesiphon became popular to European travelers. In the First World War, during the British conquest of Ottoman Mesopotamia, see Siege of Kut and the Fall of Baghdad. The Tigris Flotilla included vessels Clio, Lawrence, armed tug Comet, armed launches Lewis Pelly, Shaitan and stern wheelers Muzaffari/Mozaffir. These were joined by Royal Navy Fly-class gunboats Butterfly, Dragonfly, Sawfly and Mantis, the Ancient Greek form Tigris was borrowed from Old Persian Tigrā, itself from Elamite Tigra, itself from Sumerian Idigna. The Sumerian form was borrowed into Akkadian as Idiqlat, and from there into the other Semitic languages, another name for the Tigris used in Middle Persian was Arvand Rud, literally swift river. Today, Arvand Rud refers to the confluence of the Euphrates, in Kurdish, it is known as Ava Mezin, the Great Water
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language. The ancient Persians were originally a branch of the ancient Iranian population who entered modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, in the Bible, it is referred to as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. Although Persis was originally one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources, thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country. 10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language, in 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta, referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as descendants of the ancient Persians.
On March 21,1935, the king of Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent. The earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, the inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran. The ancient Persians were originally a branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC. They were initially dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region, they played a role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Medes, another branch of population, founded the unified empire of Media as the regions dominant cultural and political power in c.625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a state to the central Median power. In c.552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c.550 BC.
They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, at its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge, even for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, until the Parthian era, the Iranian identity had an ethnic and religious value, however, it did not yet have a political import