Antoine Germain Labarraque
Antoine-Germain Labarraque was a French chemist and pharmacist, notable for formulating and finding important uses for "Eau de Labarraque" or "Labarraque's solution", a solution of sodium hypochlorite used as a disinfectant and deodoriser. Labarraque's use of sodium and calcium hypochlorite solutions in the disinfection of animal gut processing facilities and morgues, as well as his published reports of their application to treat gangrene and putrescent wounds in living persons in the 1820s, established this practice long before Ignaz Semmelweis employed the same solutions to prevent "cadaveric particles" from traveling from hospital dissecting rooms to patient examination rooms, starting in 1847; these findings and practices are notable for providing an empirical discovery of antisepsis, starting some 40 years before Pasteur and Lister began to establish the theoretical basis of this practice. Labarraque's solutions and techniques remain in use to the present day. Labarraque was born in Oloron-Sainte-Marie, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department, on May 29, 1777, the son of Francois Labarraque and Christine Sousbielle.
He spent over 2 years as a pupil of a pharmacist called Préville in Orthez, but was drafted into the army as a "Grenadier de la Tour d'Auvergne". He was promoted to battlefield seargent, became pharmacist-in-chief at the military hospital of Berra, he contracted Typhus and after his recovery was discharged from the military in 1795. Having taken a liking to Pharmacy, he went to Montpellier to study under Jean-Antoine Chaptal, he went to Paris, where he worked as a pharmacist and studied at the "College of Pharmacy" under various teachers including Louis Nicolas Vauquelin. He qualified as a master of Pharmacy in 1805, in the same year published a work, "Sur la dissolution du phosphore" followed by "Sur les electuaires", he became a member of the "Sociétés de Phamacie et de Médecine" in 1809 after presenting a paper, "Sur les teintures alcooliques et quelques expériences sur la teinture alcoolique de benjoin". Subsequently, Labarraque took part in several commissions to examine presentations made to the society.
In France there was a need to process animal guts in order to make musical instrument strings, Goldbeater's skin and other products. This was carried out in premises known as "boyauderies" and was a notoriously dirty and unhealthy business. In or about 1820, the Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie nationale offered a prize for the discovery of a method, chemical or mechanical, which could be used to separate the peritoneal membrane of animal intestines without causing putrefaction. Labarraque experimented with different compositions, finding that a solution of "chloride of lime" had better anti-putrid properties than the already-known "Eau de Javel", but caused slower detachment of the gut mucous membrane, he therefore preferred Eau de Javel, which had the advantage of being cheaper than chlorinated solutions based on potassium salts. Labarreque won the society's prize of 1,500 francs, by showing how a number of these solutions that were made from free chlorine and gave rise to it, could be employed both to fumigate the workshops, to loosen the membranes one from another without allowing the offensive odour to escape.
He acknowledged the part that his predecessors, such as Berthollet, had played in his discovery. In 1824, Labarraque was called in to assist after the death of King Louis XVIII, who had died of extensive gangrene; the putrefied body emitting a foul odour long before death, which the chemist was able to remove by covering the body with a sheet soaked in chlorinated water. He was awarded the Prix Montyon, in 1825, by the "Académie des Sciences", and, in 1826, a medal by the Académie de Marseille, for his work on "the application of chlorides to hygiene and therapeutics", he was made a member of the "Académie de Médecine", Légion d'Honneur and the "Conseil de Salubrité". Labarraque's research resulted in chlorides and hypochlorites of lime and of sodium being employed not only in the boyauderies but for the routine disinfection and deodorisation of latrines, markets, anatomical theatres and morgues, they were used, with success, in hospitals, prisons, magnaneries, cattle-sheds, etc.. Labarraque's chlorinated lime and soda solutions had been advocated in 1828 to prevent infection and to treat putrefaction of existing wounds, including septic wounds.
In this 1828 work, Labarraque recommended for the doctor to breathe chlorine, wash his hands with chlorinated lime, sprinkle chlorinated lime about the patient's bed, in cases of "contagious infection." During the Paris cholera outbreak of 1832, large quantities of so-called chloride of lime were used to disinfect the capital. This was not modern calcium chloride, but contained chlorine gas dissolved in lime-water to form calcium hypochlorite. Labarraque's discovery helped to remove the terrible stench of decay from hospitals and dissecting rooms, and, by doing so deodorised the Latin Quarter of Paris; these "putrid miasmas" were thought by many to be responsible for the sp
6th arrondissement of Paris
The 6th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as sixième; the arrondissement, called Luxembourg, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It includes world-famous educational institutions such as the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris's most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts, the Jardin du Luxembourg; this central arrondissement, which includes the historic districts of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and Luxembourg, has played a major role throughout Paris history and is well known for its café culture and the revolutionary intellectualism and literature it has hosted. With its world-famous cityscape rooted intellectual tradition, prestigious history, beautiful architecture, central location, the arrondissement has long been home to French intelligentsia.
