Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, was a Persian polymath, alchemist and important figure in the history of medicine. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor, as a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor. He discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and kerosene, through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely On Surgery and A General Book on Therapy, Edward Granville Browne considers him as probably the greatest and most original of all the Muslim physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author. And has been described as a doctor, the father of pediatrics. Razi was born in the city of Ray situated on the Great Silk Road that for centuries facilitated trade and his nisba, Râzī, means from the city if Ray in Persian.
It is located on the slopes of the Alborz mountain range situated near Tehran, Iran. In his youth, Razi moved to Baghdad where he studied and practiced at the local bimaristan, later, he was invited back to Rey by Mansur ibn Ishaq, the governor of Rey, and became a bimaristans head. He dedicated two books on medicine to Mansur ibn Ishaq, The Spiritual Physic and Al-Mansūrī on Medicine, because of his newly acquired popularity as physician, Razi was invited to Baghdad where he assumed the responsibilities of a director in a new hospital named after its founder al-Muʿtaḍid. He spent the last years of his life in his native Rey suffering from glaucoma and his eye affliction started with cataracts and ended in total blindness. The cause of his blindness is uncertain, allegedly, he was approached by a physician offering an ointment to cure his blindness. The lectures of Razi attracted many students, as Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was considered a shaikh, an honorary title given to one entitled to teach and surrounded by several circles of students.
When someone raised a question, it was passed on to students of the first circle, if they did not know the answer, it was passed on to those of the second circle, when all students would fail to answer, Razi himself would consider the query. Razi was a person by nature, with a considerate attitude towards his patients. He was charitable to the poor, treated them without payment in any form, One former pupil from Tabaristan came to look after him, but as al-Biruni wrote, Razi rewarded him for his intentions and sent him back home, proclaiming that his final days were approaching. According to Biruni, Razi died in Rey in 925 sixty years of age, who considered Razi as his mentor, among the first penned a short biography of Razi including a bibliography of his numerous works. After his death, his fame spread beyond the Middle East to Medieval Europe, in an undated catalog of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most likely from the 14th century, Razi is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine.
Smallpox appears when blood boils and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled, thus juvenile blood is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine
Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb
Hidayat al-Mutaallemin Fi al-Tibb is an medical guide written in Persian. The author is Abu Bakr Rabee Ibn Ahmad Al-Akhawyni Bokhari and it was one of the first Iranian Islamic medical textbooks. The book contains articles about the elements, humors, anatomy, pathology and symptoms of diseases, Akhawayni Bukhari was the first physician in Iran and Near East that provided a practical classification for mental disorders. The description of Akhawayni from clinical signs and symptoms of patients suffer from melancholia is attractive in history of psychology. Several libraries and cultural institutes have copies of the book, including the Bodleian Library in England, the library at Fatih and the Malek National Library and Museum in Tehran. Akhawayni is well known for his treatment of patients with mental disorders and he describes a number of disorders, such as Mania, Conversion Disorder and Melancholia. Al-Akhawayni describes Melancholia as an illness and relates it to brain. For treatment of disease, he advised his own treatments in addition to those of his predecessors.
These treatments consisted mainly of herbs and natural fats. Yarmohammadi H, Dalfardi B, Ghanizadeh A, Hosseinialhashemi M. Differentiation between seizure and hysteria in a tenth-century persian text, Hidāyat of al-Akhawayni
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language. The ancient Persians were originally a branch of the ancient Iranian population who entered modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, in the Bible, it is referred to as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. Although Persis was originally one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources, thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country. 10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language, in 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta, referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as descendants of the ancient Persians.
On March 21,1935, the king of Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent. The earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, the inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran. The ancient Persians were originally a branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC. They were initially dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region, they played a role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Medes, another branch of population, founded the unified empire of Media as the regions dominant cultural and political power in c.625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a state to the central Median power. In c.552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c.550 BC.
They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, at its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge, even for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, until the Parthian era, the Iranian identity had an ethnic and religious value, however, it did not yet have a political import