Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. The mentor may be older or younger than the person being mentored, but he or she must have a certain area of expertise, it is a learning and development partnership between someone with vast experience and someone who wants to learn. Interaction with an expert may be necessary to gain proficiency with/in cultural tools. Mentorship experience and relationship structure affect the "amount of psychosocial support, career guidance, role modeling, communication that occurs in the mentoring relationships in which the protégés and mentors engaged."The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé, a protégée, an apprentice or, in the 2000s, a mentee. The mentor may be referred to a rabbi. "Mentoring" is a process that always involves communication and is relationship-based, but its precise definition is elusive, with more than 50 definitions in use.
One definition of the many that have been proposed, is Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development. Mentoring in Europe has existed since at least Ancient Greek times. Since the 1970s it has spread in the United States in training contexts, with important historical links to the movement advancing workplace equity for women and minorities, it has been described as "an innovation in American management"; the roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. The word itself was inspired by the character of Mentor in Homer's Odyssey. Though the actual Mentor in the story is a somewhat ineffective old man, the goddess Athena takes on his appearance in order to guide young Telemachus in his time of difficulty. Significant systems of mentorship include the guru–disciple tradition practiced in Hinduism and Buddhism, the discipleship system practiced by Rabbinical Judaism and the Christian church, apprenticing under the medieval guild system.
In the United States, advocates for workplace equity in the second half of the twentieth century popularized the term "mentor" and concept of career mentorship as part of a larger social capital lexicon which includes terms such as glass ceiling, bamboo ceiling, role model, gatekeeper—serving to identify and address the problems barring non-dominant groups from professional success. Mainstream business literature subsequently adopted the terms and concepts, promoting them as pathways to success for all career climbers. In 1970, these terms were not in the general American vocabulary; the European Mentoring and Coaching Council called the EMCC, is the leading global body in terms of creating and maintaining a range of industry standard frameworks and processes across the mentoring and related supervision and coaching fields e.g. a code of practice for those practising mentoring. The focus of mentoring is to develop the whole person and so the techniques are broad and require wisdom in order to be used appropriately.
A 1995 study of mentoring techniques most used in business found that the five most used techniques among mentors were: Accompanying: making a commitment in a caring way, which involves taking part in the learning process side-by-side with the learner. Sowing: mentors are confronted with the difficulty of preparing the learner before he or she is ready to change. Sowing is necessary when you know that what you say may not be understood or acceptable to learners at first but will make sense and have value to the mentee when the situation requires it. Catalyzing: when change reaches a critical level of pressure, learning can escalate. Here the mentor chooses to plunge the learner right into change, provoking a different way of thinking, a change in identity or a re-ordering of values. Showing: this is making something understandable, or using your own example to demonstrate a skill or activity. You show what you are talking about, you show by your own behavior. Harvesting: here the mentor focuses on "picking the ripe fruit": it is used to create awareness of what was learned by experience and to draw conclusions.
The key questions here are: "What have you learned?", "How useful is it?". Different techniques may be used by mentors according to the situation and the mindset of the mentee, the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in ancient education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages. Leadership authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner advise mentors to look for "teachable moments" in order to "expand or realize the potentialities of the people in the organizations they lead" and underline that personal credibility is as essential to quality mentoring as skill. Multiple mentors: A new and upcoming trend is having multiple mentors; this can be helpful. Having more than one mentor will widen the knowledge of the person being mentored. There are different mentors. Profession or trade mentor: This is someone, in the trade/profession you are entering, they know the trends, important changes and new practices that you should know to stay at the top of your career.
A mentor like thi
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Complutense University of Madrid
The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, being the 3rd largest non-distance European university by enrollment, ranking as one of the top universities in Spain. According to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain, it is located on a sprawling campus that occupies the entirety of the Ciudad Universitaria district of Madrid, with annexes in the district of Somosaguas in the neighboring city of Pozuelo de Alarcón. In recent years, the roster of alumni comprises recipients of the Nobel Prize, Prince of Asturias Awards, Miguel de Cervantes Prize, as well as European Commissioners, Presidents of the EU Parliament, European Council Secretary General, ECB Executive Board members, NATO Secretary General, UNESCO Director General, IMF Managing Director, Heads of State. In the course of over seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the sciences, fine arts, political leadership.
Alumni include renowned philosophers, scientists, military leaders, foreign leaders, many Prime Ministers of Spain. In the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the only institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire. On 20 May 1293, King Sancho IV of Castile granted the Archbishop of Toledo, Gonzalo García Gudiel, a Royal Charter to found a Studium Generale, named El Estudio de Escuelas de Generales in Alcalá de Henares. One of its alumni, Cardinal Cisneros, made extensive purchases of land and ordered the construction of many buildings, in what became the first university campus ex-novo in history: The Civitas Dei, or city of God, named after the work of Augustine of Hippo. On 13 April 1499, Cardinal Cisneros secured from Pope Alexander VI a Papal bull to expand Complutense into a full university; this Papal Bull conferred official recognition throughout Christendom to all degrees granted by the University.