It is a major locale for art galleries, fashion stores and one of the most fashionable districts of Paris as well as Paris' most expensive area. The arrondissement is one of France's richest district in terms of average income, it is part of Paris Ouest alongside the 7th, 8th, 16th arrondissements, Neuilly, but has a much more bohemian and intellectual reputation than the others; the current 6th arrondissement, dominated by the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés—founded in the 6th century—was the heart of the Catholic Church power in Paris for centuries, hosting many religious institutions. In 1612, Queen Marie de Médicis bought an estate in the district and commissioned architect Salomon de Brosse to transform it into the outstanding Luxembourg Palace surrounded by extensive royal gardens; the new Palace turned the neighborhood into a fashionable district for French nobility. Since the 1950s, the arrondissement, with its many higher education institutions, world-famous cafés and publishing houses has been the home of much of the major post-war intellectual and literary movements and some of most influential in history such as surrealism and modern feminism.
The land area of the arrondissement is 2.154 km². Académie française French Senate Jardin du Luxembourg Medici Fountain Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Pont Saint-Michel Saint-Germain-des-Prés Quarter and former abbey Latin Quarter Saint-Sulpice church Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Polidor Hôtel de Chimay Hôtel Lutetia Café Procope Fondation Jean Dubuffet Maison d'Auguste Comte Monnaie de Paris Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Musée Edouard Branly Musée Hébert Musée – Librairie du Compagnonnage Musée de Minéralogie Musée Zadkine École nationale des ponts et chaussées École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts École des hautes études en sciences sociales Pantheon-Assas University Lycée Montaigne Lycée Saint-Louis Lycée Stanislas Lycée Fénelon Institut Catholique de Paris Cherche-Midi prison Hôtel de Condé Hôtel de Bourbon-Condé Comédie-Française Arcade du Pont-Neuf The arrondissement attained its peak population in 1911 when the population density reached nearly 50,000 inhabitants per km².
In 1999, the population was 44,919 inhabitants. Toei Animation Europe has its head office in the arrondissement; the company, which opened in 2004, serves France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The 6th and 7th arrondissements are the most expensive districts of Paris, the most expensive parts of the 6th arrondissement being Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter, the River side districts and the areas nearby the Luxembourg Garden. 6th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba; until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, executed by guillotine; when his young nephew Louis XVII died in prison in June 1795, the Count of Provence succeeded as king Louis XVIII. Following the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia and Russia; when the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. However, Napoleon restored his French Empire.
Louis XVIII fled, a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon again, again restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII ruled as king for less than a decade; the government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, absolutist. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while still reigning, as Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoleon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony, he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin, he was a Fils de France, he was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism.
By this act, he became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The name of Louis was bestowed. At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father and his two elder brothers: Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy, Louis Auguste, Duke of Berry; the former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, the age at which the education of boys of royal blood and of the nobility was turned over to men. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named as his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy.
His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly". In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, Count of Senoches. During this period of his life he was known by the title Count of Provence. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy.
Marie Joséphine was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May. Louis Stanislas found his wife repulsive; the marriage remained unconsummated for years. Biographers disagree about the reason; the most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. She never plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes. At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was waddled instead of walked, he never continued to eat enormous amounts of food. Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations – but such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versaill
Ahmed Taleb Ibrahimi
Dr. Ahmed Taleb Ibrahimi is an Algerian politician and intellectual, he is the son of Islamic theologian and renowned scholar Bachir Ibrahimi, served in multiple ministerial roles in Algeria from the 1960s until the late 1980s. A staunch anti-colonialist and proponent of Arab heritage through his writings and his actions, Dr. Ibrahimi was jailed by the French authorities as a militant of the FLN Party, he ran for president in 1999 but withdrew from the race along with all other opposition candidates hours before voting commenced, claiming electoral fraud by the army. In 2004, his proposed candidacy was disqualified because of alleged links with the proscribed Islamic Salvation Front, his platform includes moderate adherence to free-market economics. Dr. Ibrahimi is the father of two sons, resides in the city of Algiers, Algeria with his wife Souad. Ahmed Taleb-Ibrahimi was born on January 5, 1932, in the eastern city of Setif, 220 miles off the Algerian capital, he grew up in a family of modest means, yet in contrast intellectually and spiritually wealthy.
His father, Sheikh Bachir Ibrahimi, a renowned scholar, was fighting the French colonialism not with a military weapon but with his sharp pen and voice. He was Deputy President and President of the “Association of the Oulemaa”, whose main objective was to build schools in order to inform & educate the populace, raise awareness about the Arabic heritage & a moderate Islam, free Algeria from the shackles of colonialism; because of his militant activities, the French occupiers extradited him numerous times, assigned him under house arrest for “spreading subversion.” This in turn obliged the family to be scattered around the country. As a child and an adolescent, Ahmed acquired from his father a precious knowledge and a general culture which he will rely and build on. In the late 40's, he went on studying medicine. In 1954 he moved to Paris to further his medical education, after that he earned a degree in Hematology, interning at few Parisian hospitals. Whilst Ahmed completed his medical specialty, he was a militant and an advocate for Algerian independence.
With some other militants, he launched in 1952 "Le Jeune Musulman", a newspaper addressing the needs of the young generation in retrieving its identity after years of colonization. He was elected as the 1st president of l'UGEMA, he was appointed member of "Fédération de France", the FLN representation in France. No wonder that in February 1957 he was arrested and imprisoned in Paris. During 5 years in French prisons, he developed friendship in so far as brotherhood with other inmates who will become the elite of a free Algeria. In September 1961 he was liberated and spent few months overseas, among other places, in Switzerland and Morocco to physically heal from illness caused by years of incarceration. In 1962 he pursued his career as a Doctor in the main hospital of Algiers. After the independence, in July 1962, Ahmed continued his work of reforming, renovating the hospital, teaching the next generation of Algerian doctors, learning from foreign professors who chose to remain in independent Algeria.
Moreover, during the next 3 years, he received many enticing offers to be Ambassador, had other senior government positions offered to him which he refused because he wanted to stay with his family which he missed from all those years of war and separation. The-then first President of Algeria, Ahmed Ben Bella, made several overtures to Ahmed so he works with him. Ahmed politely declined the offer and made it clear that he wished to continue practicing medicine rather than engage in Politics. In addition, Ahmed had the financial responsibility to find housing for his parents and ailing sister, share his meager salary with them. Though inconceivable and oddly paradoxical for someone of the stature of Sheikh Bachir Ibrahimi – a prominent scholar who spent all his life fighting and suffering along with his family to render Algeria a free and prosperous nation – the family was hard-pressed to find a place to live in an independent Algeria; this was indeed not a coincidence at all in as much as the-then President Benbella was hostile to Sheikh Bachir and his son Ahmed because the latter did not agree with his policies in general, the extreme socialism that the President adopted in particular.
Following the orders of President Benbella, Ahmed was arrested and jailed in Algerian prisons in July 1964. These horrible 8 months were worse than the 5 years spent in French prisons. Indeed, during this time he was tortured in an egregious way by some of his countrymen, it is worthwhile to remind the reader that during the Algerian revolution, the International Community condemned France for torturing Algerians. Alas after Algeria became independent, some Algerians themselves, with President Benbella at the helm perpetuated this barbaric practice against his jail companions. In fact, it is alarmingly sickening that although Benbella and Ahmed were amongst many inmates within the same French prison in the late 50’s, becoming by default “brothers in arms”, Benbella became President, executed some of his companions, wished to do the same with Ahmed; the latter was lucky enough that the-then Defense Minister Houari Boumediene intervened to spare him. What was the “crime” of Ahmed Taleb-Ibrahimi?
He did not agree with the policies and direction of Benbella, refused to work with him. In February 1965, Ahmed was released weakened by the excruciating episode, he traveled to Switzerland to heal and physically with some of the o
Marie Skłodowska Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences, she was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris, she was born in Warsaw, in what was the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work, she shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Her achievements included the development of the theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, the discovery of two elements and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies into the treatment of neoplasms were conducted using radioactive isotopes, she founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals. While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie, who used both surnames, never lost her sense of Polish identity, she took them on visits to Poland. She named the first chemical element. Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz, France, of aplastic anemia from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during World War I. Maria Skłodowska was born in Warsaw, in Congress Poland in the Russian Empire, on 7 November 1867, the fifth and youngest child of well-known teachers Bronisława, née Boguska, Władysław Skłodowski.
