Somalia the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country located in the Horn of Africa, it is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djabuti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, its terrain consists of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 14.3 million. And has been described as the most culturally homogeneous country in Africa. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in the southern regions; the official languages of are Arabic. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Sultanate of the Geledi. The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Darwiish repelled the British four times, forcing a retreat to the coast, before succumbing in the Somaliland campaign. Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government; the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out.
During this period most regions returned to religious law. The early 2000s saw the creation of interim federal administrations; the Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, which reestablished the military. In 2006, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized, a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012; the same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia has maintained an informal economy based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, telecommunications, it is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE.
Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.
In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have b
A children's hospital is a hospital which offers its services to children and adolescents. Most children's hospitals can serve children from birth up to the age of 18, or in some instances, children's hospitals' doctors may treat children until they finish high school; the number of children's hospitals proliferated in the 20th century, as pediatric medical and surgical specialties separated from internal medicine and adult surgical specialties. Children's hospitals are characterized by greater attention to the psychosocial support of children and their families; some children and young people have to spend long periods in hospital, so having access to play and teaching staff can be an important part of their care. With local partnerships this can include trips to local botanical gardens and public libraries for instance. In addition to psychosocial support, children's hospitals have the added benefit of being staffed by professionals who are trained in treating children. A medical doctor that undertakes vocational training in paediatrics must be accepted for membership by a professional college before they can practice paediatrics.
These include the Royal Australasian College of Physicians RACP, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health RCPCH, the American Board of Pediatrics. In New Zealand the RACP offers vocational training in paediatrics. Once RACP training is completed the doctor is awarded the Fellowship of the RACP in paediatrics. While many normal hospitals can treat children adequately, pediatric specialists may be a better choice when it comes to treating rare afflictions that may prove fatal or detrimental to young children, in some cases before birth. Many children's hospitals will continue to see children with rare illnesses into adulthood, allowing for a continuity of care. Prior to the 19th century hospital reforms, the well-being of the child was thought to be in the hands of the mother. There were however centres which focused on helping abandoned children and offering care in hopes that these children might survive into adulthood; some examples include orphanages and foundling hospitals. Florence's Hospital of the Innocent was a charity based orphanage which opened in 1445.
A example and better established institution whose goal it was to help rehabilitate infants was the Foundling Hospital founded by Thomas Coram in 1741. Foundling hospitals were set up to receive abandoned infants, nurse them back to health, teach them a trade or skill, integrate them back into society. Coram's foundling hospital was revolutionary because it was one of the United Kingdoms first children charities. Moreover, it was made successful by the powerful people who donated money to the hospital. Coram's hospital would be faced with the fact that the number of infants needing care outweighed their hospitals capacity. In order to accommodate the number of children in need, there were attempts to set up similar hospitals throughout the UK. Dispensaries which were funded by donations were being opened in order to provide medicine and medical attention to those who could not afford private care. Dispensaries and foundling hospitals were the earliest forms of what would become children's hospitals.
The establishing of the Foundling Hospital by Thomas Coram was a direct response to the high infant mortality rate in London, England. Although foundling hospitals acknowledged the high infant mortality rate, infant mortality would not be addressed in a wide spread way until the early 19th century when children's hospitals would begin to open in Vienna, Prague and various other major cities throughout Europe. In America, by the mid-19th century middle-class women and physicians became concerned about the well-being of children in poor living conditions. Although infant mortality had begun to decline, it still remained a prominent issue. Social reformers blamed the emergence of the industrial society and poor parents for not properly caring for their children. In response and physicians founded children's hospitals across the country. Early children's hospitals were set up in converted houses not only to help the children transition from leaving their home to being in a hospital, but because it was the only space available.
