Maya April Moore is an American professional basketball player for the Minnesota Lynx of the Women's National Basketball Association, on sabbatical. Naming her their inaugural Performer of the Year in 2017, Sports Illustrated called Moore the greatest winner in the history of women's basketball. In high school, she was the National Gatorade Player of the Year, the Gatorade Female Athlete of the Year, a McDonald's All-American, she played forward for the UConn women's basketball team, won back to back national championships in 2009 and 2010. She was selected as the John Wooden Award winner in 2009 after leading Connecticut to the undefeated national championship; the following season, Moore led Connecticut to its second straight national championship and continued its overall undefeated streak at 78. That season, Moore became the first female basketball player to sign with Jordan Brand. After the 2017 season, her won-loss record in the U. S. since high school was 497–78. Moore was the first overall pick in the 2011 WNBA Draft, joined a Minnesota Lynx team that featured all-star caliber players in Seimone Augustus, Rebekkah Brunson and Lindsay Whalen.
Since 2011, Moore has continued to excel, both with the Lynx and with overseas teams in Europe and China. Moore has won four WNBA championships, WNBA Most Valuable Player Award, WNBA Finals MVP Award, three WNBA All-Star Game MVPs, two Olympic gold medals, scoring title, the WNBA Rookie of the Year Award, she has been selected to four WNBA All-Star teams and three All-WNBA teams. In 2012, she won both the Spanish league title and EuroLeague title playing for Ros Casares Valencia. From 2013 to 2015, Moore won the Chinese league title every year. Moore was born on June 1989, in Jefferson City, Missouri, she is the daughter of Kathryn Moore. Moore had her first exposure to basketball at the age of three when her mother mounted a hoop on the back door of their apartment, she attended Moreau Heights Elementary School as a child. Moore attended Collins Hill High School in Gwinnett County, near Georgia. Moore was a four-year starter at Collins Hill High School, where she had a 125–3 record with the Eagles.
Moore was named to Sophomore All-America Teams. During her junior year in 2005–06, averaged 23.2 points, 11.3 rebounds, 4.6 assists and 5.4 steals as a junior at Collins Hill. Moore was named the Naismith Prep Player of the Year, she was only the second junior to win the Naismith award Her first dunk was one-handed off an alley-oop pass in warm-ups at a dunk contest in Charlotte, NC in December 2005. She was 16 at the time; as a senior, she averaged 12.1 rebounds, 4.0 assists and 4.3 steals. In December 2006, she led the Collins Hill Eagles over Poly by a score of 75–61, resulting in her being selected unanimously as the Most Valuable Player of the Tournament of Champions in Chandler, Arizona. In the title game of the "T-Mobile Invitational" in Seattle, she scored 48 points in a win over St. Elizabeth. Moore helped lead her high school to four consecutive state championships appearances, including three Georgia state titles and the 2007 National Championship. Moore is a three-time Georgia 5A Player of the Year and 2007 Miss Georgia Basketball.
Moore finished as Collins High School's all-time leader in points rebounds and steals. In addition to basketball, she participated in track and field. Moore finished as the first-place runner-up in the high jump at the 2005 Georgia State 5A Championships, she was an excellent student, as she graduated from high school with a 4.0 grade point average. Moore was the recipient of the Atlanta Journal Cup. Moore announced. Moore is only the second player to win the Naismith Prep Player of the Year Award following both junior and senior prep seasons, joining Candace Parker. Moore is a two-Time Parade Magazine First Team All-America, three-time Georgia 5A Player of the Year, three-time Street & Smith All-America Team choice, four-time Georgia Class 5A All-State First Team choice, a member of the 2006 Sports Illustrated All-America Team. Moore received several awards for her performance her senior year including the 2007 WBCA National Player of the Year, 2007 Parade Magazine All-America of the Year, 2007 Morgan Wootten Award Winner, presented to the McDonald's All-America Player of the Year.!