The elder siblings of Maria were Józef, Bronisława and Helena. On both the paternal and maternal sides, the family had lost their property and fortunes through patriotic involvements in Polish national uprisings aimed at restoring Poland's independence; this condemned the subsequent generation, including Maria and her elder siblings, to a difficult struggle to get ahead in life. Maria's paternal grandfather, Józef Skłodowski, had been a respected teacher in Lublin, where he taught the young Bolesław Prus, who would become a leading figure in Polish literature. Władysław Skłodowski taught mathematics and physics, subjects that Maria was to pursue, was director of two Warsaw gymnasia for boys. After Russian authorities eliminated laboratory instruction from the Polish schools, he brought much of the laboratory equipment home, instructed his children in its use, he was fired by his Russian supervisors for pro-Polish sentiments, forced to take lower-paying posts. Maria's mother Bronisława operated a prestigious Warsaw boarding school for girls.
She died of tuberculosis in May 1878. Less than three years earlier, Maria's oldest sibling, had died of typhus contracted from a boarder. Maria's father was an atheist; the deaths of Maria's mother and sister caused her to become agnostic. When she was ten years old, Maria began attending the boarding school of J. Sikorska. After a collapse due to depression, she spent the following year in the countryside with relatives of her father, the next year with her father in Warsaw, where she did some tutoring. Unable to enroll in a regular institution of higher education because she was a woman and her sister Bronisława became involved with the clandestine Flying University, a Polish patriotic institution of higher learning that admitted women students. Maria made an agreement with her sister, Bronisława, that she would give her financial assistance during Bronisława's medical studies in Paris, in exchange for similar assistance two years later. In connection with this, Maria took a position as governess: first as a home tutor in Warsaw.
While working for the latter family, she fell in love with their son, Kazimierz Żorawski, a future eminent mathematician. His parents rejected the idea of his marrying the penniless relative, Kazimierz was unable to oppose them. Maria's loss of the relationship with Żorawski was tragic for both, he soon earned a doctorate and pursued an academic career as a mathematician, becoming a professor and rector of Kraków University. Still, as an old man and a mathematics professor at the Warsaw Polytechnic, he would sit contemplatively before the statue of Maria Skłodowska, erected in 1935 before the Radium Institute that she had founded in 1932. At the beginning of 1890, Bronisława—
Rue Bonaparte is a street in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. It spans the Quai Voltaire/Quai Malaquais to the Jardin du Luxembourg, crossing the Place Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the place Saint-Sulpice and has housed many of France's most famous names and institutions as well as other well-known figures from abroad; the street runs through the heart of the fashionable Left Bank and is characterised by a number of'hôtels particuliers' and elegant apartment buildings as well as being bounded by the river at one end and the park at the other. With fifteen buildings or monuments classified as Monument Historique, it has more such listed sites than any other street in the 6th arrondissement. Rue Bonaparte has many literary associations and contains a number of bookshops, antiquarian booksellers and art galleries, its architecture and location have made it one of Paris' most historic and sought-after residential addresses. The length of the street was the site of a river called La Noue, which at the time formed the eastern boundary of the Pré-aux-Clercs.
The river was enlarged into a 27-m wide canal and named Petite Seine, which in turn supplied water to the moat of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés when its fortifications were built during the 14th century. In the 17th century, those fortifications were demolished along with the moat and the canal. At one time, it was divided into two streets - the rue du Pot de Fer dite du Verger and the rue des Petits Augustins, its present form was established by government decree on 7 September 1845, which resulted in the opening of the part of the street between the Boulevard Saint-Germain and the rue du Vieux-Colombier. Its name was subsequently changed on 12 August 1852 to commemorate the Emperor Napoleon I; the name'Rue Bonaparte' was first proposed during the period of The Consulate. In its present form it has subsumed the following historic streets: Rue des Petits-Augustins, between the quai Malaquais et the rue Jacob Rue Saint-Germain-des-Prés, opened in 1804, between the Rue Jacob and St-Germain-des-Prés, it was named variously the Cour des Religieux, Rue Bonaparte, rue de la Poste aux Chevaux and in 1816 rue Saint Germain des Prés, before reassuming its current name.
Rue Saint-Germain, between the Place Saint-Germain-des-Prés and the Place Saint-Sulpice was named in 1847. In 1804, this part of the street, which at times was known as the old rue Saint-Germain-des-Prés, ran between the rue Jacob and the rue du Vieux Colombier. Rue du Pot de Fer Saint-Sulpice, between rue du Vieux-Colombier and the rue de Vaugirard, was named in the 15th century Ruelle Saint-Sulpice Ruelle Henri du Vergier Rue du Verger. At the beginning of the 17th century, it was renamed rue du Pot de Fer dite du Verger; some historians suggest that it was known as rue des Jardins Saint-Sulpice and rue des Jésuites. Rue du Luxembourg in 1879, was the name given to the part comprising the rue de Vaugirard and the Rue d'Assas in 1918, the name Rue Guynemer; the rue Bonaparte itself contains some of Paris' notable landmarks, including: The Ecole de Beaux Arts The Académie nationale de médecine The Place Saint Germain-des-Prés The Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés The Fontaine de la Paix The Church of Saint-Sulpice The Saint-Sulpice Fountain The Promenade de l'allée du Séminaire The Jardin du Luxembourg is at its southern tip No. 5: Birthplace of the French painter Édouard Manet on 23 January 1832.
Home of French field marshal and colonial administrator le Maréchal Hubert Lyautey from 1911 to 1934. French National Heritage site. No. 14: The École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. French National Heritage site. No. 16: Académie nationale de médecine. French National Heritage site. No. 18: Site of the first provisional government of Czechoslovakia in 1916. It is marked by a plaque which reads "Ici en 1916 le gouvernement provisoire tchecoslovaque établit son siège sous la présidence de T. G. Masaryk". No. 19: Home of the French painter Amédée Jullien from 1861 to 1875. French National Heritage site. No. 20: Home of the American woman of letters, Natalie Barney, from 1909 to 1969. In her literary salon she played hostess to many of the 20th century's most important writers and artists from both sides of the Atlantic including André Gide, Paul Claudel and Zelda Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, James Joyce, T. S. Eliot, Samuel Beckett, Françoise Sagan. (Incorrect. Barney lived nearby at rue Jacob, it is just around the corner.
See wiki entry on Barney. No. 24: The American novelist Henry Miller stayed at no. 24 between 1928 and 1930 during which time he began his relationship with the American writer Anaïs Nin. No. 30: The restaurant at no. 30, the Café Pré aux Clercs, was Ernest Hemingway's favourite haunt in Paris. No. 31: The Salon des Cent was established there in 1894. No. 34: Workshop of the famous painter François Gerard. Home of Romy Schneider in the 70's and of Georges Wolinski from 1974 to 2008. No. 36: Home of French philosopher and sociologist Auguste Comte, between 1817 and 1822, during which time he published his first essays. No. 42: Home of French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, from 1945 to 1962. During this period Sartre was involved in establishing the quarterl
Sigismond Jaccoud was a Swiss physician. Sigismond Jaccoud was born in 1830 in Geneva, where he went to school and was educated in music and the science of literature. In 1849 he went to Paris to study medicine – and supported himself in that city teaching music and literature, he became interne des hפpitaux in 1855. After graduation in 1859 he specialised in internal medicine and in 1860 defended his doctoral thesis, on the pathogenesis of albuminuria. In 1862 he became medecin des hopitaux, in 1863 professeur. In 1877 he was appointed professor of internal pathology at the medical faculty and member of the Académie Nationale de Médecine. In 1898 he became president of the Academy. Jaccoud was a famous and estimated lecturer at several of Paris' hospitals – L'Hôpital Saint-Antoine, l'Hôpital de la Charité, l'Hôpital Lariboisière and l'Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpétrière. Following the death of Ernest-Charles Lasègue in 1883, he was made professor of internal medicine at the Pitié hospital in Paris.
In 1883 he published a three-volume work on pathology, comprising 3.000 pages. In rheumatology, in cardiology, Jaccoud was best known for his 23. Lecture, perpetuated in medical history because of its description of Jaccoud's syndrome. At the turn of the 20th century rheumatic fever ravaged among children and youth, the fact that there was, unlike today, no rational pharmaceutical therapy available, interest concentrated on the natural course of the disease; as he published his lectures in book form, they are still available for study – covering an impressive variety of medical questions. On tuberculosis, the greatest medical problem of the time, with its numerous complications, no less than ten lectures were needed. In his books he emphasised how he enjoyed thorough clinical examinations, epidemiology and teaching. Jaccoud died at the age of 83 years. Jaccoud published numerous articles in Dictionnaire de Médecine et de Chirurgie pratiques of which he was co-publisher. Jaccoud's arthropathy — a deformity of the fingers, causing them to deviate away from the thumb.
Jaccoud's dissociated fever — fever with slow and irregular pulse in tuberculous meningitis of adults. Jaccoud's sign — prominence of the aorta in the suprasternal notch: an indication of leukemia. Dorland's Medical Dictionary Works by or about Sigismond Jaccoud at Internet Archive