Early children's hospitals focused more on short-term care and treating mild illnesses rather than long-term intensive care. Treating serious diseases and illnesses in early children's hospitals could result in the disease spreading throughout the hospital which would drain their limited resources. A serious disease outbreak in a children's hospital would result in more deaths than lives saved and would therefore reinforce the previous notion that people died while in the hospital. Like those found in the United States, children's hospitals in the United Kingdom in the 19th century resembled middle-class homes. British children's hospitals introduced rules to which patients and their families were expected to adhere. British children's hospitals, like their American and Canadian counterparts, relied on donations from the rich. Donations came in the form of money, food and clothes for the children; the United Kingdom's children's hospitals were soon faced with the reality that their small and vulnerable patient would soon outnumber their resources.
In order to maintain the cost of
Abudwak is a town in the central Galguduud province of Somalia. Abudwak is inhabited by members of the Marehan, it is the capital of the Abudwak District. The city is situated about 20 km west of the main highway that connects the country's southern and northern regions; the broader Abudwak District has a total population of 890,067 residents Air transportation in Abudwak is served by the Cabudwaak Airport. A major renovation of the facility was launched in 2011, funded by Somali expatriates from the province; the new airport's first scheduled flight departed on 11 October 2012. Several health centers exist in the town. Among these is the Abudwak Maternity and Children's Hospital, AL Hayat Hospital, IMC. abudwak Maternity and children hospital was equipped and staffed by the Somali Care Organization in conjunction with the Somali Education and Health Organization. Districts of Somalia'Zoomable' aerial images of Abudwak: here and here. Administrative maps of Abudwak district: here and here
Bosaso is a city in the northeastern Bari province of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden, the municipality serves as the region's commercial capital and is a major seaport within the autonomous Puntland state, it has an estimated population of around 164,906 residents. The city has a diverse economy centred on education, banking, aviation, clothes, steel, health care, hospitality and technology; the area's many colleges and universities make it a regional hub of higher education, including law, medicine and business and entrepreneurship. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea indicates that ancient Greek merchants sailed to Bosaso, providing notes about the strategic and geographical location of the current Bosaso area, known as Mosylon in ancient times. Bosaso was known as Bandar Qasim, a name derived from an Arab trader of the same name, said to have settled in the area during the 14th century. Bosaso has been a Dishiishe Darod stronghold.
Near Bosaso, at the end of the Baalade valley, lies a 2 km to 3 km long earthwork. Local tradition recounts, it is the largest such structure in the wider Horn region. Since centuries the city was among the areas ruled by the Dishiishe clan. Forming a part of Italian Somaliland, Bosaso was represented in the parliament of the succeeding Trust Territory of Somalia by the MPs Ugas Yasin Ugas Abdurahman and Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf; the town would be administered through the official Bari region in the post-independence period. Barkhad Ali Salah served as first mayor of the town. With the start of the Somali Civil War and the subsequent formation of Puntland in the 1990s, Bosaso has become the business capital of the northeastern regions of Somalia. In recent years, it has served as a refueling station for maritime transport between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf ports, has become an important commercial point of entry. Bosaso is situated on the Gulf of Aden coast. Nearby settlements include to the east Rehiss, to the northeast Mareroo, to the west Baalade, to the southwest Laas Geel, to the south Lasgoriga, to the southeast El Dhurre.
The largest cities in the country most proximate to Bosaso are Erigavo and Berbera. Shimbiris, the highest peak in Somalia, is located some 220 km to the southwest in the Cal Madow mountain range. In June 2014, the Puntland government launched a new tree-planting campaign in the state, with the regional Ministry of Environment and Tourism slated to plant 25,000 trees by the end of the year. Bosaso is among the seven cities and towns earmarked for the reforestation initiative, which include Garowe, Dhahar, Buuhoodle and Galkayo; the campaign is part of a broader partnership between the Puntland authorities and EU to set up various environmental protection measures in the region, with the aim of promoting reforestation and afforestation. Bosaso has a hot desert climate, it has a mean annual relative humidity of around 60%. The average daily mean temperature year-round is 30 °C, with an average annual high of 35 °C and an average annual low of 25 °C. Average low temperatures are coolest during the winter months of December to February, when thermometer readings level out at 20 °C.