RPG! APG! SPG |- |2004–05 |32 |19.4 |8.6 |3.1 |2.8 |- |2005–06 |32 |23.2 |11.3 |4.6 |5.4 |- |2006-07 |34 |25.5 |12.1 |4.0 |4.3 |} Maya Moore played for the Georgia Metros 16U Nike Travel Team in both 2005 and 2006. The Georgia Metros went 73–6 in those two travel seasons, Maya led them to four National Championships: The AAU 16U National Championship in Orlando in 2005. Notable teammates while with the Georgia Metros included Kelly Cain, Ashley Houts, Alicia Manning, Morgan Toles, Charenee Stephens, Taylor Turnbow, Jordan Greenleaf, D'Andra Moss. Moore led the Huskies to a 36–2 record in the 2007–08 NCAA season, their best record since their Final Four appearance of 2004. During the season, Moore averaged a team-high 17.8 points per game, hit 42% of her three-point shots. Moore placed second on the team in rebounds with 7.6 per game and blocks with 1.6 per game. She tallied double-figure
Cross country running
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. Sometimes the runners are referred to as harriers; the course 4–12 kilometres long, may include surfaces of grass, earth, pass through woodlands and open country, include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. It is both a team sport. Both men and women of all ages compete in cross country, which takes place during autumn and winter, can include weather conditions of rain, snow or hail, a wide range of temperatures. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the umbrella sport of athletics, is a natural terrain version of long-distance track and road running. Although open-air running competitions are pre-historic, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain; the English championship became the first national competition in 1876 and the International Cross Country Championships was held for the first time in 1903. Since 1973 the foremost elite competition has been the IAAF World Cross Country Championships.
Cross country courses are laid out on an woodland area. The IAAF recommends that courses be grass-covered, have rolling terrain with frequent but smooth turns. Courses consist of one or more loops, with a long straight at the start and another leading to the finish line. Terrain can vary from open fields to forest hills and across rivers, it includes running down and up hills. Because of variations in conditions, international standardization of cross country courses is impossible, not desirable. Part of cross country running's appeal is the distinct characteristics of each venue's terrain and weather, as in other outdoor sports like motor racing and golf. According to the IAAF, an ideal cross country course has a loop of 1,750 to 2,000 metres laid out on an open or wooded land, it should be covered by grass, as much as possible, include rolling hills "with smooth curves and short straights". While it is acceptable for local conditions to make dirt or snow the primary surface, courses should minimize running on roads or other macadamized paths.
Parks and golf courses provide suitable locations. While a course may include natural or artificial obstacles, cross country courses support continuous running, do not require climbing over high barriers, through deep ditches, or fighting through the underbrush, as do military-style assault courses. A course at least 5 metres full allows competitors to pass others during the race. Clear markings keep competitors from making wrong turns, spectators from interfering with the competition. Markings may include tape or ribbon on both sides of the course, chalk or paint on the ground, or cones; some classes use colored flags to indicate directions: red flags for left turns, yellow flags for right turns, blue flags to continue straight or stay within ten feet of the flag. Courses commonly include distance markings at each kilometer or each mile; the course should have 400 to 1,200 m of level terrain before the first turn, to reduce contact and congestion at the start. However, many courses at smaller competitions have their first turn after a much shorter distance.
Courses for international competitions consist of a loop between 2000 meters. Athletes complete three to six loops, depending on the race. Senior men compete on a 12-kilometre course. Senior women and junior men compete on an 8-kilometre course. Junior women compete on a 6-kilometre course. In the United States, college men compete on 8 km or 10 km courses, while college women race for 5 km or 6 km. High school courses are 5 km. Middle school courses are 1.5 mi or 2 mi long. All runners start at the same time, from a starting arc marked with lines or boxes for each team or individual. An official, 50 meters or more in front of the starting line, fires a pistol to indicate the start. If runners collide and fall within the first 100 meters, officials can call the runners back and restart the race, however this is done only once. Crossing the line or starting before the starting pistol is fired is considered a false start and most results in disqualification of the runner; the course ends at a finish line located at the beginning of a funnel or chute that keeps athletes single-file in order of finish and facilitates accurate scoring.
Depending on the timing and scoring system, finish officials may collect a small slip from each runner's bib, to keep track of finishing positions. An alternative method is to have four officials in two pairs. In the first pair, one official reads out numbers of finishers and the other records them. In the second pair, one official reads out times for the other to record. At the end of the race, the two lists are joined along with information from the entry information; the primary disadvantage of this system is that distractions can upset the results when scores of runners finish close together. Chip timing has grown in popularity to increase accuracy and decrease the number of officials required at the finish line; each runner attaches a transponder with RFID to her shoe. When the runner crosses the finish line, an electronic pad records the chip number and matches the runner to a database. Chip timing allows officials to use checkpoint mats throughout the race to calculate split times, to ensure runners cover the entire course.
This is by far the most efficient method, although it is t
College soccer is played by teams composed of soccer players who are enrolled in colleges and universities. While it is most widespread in the United States, it is prominent in South Korea and Canada; the institutions hire full-time professional coaches and staff, although the student athletes are amateur and are not paid. College soccer in the United States is sponsored by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the sports regulatory body for major universities, by the governing bodies for smaller universities and colleges; this sport is played on a rectangular field of the dimensions of about 64m - 70m sideline to sideline, 100m - 110m goal line to goal line. College soccer teams play a variety of conference and non-conference games throughout the fall season, with the season culminating in the post-season tournament called the College Cup; the St. Louis University Billikens is the most successful men's team, having won 10 College Cups while the North Carolina Tar Heels led by head coach Anson Dorrance is the most successful women's college soccer team with 21 College Cup wins.
The best men's and women's college soccer player each year is awarded the Hermann Trophy. After their collegiate careers, top men's players go on to play professionally in Major League Soccer or other professional leagues while top women's players may play professionally in the National Women's Soccer League or in other professional soccer leagues around the world including Division 1 Féminine in France, Damallsvenskan in Sweden, Germany's Frauen Bundesliga, Australia's W-League, or Japan's Nadeshiko League. College soccer is played in the fall from August to December depending on if a team makes the tournament and how long they are in the tournament. Teams play non-conference teams; the NCAA tournament is played in November to early December with the Final Four and Championship game played in December. There are 64 teams in the women's tournament. After many months of extended unofficial discussion, on August 22, 2016, NCAA Division I men's coaches and the National Soccer Coaches Association of America began an "informational campaign" to build support for a proposed change of the playing schedule for Division I men's soccer.
Under the proposed changes of the "Academic Year Season Model", the number of games on the Fall schedule and the number of mid-week games would be reduced, with games added in the Spring following a Winter break, the NCAA Division I Men's Soccer Championship tournament would be moved from November and December to May and June. In addition to more matching the professional season, the changes address issues of player health and safety and of the time demands on student-athletes; the proposal concerns only Division I men's soccer. While a large majority of men's coaches and players support the changes, only a small minority of women's coaches and players do so. At this time, there is only the "informational campaign" "...to educate our Athletic Directors, NCAA leadership, student athletes and fans on the advantages of this Academic Year Model," said Sasho Cirovski, NSCAA D1 Men's committee chair and University of Maryland head coach. No formal proposal has been made to the NCAA. While similar in general appearance, NCAA rules diverge from FIFA Laws of the Game.
A manager may make limited substitutions, each player is allowed one re-entry which must occur in the second half of the match unless the substitution was caused by a player injury resulting from a caution or send-off. All matches have an overtime period; as opposed to a regular two-half extra time period, golden goal is applied. If neither team scores in the two ten-minute periods, the match ends in a draw. College soccer is played with a clock that can be stopped when signaled to by the referee for injuries, the issuing of cards, or when the referee believes a team is wasting time; the clock is stopped after goals until play is restarted, the clock counts down from 45:00 to 0:00 in each half. In most professional soccer leagues, there is an up-counting clock with the referee adding stoppage time to the end of each 45-minute half. In February 2017, the NCAA rules committee met to discuss a proposed rule that would change the double jeopardy rule. If the last player was to foul a player and deny a goal scoring opportunity, this goal would instead give the referee the ability to choose to issue a yellow card, if they were to feel it was a proper attempt to get the ball.
The change was approved. On March 29, 2018, the NCAA announced that its rules committee had recommended that the organization align itself with FIFA timekeeping rules, with the new rule slated for adoption in the 2018 season. If this proposal had been adopted, Stadium clocks would count upward, the displayed time would be based on the elapsed time of the game; the official time would be kept on-field by the referee. When the stadium clock indicated one minute remaining in a half or overtime period, the referee would signal the amount of stoppage time to the sideline, a sign indicating the number of minutes of stoppage time would be displayed; the committee felt that the then-current timekeeping system led to gamesmanship blatant delaying tactics, at the end of matches. However, an NCAA oversight committee tabled the proposal, meaning that the current system will remain in place; the first de facto college football game held in the U. S. in 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton was contested, at Rutgers captain John W. Leggett's reque
Ten-pin bowling is a type of bowling in which a bowler rolls a bowling ball down a wood or synthetic lane toward ten pins positioned in a tetractys at the far end of the lane. The objective is to knock down all ten pins on the first roll of the ball, or failing that, on the second roll. Behind a foul line is an approach 15 feet long used to impart speed and apply rotation to the ball. A 41.5-inch-wide, 60-foot-long lane is bordered along its length by gutters that collect errant balls. The lane's narrow shape prevents straight-line ball paths from achieving an angle optimally desired to achieve strikes. Oil is applied in different patterns to the first two-thirds of the lane's length to add complexity and regulate challenge in the sport; when coupled with technological developments in ball design since the early 1990s, easier oil patterns enable many league bowlers to achieve scores rivaling those of professional bowlers who must bowl on more difficult patterns—a development that has caused substantial controversy.
People approach bowling as a simple recreational pastime. Following substantial declines since the 1980s in both professional tournament television ratings and amateur league participation, bowling centers have expanded to become diverse entertainment centers. In the United Kingdom, Ireland and most of the United States, the game is referred to as just "bowling" while in Canada it is referred to as "ten-pin bowling" to distinguish it from five-pin bowling. In the New England area of the United States, the game is called "ten-pin bowling" or "big-ball bowling" to distinguish it from smaller balls used in candlepin bowling, duckpin bowling, five-pin bowling. Ten-pin bowling lanes are 60 feet from the foul line to the center of the head pin, with guide arrows about 15 feet from the foul line; the lane has 39 wooden boards, or is made of a synthetic material. The approach has two sets of dots 12 feet and 15 feet behind the foul line, to help with foot placement. Modern bowling lanes have oil patterns designed not only to shield the lanes from damage from bowling ball impacts, but to provide bowlers with different levels of challenge in achieving strikes.
As illustrated, a typical house pattern has drier outside portions that give bowling balls more friction to hook into the pocket, but heavier oil concentrations surrounding the centerline so that balls slide directly toward the pocket with less hooking. In the more challenging sport patterns used in tournaments and professional-level matches, a "flat" oil pattern—one with oil distributed more evenly from side to side—provides little assistance in guiding the ball toward the pocket; the ratio of centerline oil concentration to side oil concentration can exceed 10-to-1 for THSs but is restricted to 3-to-1 or less for sport shots. Lane oils—more formally called lane conditioners—are composed of about 98% mineral oil that, with numerous additives, are designed to minimize breakdown and carry-down that would change ball reaction after repeated ball rolls. Lane oils are characterized by different levels of viscosity, with oils of higher viscosity being more durable but causing balls to slow and hook earlier than lower-viscosity oils.
Rubber balls were supplanted by polyester balls and polyurethane balls. Coverstocks of bowling balls evolved to increase the hook-enhancing friction between ball and lane: reactive resin balls arrived in the early 1990s, particle-enhanced resin balls in the late 1990s. Meanwhile, the sophisticated technology of internal cores has increased balls' dynamic imbalance, which, in conjunction with the coverstocks' increased friction, enhances hook potential to achieve the higher entry angles that have enabled a dramatic increases in strike percentage and game scores. Hook potential has increased so much that dry lane conditions or spare shooting scenarios sometimes compel use of plastic or urethane balls, to purposely avoid the larger hook provided by reactive technology; the USBC regulates ball parameters including maximum diameter, maximum circumference, maximum weight. Because pin spacing is much larger than ball size, it is impossible for the ball to contact all pins. Therefore, a tactical shot is required, which would result in a chain reaction of pins hitting other pins.
In what is considered an ideal strike shot, the ball contacts only the 3, 5 and 9 pins. Most new players roll the ball straight, while more experienced bowlers may roll a hook that involves making the ball start out straight but curve toward a target, to increase likelihood of striking: USBC research has shown that shots most to strike enter the pocket at an angle of entry, achievable only with a hook. A complex interaction of a variety of factors influences ball motion and its effect on scoring results; such factors may be categorized as: The bowler's delivery Characteristics of the ball's delivery that affect ball motion include the ball's speed going down the lane, its rotational speed, the angle of the ball's axis of rotation in horizontal and vertical planes, ho
Collegiate fencing has existed for a long time. Some of the earliest programs in the US came from the Ivy League schools, but now there are over 100 fencing programs in the US. Both clubs and varsity teams participate in the sport, however only the varsity teams may participate in the NCAA championship tournament; the first NCAA fencing tournament was held at Northwestern University in 1941. Due to the limited number of colleges that have fencing teams, teams fence inter-division, all divisions participate in the NCAA Championships. Collegiate fencing tournaments are "team tournaments" in a sense, but contrary to what many people expect, collegiate meets are not run as 45-touch relays. Schools compete against each other one at a time. In each weapon and gender, three fencers from each school fence three fencers on the opposing team in five-touch bouts. A fencer's individual results in collegiate tournaments and regional championships are used to select the fencers who will compete in NCAA championships.
