Mendeley is a desktop and web program produced by Elsevier for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online. It combines Mendeley Desktop, a PDF and reference management application and Mendeley for Android and iOS, with Mendeley Web, Mendeley requires the user to store all basic citation data on its servers—storing copies of documents is at the users discretion. Upon registration, Mendeley provides the user with 2 GB of free web storage space, named after the biologist Gregor Mendel and chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev, was founded in November 2007 by three German PhD students and is based in London. The first public version was released in August 2008. On September 23,2013, Mendeley announced iPhone and iPad apps that are free to install, Mendeley was purchased by the Elsevier publishing company in 2013. The deal price was speculated to be €50 million, following speculation that it was between $69 million and $100 million. In 2012, Mendeley was one of the repositories for green Open Access recommended by Peter Suber, the recommendation was revoked in 2013 after Elsevier bought Mendeley.
Mendeley is available either as a premium payable version or a version that is free. Mendeley Desktop, based on Qt, runs on Windows, automatic extraction of metadata from PDF papers. Back-up and synchronization across multiple computers and with an online account. PDF viewer with sticky notes, text highlighting and full-screen reading, smart filtering and automatic PDF file renaming. Citations and bibliographies in Microsoft Word, OpenOffice. org, import of documents and research papers from external websites via browser bookmarklet. Private groups to collaboratively tag and annotate research papers, public groups to share reading lists. Usage-based readership statistics about papers and publications, third-party tools allow the migration of content. Comparison of reference management software Metadata discovery Citation Style Language COinS Mendeley official website
Social networking service
Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as by e-mail and instant messaging and online forums. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, digital photos and videos, depending on the social media platform, members may be able to contact any other member. In other cases, members can contact anyone they have a connection to, and subsequently anyone that contact has a connection to, LinkedIn, a career social networking service, generally requires that a member personally know another member in real life before they contact them online. Some services require members to have a connection to contact other members. The main types of social networking services are those that contain category places, means to connect with friends, there have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests. A study reveals that India has recorded worlds largest growth in terms of media users in 2013. A2013 survey found that 73% of U. S. adults use social networking sites, the variety and evolving range of stand-alone and built-in social networking services in the online space introduces a challenge of definition.
Furthermore, the idea that these services are defined by their ability to bring people together provides too broad a definition, such a broad definition would suggest that the telegraph and telephone were social networking services – not the Internet technologies scholars are intending to describe. The terminology is unclear, with some referring to social networking services as social media. The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on, efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet, ARPANET, LISTSERV, and bulletin board services. Many prototypical features of social networking sites were present in online services such as America Online, CompuServe, ChatNet. Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as Theglobe. com, some communities – such as Classmates. com – took a different approach by simply having people link to each other via email addresses.
In the late 1990s, user profiles became a feature of social networking sites, allowing users to compile lists of friends. New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s and it became one of the first companies to profit from the sale of virtual goods. Friendster was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later, friendster became very popular in the Pacific Islands. Orkut became the first popular social networking service in Brazil and quickly grew in popularity in India, attesting to the rapid increase in social networking sites popularity, by 2005, it was reported that Myspace was getting more page views than Google. Facebook, launched in 2004, became the largest social networking site in the world in early 2009, Facebook was first introduced as a Harvard social networking site, expanding to other universities and eventually, anyone. The term social media was introduced and soon became widespread, web-based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political and geographic borders
Bebo is a social networking website launched in 2005. The company announced the launch of their newest app, Blab, in early 2014, as of July 2013, it is owned and operated by its founders Michael Birch and Xochi Birch, who took over from Criterion Capital Partners after the company declared bankruptcy. Bebo was founded by husband-and-wife team Michel and Xochi Birch in January 2005 at their home in San Francisco, the website name was bought by the founders, and the backronym Blog Early, Blog Often was invented to answer the question of what the name meant. The site was extremely popular in Ireland – at one point it claimed to have over a million Irish users. Its popularity saw it sold to AOL for $850 million in 2008, the site was purchased by AOL on March 13,2008 for $850 million, with the Birches combined 70% stake yielding a profit of $595 million from the deal. The BBC described the AOL purchase of Bebo as one of the worst deals ever made in the dotcom era, on April 7,2010, AOL announced that it would either sell the website, or shut it down.