The weather heats up in the spring, as the April rainy season begins. Average high temperatures peak during the summer months of June to August, when they exceed 40 °C. Come September, cooler weather starts to set in again. Rainfall reaches a high with an average precipitation of 7 mm in November. Total rainfall year-round is around 19 mm. Bosaso's total population is estimated at around 164,906 residents. An additional 50,000 registered internally displaced people from conflict-stricken parts of southern Somalia have sought refuge in camps on the outskirts of the city. Furthermore, Bosaso is a major port for boats carrying emigrants from within the country as well as adjacent territories across the Gulf of Aden to settle in the Persian Gulf states. While Bosaso today is a melting pot, with residents hailing from many different parts of Somalia, most of the city's population is from the Harti confederation of Darod sub-clans. Bosaso city affairs are managed by the Bosaso Municipality, its leadership is appointed by members of the area's 29 District Councils.
The municipal authority is led by Mayor Yasin Mire Mohamud, who succeeded Hassan Abdallah Hassan in office. Each of the city's various districts has its own municipal sub-authorities, complete with a mayor and civil servants. Bosaso is a city, experiencing a period of rapid growth. Prior to the Somali civil war, it had a population of under 50,000 inhabitants. Since the conflict, Somalis belonging to the Harti Darod sub-clans began migrating back to their ancestral areas of Puntland; as a consequence of these migrations, Bosaso's population and the local housing industry have grown tremendously. In December 2011, a new commercial market opened in Bosaso's northern Dayaha neighborhood, near the port. Half a kilometer in size, it was designed to ensure easy vehicle access; the market is the result of careful planning between Puntland government officials and civil society representatives. In September 2013, Puntland Minister of Fisheries Mohamed Farah Adan announced that the Ministry in conjunction with the FAO would ope
The Somali diaspora refers to expatriate Somalis who reside in areas of the world that have traditionally not been inhabited by their ethnic group. The civil war in Somalia increased the size of the Somali diaspora, as many Somalis moved from Greater Somalia to the Arabian peninsula, Western Europe, North America, Southern Africa and Australia. There are small Somali populations in other pockets of Europe and Asia; the distribution of Somalis abroad is uncertain due to confusion between the number of ethnic Somalis and the number of Somalia nationals. Whereas most recent Somali migrants in the diaspora emigrated as refugees and asylum seekers, many have since obtained either permanent residence or citizenship. In total, the ethnic Somali international migrant population includes an estimated 1,010,000 individuals, with around 300,000 residents in East and South Africa, 250,000 in North America, 250,000 in Europe, 200,000 in the Middle East, 10,000 in Oceania. By comparison, the number of refugees from Somalia that are registered with the UNHCR is around 975,951 persons.
The majority of these individuals were registered in Kenya and Ethiopia. According to USAID, many of the displaced persons in these adjacent territories are Bantus and other minorities. While the distribution of Somalis per country in Europe is difficult to measure since the Somali expatriate community on the continent has grown so in recent years, there are significant Somali communities in the United Kingdom: 98,000. Most Somalis in Denmark emigrated from Somalia following the start of the Somali Civil War, in the period between 1995 and 2000. According to Statistics Denmark, as of 2017, there are a total 21,204 persons of Somali origin living in Denmark. Of those individuals, 11,832 are Somalia-born immigrants and 9,372 are descendants of Somalia-born persons. 8,852 individuals are citizens of Somalia. By December 2018, nearly 1000 Somalis in Denmark lost their residence permits after the Danish Immigration Service started a review of the permits in 2017; the permits were revoked. In 2018, analysis showed.