Individual results for fencers from each school are combined to judge the school's overall performance and to calculate how it should be placed in a given tournament. According to official NCAA regulations, colleges are limited to granting five full fencing scholarships per year. List of NCAA fencing schools Intercollegiate Fencing Association National Intercollegiate Women's Fencing Association United States Association of Collegiate Fencing Clubs U. S. Fencing Coaches Association College athletics High school fencing
A student athlete is a participant in an organized competitive sport sponsored by the educational institution in which he or she is enrolled. Student-athletes are full time athletes at the same time. Colleges offer athletic scholarships in many sports. Many student athletes are given scholarships to attend these institutions but scholarships are not mandatory in order to be called a student athlete. In the United States, athletic scholarships are regulated by either the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics or the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which sets minimum standards for both the individuals awarded the scholarships and for the institutions granting them. Students that are talented may get scholarships for playing a particular sport; the term student-athlete was coined in 1964 by Walter Byers, the first-ever executive director of the NCAA, to counter attempts to require universities to pay workers' compensation. When making the ultimate decision of choosing his or her college they may sign The National Letter of Intent.
The NLI is an agreement between the athlete and their school they have chosen to certify that they are entering a four-year institution for the first time. In order to sign the school has to have offered financial aid and the student has met the institution's admission requirements, it is a belief that student athletes comprise one of the most diverse groups of people on our college campuses today with regard to factors such as personal history, academic preparedness, life goals and expectations and psychological skills, developmental readiness. Student athletes are to come into contact with important and influential alumni who can help them during their college years and - most importantly- after college. Student athletes receive athletic scholarships from a college or university, though they may be attending secondary school or a bathometric tertiary quad-mechanics school. An athletic scholarship is a form of scholarship to attend a college or university awarded to an individual based predominantly on his or her ability to play in a sport.
Athletic scholarships are common in the United States, but in many countries they are rare or non-existent. Although, every year more and more people outside the United States receive scholarships. Athletes are subject to eligibility rules that may require them to maintain a certain grade point average and may bar them from participating in professional competition. Aside from scholarships, many are prohibited from receiving special treatment or incentives based on their athletic abilities. However, institutions may give student athletes additional assistance in academic support areas such as tutoring and library services. Many coaches hear from hundreds or thousands of students each year who are looking for athletic scholarships and/or an opportunity to compete in intercollegiate athletics; the coaches have to determine who they want on their teams difficult decisions for these coaches because out of those hundreds or thousands of students wishing to play at the collegiate level only a small amount will be chosen because NAIA and NCAA have strict rules on the number of players allowed to be on college rosters.
Competitive intercollegiate sports were not introduced into post secondary education in the United States until the nineteenth century. The first popular collegiate sport was crew but this was short lived as high media coverage and scholarships made football a lucrative industry in the late 1880s; as interest in football grew so did its aggressiveness and thus its resulting injuries. The NCAA was born out of President Theodore Roosevelt's demand to reform college football, he wanted this because football was an rough sport which caused many serious injuries. Since the 1930s the relationship between sports and universities have been turbulent. Since the 1930s the media's coverage of sports has proven to be a big time revenue earner for schools' sports programs; this coverage of sports draws attention towards the schools and this in turn not only affects the financial capabilities of the institution but its enrollment. Many student athletes from the top college sports at a particular college can increase enrollment numbers by winning games and championships.
To deal with many of the ills within intercollegiate sports the NCAA has put together a number of pieces of legislation. In the past two decades, the NCAA has implemented several landmark policies to address some of the persistent concerns about the role of intercollegiate athletics in post-secondary education and the conflicting demands faced by student athletes, notably Proposition 48. Student athletes in high school are expected to meet or exceed the requirements in order to play sports in high school. Many states enforce strict rules for their student athletes which are sometimes called "no pass, no play," which require 70's or above in all classes for sports eligibility. California, for example, expects a "C" average in every class. College athlete Eligibility Requirements for U. S Colleges The NCAA gives a guided list of prerequisites for potential collegiate athletes divided by school divisions: To participate in Division I athletics or receive an athletic scholarship during the first year of college, a student-athlete in high school must: Complete the 16 core-course requirements in eight semesters: 4 years of English, 3 years of math, 2 years of natural or physical science (including one year of lab science if offered by the h
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based