It renamed the institution Universitas Complutensis, after Complutum, the Latin name of Alcalá de Henares, where the University was located. In the 1509–1510 school year, the Complutense University operated with five major schools: Arts and Philosophy, Canon law and Medicine. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Complutense University became one of the greatest centers of academic excellence in the world. Many of the leading figures in science and politics of that age studied or taught in Complutense's classrooms. Special colleges were created for students such as Flemish or Irish. In 1785, Complutense became one of the first universities in the world to grant a Doctorate to a female student, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda. In comparison, University of Oxford did not accept female scholars until 1920, the University of Cambridge did not grant a Ph. D. to a female student until 1926. In 1824, Francisco Tadeo Calomarde further expanded Complutense by merging it with the University of Sigüenza.
By a royal order of 29 October 1836, Queen Regent Maria Christina suppressed the university in Alcalá and ordered its move to Madrid, where it took the name of Literary University and, in 1851, of Central University of Madrid. The University would be known under this name until its original name of "Complutense" was restored in the 1970s; the University of Madrid awarded Albert Einstein a Doctor of Science degree Honoris Causa on 28 February 1923. In April 1933 the Minister for Education and the Arts, Fernando de los Ríos, announced that Einstein had agreed to take charge of a professorship in a research institute, which would bear the name Instituto Albert Einstein, under the University's School of Science. However, as the political situation began to deteriorate throughout Europe, Prof. Einstein ended up accepting a similar position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey; the University expanded during the 19th century, its accommodations in central Madrid proved to be inadequate.
Besides the greater number of students, after its move from Alcalá the University had been based in a number of preexisting, government-acquired properties – aristocratic mansions and royal châteaux from centuries past, abandoned by their owners for more contemporary lodgings. Though they were not without their charm, the ancient buildings were not ideal as educational settings, the early 20th century witnessed the students of the Central University attending philosophy lectures and anatomy lessons in elaborate spaces that had served as ballrooms and salons only a few decades prior; this situation changed in 1927, when by royal decree King Alfonso XIII ceded state-held lands in the proximity of the Palace of La Moncloa to establish space for the University of Madrid. At the time, this constituted all of the land between the Royal Palace and the Palace of El Pardo, today it comprises a vast swath of western Madrid referred to
Genealogical data can be represented in several formats, for example as a pedigree or ancestry chart. Family trees are presented with the oldest generations at the top and the newer generations at the bottom. An ancestry chart, a tree showing the ancestors of an individual, will more resemble a tree in shape, being wider at the top than the bottom. In some ancestry charts, an individual appears on the left and his or her ancestors appear to the right. A descendancy chart, which depicts all the descendants of an individual will be narrowest at the top. Family trees can have many themes. One might encompass all direct descendants of a single figure, or all known ancestors of a living person. Another might include all members of a particular surname, yet another approach is to construct a tree including all holders of a certain office, such as kings of Germany. This relies on dynastic marriage to hold together the links between dynasties; the image of the tree originated with one in medieval art of the Tree of Jesse, used to illustrate the Genealogy of Christ in terms of a prophecy of Isaiah.
The first non-Biblical use, the first to show full family relationships rather than a purely patrilineal scheme, was that involving family trees of the classical gods in Boccaccio's Genealogia deorum gentilium, whose first version dates to 1360. An ahnentafel is a genealogical numbering system for listing a person's direct ancestors in a fixed sequence of ascent: Subject Father Mother Paternal grandfather Paternal grandmother Maternal grandfather Maternal grandmotherand so on, back through the generations. Apart from No. 1, who can be male or female, all even-numbered persons are male, all odd-numbered persons are female. In this schema, the number of any person's father is double the person's number, a person's mother is double the person's number plus one; this system can be displayed as a tree: A "fan chart" features a half circle chart with concentric rings: the person of interest is the inner circle, the second circle is divided in two, the third circle is divided in four, so forth. Fan charts depict maternal ancestors.
While family trees are depicted as trees, family relations do not in general form a tree in the sense of graph theory, since distant relatives can mate, so a person can have a common ancestor on their mother's and father's side. However, because a parent must be born before their child is born, a person cannot be their own ancestor, thus there are no loops, so ancestry forms a directed acyclic graph; the graphs of matrilineal descent and patrilineal descent are trees however. Assuming no common ancestor, an ancestry chart is a perfect binary tree, as each person has one mother and one father, for two parents. A descendancy chart, on the other hand, does not in general have a regular structure, as a person can have any number of children, or none at all; the longest family tree in the world is that of the Chinese philosopher and educator Confucius, he is the descendant of King Tang. The tree spans more than 80 generations from him, includes more than 2 million members. An international effort involving more than 450 branches around the world was started in 1998 to retrace and revise this family tree.