In 2018, nearly 50% were in long-term unemployment. Although most Somalis in the United Kingdom are recent arrivals, the first Somalis to arrive were seamen and traders who settled in port cities in the late 19th century. By 2001, the UK census reported 43,532 Somali-born residents, making the Somali community in Britain the largest Somali expatriate population in Europe; the Office for National Statistics estimate of 2015 indicates that 114,000 Somalis live in the UK. There has been some secondary migration of Somalis from mainland European countries to the United Kingdom. According to the 2011 UK Census, 71.5% of Somalia-born residents in England and Wales hold a UK passport. Established Somali communities are found in London, Liverpool and Bristol, newer ones have formed in Manchester and Leicester; the Somali population in London alone accounts for 78% of Britain's Somali residents. Somalis are one of the largest ethnic minorities in Finland, the largest group of people of non-European origin.
In 2009, there were 5,570 Somali citizens, but an equal number may have received Finnish citizenship. In 2014 there were 16,721 Somali speakers in Finland. According to the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat, the number of Somali-speaking people in Finland in 2010 rose by nearly 10% in a year. From 1989 to 1998, the Netherlands was the second-most common European destination for Somali immigrants, only behind the United Kingdom and more than double the total of the next-most common destination, Denmark. Between 2000 and 2005, there was a significant exodus of Somalis from the Netherlands to the United Kingdom, unofficially estimated to be as large as 20,000 people; the exodus was the result of anti-Muslim sentiments in the Netherlands in the wake of the rise of and assassination of right-wing politician Pim Fortuyn. The other reason was to avoid Dutch which were intended to make Somalis assimilate into Dutch society by spreading out Somalis throughout the country, whereas they themselves preferred to live together in large groups to preserve their cultural identity.
Half of Tilburg's 3000 Somalis left to live together on a few streets in England. In 2005 according to the Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau annual report, Somalis are among the least educated and least integrated immigrants groups to the Netherlands together with Turks and Moroccans. Somali pupils have the lowest participation level in secondary education of all immigrant groups to the Netherlands, with less than 1 in 5. In 2012, Somalis had the by far highest unemployment rate at 37% of the labour force and 26% of the labour force was in work, counted as at least twelve hours per week. In 2015 more than half of all individuals with Somali background in the Netherlands received social welfare; the first Somali-Americans arrived in the United States in the 1920s. They were seamen and New York City was their destination. In the late 1970s, more Somali immigrants followed. Not until the 1990s when the civil war broke out in Somalia did the majority of Somalis come to the US; the heaviest concentrations are followed by Columbus, Ohio.
C.. Metro areas As of 2004, an estim
A maternity hospital specializes in caring for women during pregnancy and childbirth. It provides care for newborn infants, may act as a centre for clinical training in midwifery and obstetrics. Known as lying-in hospitals, most of them, like cottage hospitals, have been absorbed into larger general hospitals, where they operate as the maternity department. Maternity hospitals in the United Kingdom can be traced back to a number of 18th century establishments in London and Dublin. Prior to these foundations, childbirth was a domestic occasion; the term coined for these establishments, but now archaic, is "a lying-in hospital", referring to the custom of lying-in, prolonged bedrest after childbirth, better known now as postpartum confinement. The first noted lying-in hospital appears to be one founded by Sir Richard Manningham in Jermyn Street, London, in 1739 and which evolved into the Queen Charlotte's Maternity Hospital. A better documented foundation is that of the Dublin Lying-In Hospital, established in 1745 by Bartholomew Mosse, which served as a model for three subsequent London foundations: the British Lying-In Hospital, a 1749 establishment in Holborn.
A number of other such hospitals were formed in the mid-18th century. All of these were run by male physicians, women being blocked from completing training as doctors until the 1870s; the first maternity hospital founded and run by a woman was Elizabeth Garrett Anderson's New Hospital for Women, which evolved from an existing dispensary in the 1770s, was renamed in 1918 the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital. Its work continues in the modern Elizabeth Garrett Anderson maternity wing of University College Hospital, part of UCLH NHS Foundation Trust; the Portland Hospital in central London was created in 1983 as a private hospital, i.e. not part of the National Health Service. In 1983, the Rosie Hospital opened in Cambridge, next to Addenbrooke's Hospital; the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin is the largest mother-and-baby hospital in Ireland. Media related to Maternity hospitals at Wikimedia Commons