This was mainly due to the numbers of unique users, Bebo users were moving to rival sites Facebook. It has been reported that AOLs finances were struggling, the National Space Agency of Ukraines RT-70 radio telescope sent 501 messages chosen by Bebo users, called A Message From Earth, toward planet Gliese 581c. Sent on 9 October 2008, it will arrive in the spring of 2028, on June 16,2010, AOL sold Bebo to hedge fund operators Criterion Capital Partners. On February 17,2011, Bebo launched a brand-new design and this consisted of a new, more modern header and home page, as well as a new profile layout option. Users could see who had visited their profiles, in April 2011, Bebo added a new notification system, similar to Facebooks - a feature which had been much-requested in feedback. It notified users of new messages, lifestream activity and more. On January 30,2012, access to Bebo became unavailable for 36 hours, a Bebo spokesperson told TechCrunch that the site was down due to a technical clusterfuck.
Adam Levin, CEO of Bebo and Criterion Capital Partners, stated that they were trying to some new features which caused the site to crash. No data was lost as a result of the outage, the crash triggered a belief that Bebo was gone for good, so that the hashtag #bebomemories trended worldwide on Twitter. In May 2013, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Many analysts have questioned the value proposition that Bebo could offer users, on July 1,2013, Michael and Xochi Birch, the original founders, purchased the social network back from Criterion Capital Partners for $1 million. They tweeted We just bought Bebo back for $1m, who knows, but it will be fun trying
Open access refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access and free of many restrictions on use. These additional usage rights are granted through the use of various specific Creative Commons licenses. There are multiple ways authors can provide access to their work. One way is to publish it and self-archive it in a repository where it can be accessed for free, such as their institutional repository and this is known as green open access. Some publishers require delays, or an embargo, on when an output in a repository may be made open access. Several initiatives provide an alternative to the American and English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, including Index Copernicus, SciELO and Redalyc. A second way authors can make their work open access is by publishing it in such a way that makes their research output immediately available from the publisher. This is known as open access, and within the sciences this often takes the form of publishing an article in either an open access journal.
Pure open access journals do not charge fees, and may have one of a variety of business models. Many, however, do charge an article processing fee, widespread public access to the World Wide Web in the late 1990s and early 2000s fueled the open access movement, and prompted both the green open access way and the creation of open access journals. Conventional non-open access journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, some non-open access journals provide open access after an embargo period of 6–12 months or longer. The Budapest statement defined open access as follows, There are many degrees, despite these statements emerging in the 2000s, the idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term open access was formally coined. Computer scientists had been self-archiving in anonymous ftp archives since the 1970s, the Subversive Proposal to generalize the practice was posted in 1994. Gratis OA refers to online access, and libre OA refers to free online access plus some additional re-use rights.
The Budapest and Berlin definitions had corresponded only to libre OA, the re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses, these almost all require attribution of authorship to the original authors. Open access itself began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet, the momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, they could be libre or free to build upon. The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers, Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe to
In modern times there is debate about the extent to which scientific information should be shared. The conflict is between the desire of scientists to have access to shared resources versus the desire of individual entities to profit when other entities partake of their resources, Science is broadly understood as collecting, publishing, reanalyzing and reusing data. Proponents of open science identify a number of barriers that impede or dissuade the broad dissemination of scientific data, Open research computation addresses the problem of reproducibility of scientific results. The widespread adoption of the institution of the scientific journal marks the beginning of the concept of open science. Before this time societies pressured scientists into secretive behaviors, before the advent of scientific journals, scientists had little to gain and much to lose by publicizing scientific discoveries. Their intent was to develop their discovery into something off which they could profit, the system of not publicizing discoveries caused problems because discoveries were not shared quickly and because it sometimes was difficult for the discoverer to prove priority.
Newton and Gottfried Leibniz both claimed priority in discovering calculus, newton said that he wrote about calculus in the 1660s and 1670s, but did not publish until 1693. Leibniz published a treatise on calculus in 1684, debates over priority are inherent in systems where science is not published openly, and this was problematic for scientists who wanted to benefit from priority. These cases are representative of a system of patronage in which scientists received funding to develop either immediately useful things or to entertain. In this sense, funding of science gave prestige to the patron in the way that funding of artists, architects. Because of this, scientists were under pressure to satisfy the desires of their patrons, eventually the individual patronage system ceased to provide the scientific output which society began to demand. Single patrons could not sufficiently fund scientists, who had unstable careers, the development which changed this was a trend to pool research by multiple scientists into an academy funded by multiple patrons.
In 1660 England established the Royal Society and in 1666 the French established the French Academy of Sciences, between the 1660s and 1793, governments gave official recognition to 70 other scientific organizations modeled after those two academies. By 1699 there were 30 scientific journals, by 1790 there were 1052, since publishing has expanded at even greater rates. In many countries, governments fund some science research, scientists often publish the results of their research by writing articles and donating them to be published in scholarly journals, which frequently are commercial. Public entities such as universities and libraries subscribe to these journals, michael Eisen, a founder of the Public Library of Science, has described this system by saying that taxpayers who already paid for the research would have to pay again to read the results. Darrell Issa, a co-sponsor of the bill, explained the bill by saying that Publicly funded research is and we must protect the value added to publicly funded research by the private sector and ensure that there is still an active commercial and non-profit research community.
One response to this bill was protests from various researchers, among them was a boycott of commercial publisher Elsevier called The Cost of Knowledge
Brent Shawzin Hoberman CBE is a British entrepreneur. Together with Martha Lane Fox, he founded Lastminute. com in 1998, as CEO, Hoberman successively floated and sold Lastminute. com Ltd to Sabre who purchased the company’s equity and bond debt for £577 million. In 2006, Hoberman handed over the CEO position to Ian McCaig, although he remained as chairman and chief strategic officer until 2007. Hoberman remained CEO of lastminute. com throughout 2005, until April 2006 when he handed over the CEO position to Ian McCaig and took the position of chairman and he stepped down as chief strategy officer and chairman in January 2007. Hoberman is a governor of the University of the Arts London, in 2007, Hoberman took on the role of non-executive chairman of wayn. com – a travel and leisure social network. In December 2009, he stepped down from the board of wayn. com and he is an angel investor in several internet companies, including Viagogo, wayn. com and academia. edu. Hoberman joined The Business Council for Britain in July 2009, in 2009, Hoberman was selected as one of the World Economic Forums Global Young Leaders for the UK.
In July 2009, Hoberman co-founded PROfounders Capital with Michael Birch, Peter Dubens, Jonnie Goodwin, Rogan Angelini-Hurll, the fund invests in early stage internet investors. Hoberman was co-founder and chairman of Made. com, a joint venture between mydeco. com and founder Ning Li, on December 29,2015 it was reported that Hoberman was leaving PROFounders. Hoberman was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2015 New Year Honours for services to entrepreneurship, Hoberman is a co-founder of FoundersForum, which is a private network for digital and technology entrepreneurs. Founders Forum has been hosting events in London since 2006 and has since 2011 expanded to events in other countries such as the US, India, Turkey. Speakers at the events have included prominent figures from the technology sector like Eric Schmidt, Reid Hoffman, the events are by invitation only. Hoberman was born on 25 November 1968 and he was educated at the Dragon School in Oxford, Eton College and subsequently at New College, Oxford.
He is married with two daughters and one son, Hoberman says his mentors have been his father and South African grandfather Leonard Shawzin, who built an empire of over 650 clothes shops from a single store. Hoberman is a member of the New Enterprise Council, a group of entrepreneurs who advise the Conservative Party on policies related to the needs of business
Peter Dain Suber is a philosopher specializing in the philosophy of law and open access to knowledge. He is a Senior Researcher at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, Director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication, Suber is known as a leading voice in the open access movement, and as the creator of the game Nomic. Suber worked as a comic from 1976 to 1981, including an appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson in 1976. Suber returned to Earlham College as a professor from 1982 to 2003 where he taught classes on philosophy, logic, Suber participated in the 2001 meeting that led to the worlds first major international open access initiative, the Budapest Open Access Initiative. He wrote Open Access News and the SPARC Open Access Newsletter, considered the most authoritative blog and he is the founder of the Open Access Tracking Project, and co-founder, with Robin Peek, of the Open Access Directory. He has many articles on self-reference, ethics and informal logic, the philosophy of law.
He has written articles on open access to science and scholarship. His 2012 book, Open Access, was published by MIT Press, lingua Franca magazine named Suber one of Academias 20 Most Wired Faculty in 1999. Readers of The Charleston Advisor gave him a special Readers Choice Award in October 2006, the American Library Association named him the winner of the Lyman Ray Patterson Copyright Award for 2011. Choice named his book on Open Access an Outstanding Academic Title for 2013, Suber is married to Liffey Thorpe, professor emerita of Classics at Earlham College, with whom he has two daughters. Since 2003, he and Thorpe have resided in Brooksville, Maine
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. This estimate determined how many documents were available on the web. Google Scholar is similar in function to the freely available CiteSeerX and it resembles the subscription-based tools, Elseviers Scopus and Thomson Reuters Web of Science. Google Scholar arose out of a discussion between Alex Verstak and Anurag Acharya, both of whom were working on building Googles main web index. Their goal was to make the worlds problem solvers 10% more efficient by allowing easier, Scholar has gained a range of features over time. In 2006, a citation importing feature was implemented supporting bibliography managers, in 2011, Google removed Scholar from the toolbars on its search pages, making it both less easily accessible and less discoverable for users not already aware of its existence. Around this period, sites with features such as CiteSeer, Scirus.
All three of these are now defunct, a major enhancement was rolled out in 2012, with the possibility for individual scholars to create personal Scholar Citations profiles, public author profiles that are editable by authors themselves. Individuals, logging on through a Google account with a bona fide address usually linked to an institution, can now create their own page giving their fields of interest. Google Scholar automatically calculates and displays the individuals total citation count, h-index, according to Google, three quarters of Scholar search results pages show links to the authors public profiles as of August 2014. A feature introduced in November 2013 allows logged-in users to search results into the Google Scholar library. A metrics feature now supports viewing the impact of academic journals and this reveals the top journals in a field of interest, and the articles generating these journals impact can be accessed. Google Scholar allows users to search for digital or physical copies of articles and it indexes full-text journal articles, technical reports, theses and other documents, including selected Web pages that are deemed to be scholarly.
Using its group of feature, it shows the links to journal articles. Through its cited by feature, Google Scholar provides access to abstracts of articles that have cited the article being viewed and it is this feature in particular that provides the citation indexing previously only found in CiteSeer and Web of Science. As of July 2013, Google Scholar is not yet available to the Google AJAX API, Google Scholars legal database of US cases is extensive. Google Scholar embeds clickable citation links within the case and the How Cited tab allows lawyers to research prior case law, the Google Scholar Legal Content Star Paginator extension inserts Westlaw and LexisNexis style page numbers in line with the text of the case. Research has shown that Google Scholar puts high weight especially on citation counts, as a consequence, the first search results are often highly cited articles
Times Higher Education
Times Higher Education, formerly the Times Higher Education Supplement, is a weekly magazine based in London, reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. It is the United Kingdoms leading publication in its field, from its first issue, in 1971, until 2008 the Times Higher Education Supplement was published in newspaper format and was born out of, and affiliated with, The Times newspaper. On 10 January 2008, it was relaunched as a magazine and it is published by TES Global, which until October 2005 was a division of Rupert Murdochs News International. The magazine is edited by John Gill, phil Baty is the editor at large, and is responsible for international coverage. He is the editor of the magazines World University Rankings, the magazine features a fictional satirical column written by Laurie Taylor, the Poppletonian, which reflects on life at the fictional Poppleton University. In 2011 Times Higher Education was awarded the titles of Weekly Business Magazine of the Year, Times Higher Education became known for publishing the annual Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings, which first appeared in November 2004.
On 30 October 2009 Times Higher Education broke with QS, its partner in compiling the Rankings, the magazine developed a new methodology in consultation with its readers and its editorial board. Thomson Reuters collects and analyses the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education, the results have been published annually since autumn 2010. QS, which collected and analysed the data from 2004-2009. The magazine runs two sets of awards annually, the first is the Times Higher Education Awards. The 2011 awards took place on 24 November at the Grosvenor House Hotel on Londons Park Lane, seventeen universities were given awards in different categories, with the University of Sheffield being University of the Year. Tessa Blackstone was given the Lord Dearing Lifetime Achievement Award, the University of Strathclyde was named as the University of the Year at the 2012 awards which took place on 29 November 2012 at the Grosvenor House Hotel on Londons Park Lane. University of Strathclyde Principal and Vice-Chancellor Professor Sir Jim McDonald received the award at the ceremony, the Times Higher Education Leadership and Management Awards were launched in 2009.
The Thelmas were set up to recognise the impact that administrative staff have on the success of education institutions