A new edition of the Confucius genealogy was printed in September 2009 by the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee, to coincide with the 2560th anniversary of the birth of the Chinese thinker. This latest edition is expected to include some 1.3 million living members who are scattered around the world today. There are extensive genealogies for the ruling dynasties of China, but these do not form a single, unified family tree. In Japan, the ancestry of the Imperial Family is traced back to the mythological origins of Japan; the connection to persons from the established historical record begins in the mid-first millennium AD. Another old and extensive tree is that of the Lurie lineage—which includes Sigmund Freud and Martin Buber—and traces back to Jehiel Lurie, a 13th-century rabbi in Brest-Litovsk, from there to Rashi and purportedly back to the legendary King David, as documented by Neil Rosenstein in his book The Lurie Legacy; the 1999 edition of the Guinness Book of Records recorded the Lurie family in the "longest lineage" category as oldest-known living family in the world today.
The Biblical genealogies of Jesus claim descent from the House of David. In the Torah and Old Testament, genealogies are provided for many biblical persons, including a record of the descendants of Adam. According to the Torah, the Kohanim are descended from Aaron. Genetic testing performed at the Technion has shown that most modern Kohanim share common Y-chromosome origins, although there is no complete family tree of the Kohanim. In the Islamic world, claimed descent from the prophet Mohammed enhanced the status of political and religious leaders. New dynasties used claims of such descent to help establish their legitimacy. In Europe, the pedigree of Niall Noígíallach would be a contender for the longest, through Conn of the Hundred Battles. Many noble and aristocratic families of European and West-Asian origin can reliably trace their ancestry back as far as the mid to late first millennium AD.
Genealogy known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members; the results are displayed in charts or written as narratives. The pursuit of family history and origins tends to be shaped by several motives, including the desire to carve out a place for one's family in the larger historical picture, a sense of responsibility to preserve the past for future generations, a sense of self-satisfaction in accurate storytelling. Amateur genealogists pursue their own ancestry and that of their spouses. Professional genealogists may conduct research for others, publish books on genealogical methods, teach, or produce their own databases, they may work for companies that provide software or produce materials of use to other professionals and to amateurs. Both try to understand not just where and when people lived, but their lifestyles and motivations.
This requires—or leads to—knowledge of antiquated laws, old political boundaries, migration trends, historical socioeconomic or religious conditions. Genealogists sometimes specialize in a particular group. Bloodlines of Salem is an example of a specialized family-history group, it welcomes members who can prove descent from a participant of the Salem Witch Trials or who choose to support the group. Genealogists and family historians join family history societies, where novices can learn from more experienced researchers; such societies serve a specific geographical area. Their members may index records to make them more accessible, engage in advocacy and other efforts to preserve public records and cemeteries; some schools engage students in such projects as a means to reinforce lessons regarding immigration and history. Other benefits include family medical histories with families with serious medical conditions that are hereditary; the terms "genealogy" and "family history" are used synonymously, but some offer a slight difference in definition.
The Society of Genealogists, while using the terms interchangeably, describes genealogy as the "establishment of a Pedigree by extracting evidence, from valid sources, of how one generation is connected to the next" and family history as "a biographical study of a genealogically proven family and of the community and country in which they lived". The term "family history" may be more popular in Europe, "genealogy" more popular in the United States. In communitarian societies, one's identity is defined as much by one's kin network as by individual achievement, the question "Who are you?" would be answered by a description of father and tribe. New Zealand Māori, for example, learn whakapapa to discover. Family history plays a part in the practice of some religious belief systems. For example, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a doctrine of baptism for the dead, which necessitates that members of that faith engage in family history research. In societies such as Australia or the United States, there was by the 20th century growing pride in the pioneers and nation-builders.
Establishing descent from these was, is, important to lineage societies such as the Daughters of the American Revolution and The Mayflower Society. Modern family history explores new sources of status, such as celebrating the resilience of families that survived generations of poverty or slavery, or the success of families in integrating across racial or national boundaries; some family histories emphasize links to celebrity criminals, such as the bushranger Ned Kelly in Australia. The growing interest in family history in the media coupled with easier access to online records has allowed those who are curious to do so to start investigating their ancestry; this curiosity can be strong among those whose family histories were lost or unknown due to, for example, adoption or separation from family as a result of bereavement. In Western societies the focus of genealogy was on the kinship and descent of rulers and nobles arguing or demonstrating the legitimacy of claims to wealth and power; the term overlapped with heraldry, in which the ancestry of royalty was reflected in their coats of arms.
Modern scholars consider many claimed noble ancestries to be fabrications, such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that traced the ancestry of several English kings to the god Woden. Some family trees have been maintained for considerable periods; the family tree of Confucius has been maintained for over 2,500 years and is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest extant family tree. The fifth edition of the Confucius Genealogy was printed in 2009 by the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee. In modern times, genealogy became more widespread, with commoners as well as nobility researching and maintaining their family trees. Genealogy received a boost in the late 1970s with the television broadcast of Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Alex Haley's account of his family line. With the advent of the Internet, the number of resources readil
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia